studies have reported that neutropenia occurs inleishmaniasis due to the destruction of neutrophils in the enlarged spleen and changes in the circulat- ing polymorph nuclear leukocytes (PNL). Pancyto- penia develops as a result of the rapid destruction of blood cells covered with membrane-derived anti- platelet, anti-neutrophilic and anti-erythrocyte IgG antibodies. A signiicant reduction in the bone mar- row PNL reserve has been reported to occur in some patients. Anemia is believed to result from ineffec- tive erythropoiesis and the phagocytosis of imma- ture erythroblasts caused by macrophage hyperac- tivity in the bone marrow. 10,11 The lymphocyte count
Abstract The present open pilot study was conducted to assess the efficacyof azithromycin for the treatmentof patients with cutaneousleishmaniasisin Araçuaí and Varzelândia, MG. Twenty-four patients with less of six months of disease evolution were treated after clinical examination, Montenegro test and a biopsy. The treatment schemes consisted of oral doses of 500 mg per day for 3, 5 and 10 days and of 1000 mg for two days. A clinical control was performed monthly and treatment cycles were repeated when necessary until full reepithelialization of the lesions. On the occasion of the final evaluation, 20 patients had completed the study and 17 of them (85%) were cured. The time to obtain a cure was 60 days ifor 6 (30%) patients, 90 days for 7 (35%), and 120 for 4 (20%). The three patients with treatment failure received a pentavalent antimonial for 20 days. No adverse reactions to the medication were observed and a 14 month follow-up did not show recurrence in any patient. These results suggest that azithromycin can be a good therapeutic option for the treatmentofcutaneousleishmaniasis caused by Leishmania Viannia brasiliensis.
New therapeutic options have been sought. However, de- spite good results, none of them was considered convenient or suffi- ciently effective to replace conventional treatment. Among the local- ized treatment options, radiofrequency thermotherapy appears as a viable option, since it is effective and requires only one session, im- proving patient adherence. One of the main advantages of this ther- apy is that the device is easy to use, light and works with recharge- able batteries, making it possible to be used in rural areas or areas with no electricity. Another advantage of this treatment modality is that it does not require monitoring with laboratory tests, saving additional costs for health institutions. Although the thermotherapy device is still relatively expensive, making it of difficult access in endemic countries, the costs related to conventional treatment are higher. Another possibility to be investigated is the association of thermotherapy to new oral treatment options, such as miltefosine, for example. All these advantages make this therapy a good alterna- tive for the treatmentof localized CL, particularly in patients who have absolute or relative contraindications to the conventional ther- apy, such as heart, kidney and liver conditions, pregnant women and HIV-positive patients.
In India, Miltefosine is the first oral agent that has shown a good efficacy for the treatmentof visceral leishmaniasis caused by L. (L.) donovani, or Kala-azar. However, it´s use for CL treatmentin the New World is limited. Some of its inconveniences are as follows: current cost (about 670 USD), which is greater than that of antimonials, long treatment period (28 days) leading to adherence problems, lack of adherence leading to strain resistance, teratogenicity, which complicates its administration to women of child-bearing age because adequate contraception must be guaranteed during treatment and up to three months after treatment, gastrointestinal adverse effects in over 30% of patients, and finally, as seen in this study, efficacy inferior to that of pentavalent antimonials, which continue to have an efficacy rate of 85.1% in Colombia 32 .
internet banking is a facility that is very helpful to have increased from year to year. But on the other hand, it seems obvious that the facilities of Internet banking has not been fully utilized by the community in Indonesia. On the other hand the people who perform manual transactions still feel that with the transactions they feel more comfortable and confident that the transaction run perfectly, coupled with still a lack of understanding regarding the useof information technology, especially in online transactions using internet banking system. On the other side of the bank, which acts as the service provider mentions that the low risk that happening, but if further investigation services also have a high risk so slowly - the land can discourage users against internet banking services so expect banks also need to review and determine any factors that could affect services so that services can be developed. There are several factors that can affect the condition of the weakness of internet banking services, among others; First, the quality of internet banking services have not been evenly distributed. This makes the customer is often doomed to failure transaction that resulted in disappointment. Second, reliability and security. Some modes crimes include forging website (modus crimes where the perpetrator makes viewing and website domain address exactly with the original bank website so that customers be fooled and actors can easily obtain a username and password. The website is also equipped with a key- logger (a virus the hidden and the duty to record every key typed user input keyboard to get the username and password of customers) so that this virus will record any data. Third, as well as SMS banking and mobile banking, internet banking also does
Before taking the measurements, an anti-reflection coating was applied on the tested gear wheel. The thickness of the coating ranged from 0,8 µm do 1,2 µm. The measurements were taken at the Institute of Metrology and Measuring Systems, at Pozna ń University of Technology.
