Рис. 9 показывает размеры пошлин в странах с режимом наибольшего благоприятствования (most favored nations, далее – MFN) среди ключе- вых экспортеров/импортеров БЛА в соответствии с данными, приведенными на рис. 7 и 8. Российская Федерация включена в список как крупный произ- водитель. Поскольку в ЕС действуют единые тамо- женные тарифы и таможенный союз ЕС – Турция, то размер пошлины MFN стран ЕС установлен как действующий для всех указанных стран. Очевидно, что основные импортеры стремятся устанавливать ненулевые пошлины на импорт, тогда как три круп- нейших экспортера устанавливают пошлины в 0 %. Интересная ситуация наблюдается в Российской Федерации, которая в 2015 г. входила в пятерку крупнейших производителей/разработчиков ЛСДУ, однако ее доля в международной торговле остается ничтожной. По статистике, Россия совершенно не экспортирует БЛА, а ее доля в количестве импор- тируемых/лицензированных БЛА составляет менее 1 %. Законодательство РФ в области международной торговли БЛА (код России в Гармонизированной си- стеме описания и кодирования товаров (Harmonized Commodity Description And Coding System – HS) 8802.20.0008) является достаточно протекционист- ским, поскольку размер пошлины MFN составляет почти 18 %, т. е. это один из самых высоких размеров пошлин на БЛА в мире . Похожая ситуация на- блюдается в Китае.
Results suggest that this method of road segment extraction and road intersection identification is quite promising for videos from UAVs that can hold their position in air. Reduction of accuracy in moving platforms was due to the building and other occlusions. Addressing this problem by depth perception is planned for future work. But an importation continuation of this work is to use the identified road segments and intersections in improving the geo-referencing accuracy. Also other practical issues like the execution time of the image stabilization algorithm need to be improved for any real-time application. The empirical values in this work have been calculated by considering the UAV camera to be at an angle of 45 degrees. Hence the future work will also attempt to make the algorithm more flexible in this regard. Overall, the above procedural method is a new but simple way of processing the spatio- temporal information available on theaerial videos keeping in mind the application of geo-referencing.
For trajectories where the main mission lies between waypoints, andthe only purpose they serve are to indicate the zone where the UAV should change direction, their exact position becomes somehow irrelevant. Because this is not always the case and it varies on the mission itself, usually a radius of tolerance is pre-defined. At the specified time for the waypoint the distance to the estimated position of the UAV should be inferior or equal to this radius. By using a trajectory as a function of time it can be optimized by considering the mean direction of both previous and following waypoints. Therefore, for the purposes of the path planning, new positions ought to be calculated in order to reduce its total length, providing as well a smoother trajectory near the waypoints. For UAV such as a winged aircraft with limited turn rates, this is particularly important.
• Synchronous [24, 15, 14]: it is generalizations of the leader-follower and virtual leader approaches. Each agent not only aims to reduce its position error relatively to the (virtual) leader, but also aims to reduce the error difference between itself and its set of neighbors. The synchronous approach assumes that all agents have access to the leader’s data, and each agent has access to its neighbor- hood data. The tracking errors synchronization allows the controller designer to weight between two control objectives: 1) each agent individually achieves its own desired position inthe forma- tion, without cooperation and 2) the agents move collectively to achieve the desired relative position between agents, i.e., the desired formation shape, even if this means that some agents will temporar- ily distance itself from their own desired individual position. In this way, the synchronous control achieves a similar effect of the virtual leader with feedback (cooperative virtual leader), but in a more distributed way, i.e., by only using the neighbor data andthe pre-programmed virtual leader’s trajectory.