Sensitivity analysis was conducted each time for the model described in Section 3, for which it was assumed that the parameters vary in ranges given in Table 1. Table 2 lists parameters influence of which was not taken into consideration in sensitivity analysis. According to the fact that these parameters are connected with the phase change diagram, they cannot be changed freely and independently from one another. Additionally, in Table 2 physical parametersof the mould are included. Table 2.
The object of corrosion studies were as-cast samples of M g-Li alloys of 30 x 20 x 10 mm dimensions designated as: - alloy no. 1 containing 3,54% Li (monophase hcp alloy), - alloy no. 2 containing 8,15% Li (two-phase alloy; phase
Abstract : Access to timely and quality maternal health care remains to be a major development challenge in many developing economies particularly in Kenya. The country’s system of providing maternal health care also continue to be anchored on conventional methods of physical presence of the patient and the doctor in a hospital setup. The country’s ICT and health policies also place very little emphasis on the useof these platforms. This study therefore sought to establish the factors affecting the adoption of mHealth by focusing on maternal health in Nakuru Provincial General Hospital. Objectives of the study were: to determine the extent to knowledge and awareness affects the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care at Nakuru PGH, to identify the government policies affecting the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care at Nakuru PGH, to assess how access to technology affects the adoption of mHealth in maternal healthcare, to establish the effects of ICT infrastructure on the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care and to identify the cost aspects affecting the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care at Nakuru Provincial General Hospital. It is envisaged that the study could provide useful information on the adoption of mHealth in managing maternal health care in Nakuru Provincial Gener al Hospital. Descriptive survey research design will be used where all the medical staff and patients of Nakuru Provincial General Hospital was surveyed. The study population therefore was made up of 24 medical staff and 3460 mothers visiting the antenatal clinic selected using clustered random sampling technique. The main instrument for primary data collection was the questionnaire. Data analysis was then done using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics to be used include frequency counts, percentages, and measures of central tendency
Time-series analysis is characterized, as a data mining tool which facilitates understanding nature of manufacturing processes and permits prediction of future values of the process parameters or production results on the basis of the past data, recorded in regular intervals. The main methods and problems of the time-series analysis are presented. The authors’ research results, based on green molding sand proper- ties data collected in a foundry with Disamatic molding line, are presented. The work was aimed at finding optimal settings and models of the time-series analysis for that data as well as detection of possible periodicities appearing in the sand properties. It is concluded that although the time-series analysis requires individual approach to each particular problem, some general recommendations can be also formulated. It can be a useful tool for analysis and predictions of outcomes of foundry processes.
From the 244 CL patients screened from July 2007 and August 2008, 154 subjects met the inclusion criteria, 90 were included in the trial and completed the treatment, and 87 were followed for the entire 6 months after therapy, up to March 2009 (Figure 1). The patients ranged in age from 4 to 65 years with the mean age of 22615 years, which did not differ significantly between the two treatment groups (p = 0.85). Overall, there was a predominance of male patients (67.8% vs. 32.2%), and there were statistically more males in the miltefosine group than in the Sb v group (75.0% vs. 53.3%, p = 0.04). The majority presented with a single lesion (76.7%), and significantly more patients in the miltefosine group had $2 lesions (30% vs. 10%, p = 0.04). The lesion with the greatest area at presentation was considered to be the main lesion. The main lesion area was not different between treatment groups (410.6 vs. 461.2 mm 2 , p = 0.47). The clinical characteristics of patients in the two treatment groups and age groups (2–12 years and 13–65 years) are shown in Table 1. A positive culture for leishmania promastigotes was obtained in 52 out of 90 patients (57.7%). L braziliensis was identified in 41 obtained samples from biopsy by PCR. In 26 patients (28.8%) neither PCR nor culture identified leishmania.