UAVs must be able to autonomously follow a predefined path. Path- following algorithms ensure that UAV will follow the predefined path in two or three dimensions. A requirement for these path-following algorithms is that they must be accurate and robust to wind disturbances. Control tech- niques are popular for path-following applications. They provide the ro- bustness to wind disturbances mention before. There are several control techniques applicable inthe UAV including linear control, nonlinear control, intelligent control, hybrid control and robust control. Some of this techniques are well-known such as linear quadratic regulator (LQR), sliding mode con- trol, model predictive control, backstepping control, gain scheduling theory, adaptive control and dynamic programming. From all of these types of con- trol we chose two linear control techniques, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and linear quadratic regulator (LQR), due to their simplicity, robust- ness and ease of implementation. The PID controller is probably the most used feedback design for linear control. However it has some issues. The main problem of PID control is that do not provide optimal control. Also, in many cases such as parameters variations or disturbances is not appropriate. Anyway it can be a solution for the UAV landing problem. In literature there are some interesting works using PID control on UAVS like  and . In  a PID controller with feedforward capability was developed in order to perform better. In this work we implemented a PID controller inthe clas- sical form to control some state variables of the 3D point mass model with linear C L . We did a PID controller for the velocity and a PID controller for
Abstract: Current theaters of operations are not limited to battlefields, but they are much more diversified, including the fight against theinternational terrorism phenomenon, the social conflicts (of religious, political, economic and separatist nature) within several countries, thus supplying some political-military conflicts within different states and areas of the world. The armed interference must be done based on some highly accurate information that must be gathered without endangering the human lives. This is the role currently played by theunmanned air vehicles (UAVs); they can perform several functions: surveillance, information gathering, data storage andtheir transmission to the ground stations, including the function of interference, when needed. This paper presents, within the above context, the status of the current theaters of operations and of the UAVs performing different missions within these theaters, together with their role and importance in warfare operations.
In our introduction we listed a number of limitations of manned surveys that we suggest UAV surveys may overcome. The first – eliminating human risk – is clearly achieved, because no observers were needed in light aircraft. The second – reducing costs – is difficult to quantify as the commercial company we used sets rates according to the specific requirements of each job and therefore it is not appropriate to quote exact costs. However, during this early stage inthe development of UAV methods, Insitu Pacific aim to make their costs at least competitive with manned surveys. Considering this, our trial suggested that UAVs could reduce survey costs by reducing the time needed to complete a survey through (a) the flexibility in acceptable wind conditions, (b) the option to overcome masking of sightings due to sun glitter by overlapping successive images, and (c) the ability to fly longer hours within a day without having to refuel or rest observers. A shorter survey time frame would provide a more robust ‘snapshot’ of animal distribution and abundance across the entire survey area because there is less opportunity for significant animal movement.
Wefelscheid, C.; Hänsch, R. & Hellwich, O., 2011. Three- Dimensional Building Reconstruction Using Images Obtained by UnmannedAerialVehicles. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. XXXVIII-1/C22 UAV-g 2011, Conference on UnmannedAerial Vehicle in Geomatics, Zurich, Switzerland. Witayangkurn, A.; Nagai, M.; Honda, K.; Dailey M. & Shibasaki, R., 2011. Real-Time Monitoring System using UnmannedAerial Vehicle Integrated with Sensor Observation Service. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. XXXVIII- 1/C22 UAV-g 2011, Conference on UnmannedAerial Vehicle in Geomatics, Zurich, Switzerland.
Though the overall differences in Max N between the surveys with and without the steel BRUV structure were not significant, the increase over time is quite conspicuous. As seen inthe results, difference in slopes for the two over the 24- minute deployment time is not significant. With more repeats, these results may hold greater implication, as there were a few traits that, if significant, would have been extremely telling. While the bait-only survey has an immediate increase within the first four minutes, it is not until the fifth segment where the number of individuals recorded for each survey type reach similar numbers. It is speculated that the sharks inthe area may initially be wary of the steel equipment (Harvey et al., 2018), while inthe bait-only surveys the individuals instantly recognise the stimuli as an edible food source, therefore resulting in an initial difference. The alien introduction may pique their interest andthe bait plume would encourage immediate approach, but only to a certain distance, potentially as animals do not want to undertake unnecessary risk (Bouchet et al., 2018). The drone hovering to afford a 20x35m (700sqm) scope of vision can capture the initial, ‘nervous’ approach of curious elasmobranchs and thus initial Max N is likely to be higher, leading to more consistent Max N over time throughout the study. As individuals come to recognise the BRUV equipment is not a threat, abundance increases (Acuña-Marrero et al., 2018). More repeats would confirm if this is a likely explanation.
In all four cases the state of constant altitude is wanted to be achieved. In order to achieve that state, controllable variable � has to be the same value as the gravitational force. In cases 2, 3 and 4 some change in quadcopter altitude occurs because of the change of thrust force component value inthe direction of the � E axis due to the change in either roll or pitch angle. Also, the model does not have implemented control algorithm which would compensate for the quadcopter attitude changes. Inthe first case, only � is different from 0. Inthe rest of the cases, � stays approximately constant, while other variables change their values.
These different methods are normally combined to use their best capabilities in order to bet- ter solve the path planning problem. The roadmap-based method is usually used to extract a network representation of the environment. This helps to stablish the space boundaries of the path, yet it needs a search algorithm to evaluate and optimize each path. On the other hand, heuristic search algorithms need a previously defined space with the heuristic cost of each seg- ment of the map pre-defined. Therefore, sampling-based can also serve as a search algorithm, being faster than the heuristic search algorithms as it does not need to visit each path to find a solution, yet that solution may not be the global solution as it works by randomly exploring the space. The potential field based methods have a great behaviour in respect to obstacle avoid- ance, even though the path is limited to the defined stream functions. Finally, optimization algorithm can be used to solve any problem, if it is expressed as a mathematical function, as well as, optimize more than one function, yet, it may not find the global solution and find only a local solution like the sampling based methods.
Fig. 9 it is possible to observe the regions character- ized as an obstacle inthe data set andtheir influence on the temporal filter used to identify the region of the path hypothesis. Specifically, it is noted that virtual agents tend to reject regions of the image identified as obstacles, thereby helping to produce more correct de- tections. Figure 15 compares the proposed system andthe original detector inthe same situation of Video 6 under equal conditions, that is, where only the set of keyframes available from LSD-SLAM were used. It can be seen that the original detector is influenced by the light conditions that make the region to the left of the image (i.e., vegetation) more prominent than the path, thus being selected as the region of the path hypoth- esis. On the other hand, the proposed system is able to identify this same region as an obstacle (line 5 of Figure 15) and thus prevent virtual pheromones being deposited in this region (line four of Figure 15), avoid- ing that it is chosen as the hypothesis region of the path. In order to make a fair comparison to the original de- tector, it was tested inthe complete image sequence of Video 12 (not only the keyframes), where it is possible to observe, through Figure 16, a result similar to that obtained previously, i.e., the original detector continues to fail to identify the region of the image where the path is located. Another example can be seen in Figure 17, referring to the test performed with Video 3, where the proposed system is able to determine that the region identified by the original detector as belonging to the path is much high that the actual path.
reform proposals have access to the agenda for negotiation or discussion, which encourages states to put forward reform proposals. Inthe WTO Doha Round negotiation, members attempted to revise some WTO rules. Specifically speaking, developing countries attempted to address the issue of development deficit, while developed countries aimed to further trade liberalization. Nonetheless, the purpose of all the negotiating parties is revising WTO rules and reforming global trade governance. The G-20 mechanism formed shortly after Asian financial crisis in 1997 was initially a forum where the finance ministers and central bank governors of the members discussed how to coordinate macro-economic policies among them. After the eruption of global financial crisis in 2008, the G-20 mechanism was elevated to a regularly held summit in which the leaders of developed economies and developing countries, particularly emerging countries, discussed how to deal with the crisis and coordinate their economic and financial policies. Inthe G-20 process, the leaders actively engaged in discussion on how to stabilize global financial order, strengthen international financial regulation, resist trade protectionism and rebalance global economy among other issues, set forth their views on the direction and means of the reform of global economic governance,
Aircraft design is an intrinsically iterative process, since there are much more unknowns than equations. Only after years of experience do designers acquire the proficiency level that not only enables them to get closer to the global optimum but also significantly reduce the optimization time, making the overall design process concomitantly more effective and effi- cient. Hence, Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) is undoubtedly of utmost relevance and a topic of intense research. In recent decades, the development of MDO architectures has shown that the disciplinary optimization breakthroughs witnessed over the last century will not be the only ones to revolutionize the design process. As an increasing number of experts and researchers devote their time to MDO, it becomes clearer that the discipline of design has got a tremendous progress margin. The possibilities these new methodologies unfold show that they will definitely pave the way of engineering design in a range of subjects that goes far beyond the aerospace industry. The significant improvements on MDO assessed and formalized by Martins et al (2013) , combined with the computer’s exponential increase of data handling capability show that their scope of applicability is widening. As a corollary, there has been an increas- ing interest from the industry, with a growing number of companies adopting MDO in order to further enhance both their products’ design and design processes as discussed by Weck et al (2011) .
Mobile mapping refers to a means of collecting geospatial data using mapping sensors that are mounted on a mobile platform. The idea of mobile mapping is basically implemented by capturing more than one images which includes the same feature point from different location. Then, the 3D spatial information of objects will be calculated and measured with respect to the mapping frame (Tao and Li, 2007). Besides, multi-sensor is corresponding with multi-platform that mounted on a various vehicles, such as automobile, aircraft, water-based vessels andunmannedaerial vehicle (UAV). Inthe early 2000s, a lot of land vehicular-based mobile mapping systems have been utilized in commercial applications. It means that MMS is able to meet the demand of spatial information system operators for rapid spatial data acquisition. However, most of land vehicular based MMSs has to spend lots of cost on developing different kind of system so that limiting their growth. In addition, the primary limitation of such land vehicular-based systems in terms of operation flexibility is the dependence of the availability and quality of road networks.
Invasive species spread rapidly andtheir eradication is difficult. New methods enabling fast and efficient monitoring are urgently needed for their successful control. Remote sensing can improve early detection of invading plants and make their management more efficient and less expensive. In an ongoing project inthe Czech Republic, we aim at developing innovative methods of mapping invasive plant species (semi-automatic detection algorithms) by using purposely designed unmanned aircraft (UAV). We examine possibilities for detection of two tree and two herb invasive species. Our aim is to establish fast, repeatable and efficient computer- assisted method of timely monitoring, reducing the costs of extensive field campaigns. For finding the best detection algorithm we test various classification approaches (object-, pixel-based and hybrid). Thanks to its flexibility and low cost, UAV enables assessing the effect of phenological stage and spatial resolution, and is most suitable for monitoring the efficiency of eradication efforts. However, several challenges exist in UAV application, such as geometrical and radiometric distortions, high amount of data to be processed and legal constrains for the UAV flight missions over urban areas (often highly invaded). The newly proposed UAV approach shall serve invasive species researchers, management practitioners and policy makers.
Considering the most suitable drone manufacturers to work with Pixair as partners in terms of their product cost, product specifications and final results, we can plan the most economical and cost effective fee structure, competitive course structure which includes all the necessary courses and exams required for effective learning, and invest inthe best reputable equipment for overcoming the external competitor forces and threats discussed above, to communicate more efficiently with customers as well as minimise the investment costs, and maximize the profits. Considering the top best UAV training schools inthe world and UAV manufacturers in terms of product specification, quality and price, we have designed a course that contains all the necessary elements and modules required for a training a drone pilot, or capturing aerial images, industrial inspections or preparing for flight 107 test for certified UAV pilot, as well as hiring the expertise staff with lots of work experience for providing best training programs and techniques.
All sequencing used the BigDye v3.1 chemistry kit (ABI) on an ABI 37306l DNA Analyzer. When the analysis indicated mislabeling (see below), at least nine more eggs were extracted and sequenced for cytb to confirm mislabeling and detect mixing. After identifying a sample as Acipenser baerii, A. gueldenstaedtii, A. naccarii, or A. persicus with cytb, the sample was sequenced for the D- loop to increase species identification resolution (see [18,20]). Most D-loop PCR reactions used primers dlp1.5 (59- GCACC- CAAAGCTGARRTTCTA-39) and H00651 (59- ATCTTAA- CATCTTCAGTG-3 9)  andthe following protocol: 1 U Taq DNA polymerase (Fisher Scientific) 2.5 m L 106 Buffer A, 2.5 m L 8 mM dNTPs, 1.5 m L 250 mg/mL BSA, 1 m L of each 106 primer, 15.3 m L ddH 2 O, and 1 m L of sample. Thermal conditions were 94uC for 3 min followed by 33 cycles of 94uC for 1 min, 46uC for 1 min, and 72uC for 90 s, with a final extension time of 10 min. The sequencing primer AHR3 (59- CATACCA- TAATGTTTCATCTACC-3 9)  replaced dlp1.5 in sequencing reactions. Samples that did not amplify with dlp1.5 and H00651 were amplified using primers L16615 (5 9- CACCCTTAACTCC- CAAAGCTAAGATTC-3 9) and H1144 (59- CCTCACAG- GAATGCGGAGACTTGC-39) with the following protocol: 1.25 U Taq DNA polymerase (Fisher Scientific) 2.5 m L 106 Buffer A, 2.5 m L 8 mM dNTPs, 0.5 m L 250 mg/mL BSA, 1.25 m L of each 106 primer, 15.75 m L ddH 2 O, and 1 m L of
obtained results leading to the exact positioning of the Corona discharge inthe scanned area of interest. The optical detection system is integrated in an UnmannedAerial Vehicle (UAV), and, together with the telemetry data (global coordinates, speed, attitude angles, …), transmits to the Ground Control Station (GCS) the data acquired by the sensors installed on board; the most important are the video streams in various spectra, which depend by the specifics of each developed mission. The data are real-time transferred to a Ground Mission Analysis System (GMAS) which realize the processing.
Regarding the methodology, the present work is based on the hypothetical- deductive method, drawing on interviews with the officers responsible for the area of protection and rescue in Guarda National Republicana , as well as collection of bibliographic references.