discharge into water is reduced by about 60% irrespective of the type oftreatment . Pure urine is sterile but there is the likelihood of cross-contamination with the useof urine separating (Ecosan) toilets . According to Jönsson et al. (2000) separated urine contains a greater part of the total nutrients in normal sewage; 80% of N, 55% of P, and 60% of K in just 1.5% of the volume of the sewage. According to Rheiberger (1936), there are comparable levels of creatine, urea and ammonia nitrogens in urine among primates such as man, mangabeys, baboons and chimpanzees. However, he identified sex differences in creatinine nitrogen coefficients of the male mangabeys, baboons and chimpanzees to be higher than those in the female counterparts. In small cases there was reversal of the magnitude seen in the macaques species precluding an assumption as to the validity of the observation. In analysing sex differences in urine with respect to lysine and α - amino nitrogen, the mean excretion of α - amino nitrogen whether ―total,‖ ―free,‖ or ―bound,‖ was higher for females than for males . Thus, it is possible that the higher rate of amino acid excretion observed in females might be correlated with the sexual cycle, although no evidence of this was observed in the case of the four amino acids studied by Thompson and Kirby (1949) when samples from the same subjects were taken at various stages of the menstrual cycle. The influence of sex (gender) on the level of NPK in human urine has received no attention. Therefore, there is a need to study the effect from the Ecological Sanitation (ECOSAN) perspective, especially under local conditions. This is because gender ECOSAN urinals are going to spring up with the advent of industries and ECOSAN concepts, especially in the developing countries. The useof urine in agriculture has been studied in countries such as Sweden, Germany, Switzerland, South Africa, Burkina Faso and Nigeria. In all these studies, the fertilizing ability of human urine was established as being comparable to that of chemical fertilizers, such as 21% N ammonia. However, in Ghana little U
Common side effects with sodium stibogluconate and meglumine antimoniate include abdominal pain, anorexia, vomiting, nausea, myalgia, arthralgia, headache, and malaise. Elevated amylase and lipase levels occur in most patients, but only a minority manifests clinically apparent pancreatitis. Persons with renal insufficiency seem to be at increased risk of this complication. Electrocardiographic changes are dose-dependent and include T-wave inversion and a prolonged QT interval. Arrhythmias and sudden death have been reported with doses greater than 20 mg of SbV/kg body weight/day. Pentavalent antimonials should be used with caution in elderly patients and those with heart disease, nephropathy and in pregnancy 5,11,17 .
With the popularity ofuseof Search Engine Indian Online Market has seen the emergence of many local tailor made Search Engines. It has been analyzed that 90% of Internet search queries are local in nature e.g. When a user in India searches for “newspaper” Search Engine should display the top Indian newspaper websites rather then providing globalize results. To answer these queries there has been emergence of local search engines. Guruji.com backed by Sequoia Capital India is focused on providing better search results to Indian consumers, by leveraging proprietary algorithms and data in the Indian context. Khojguru, launched on 26 Sep 2006, is a local search engine which provides info about all the shops, vendors and service providers in Gurgaon. JustDial.com is a portal based Just dial service. It provides efficient search mechanism supporting synonyms and phonetics. Major Search Engines has come up with local versions to support different customers in India. Google came up with versions in Hindi, Oriya, Tamil, Telugu and more to help local people.
is different than process is again started from previous checkpoint. We can also use regular interval methods for error detection. In that leader and follower processes are compared after fixed interval of time say 100ms. If we find difference it means fault detected. In multicore architecture, no comparator hardware is used, therefore task replication plays a key role in their architecture. Choosing a check pointing with rollback recovery, increases the probability of completing the task on time . In the memory allocation, malloc can be used for memory allocation. Malloc can be non-deterministic because it uses mmap for allocation of memory blocksof large sizes and mmap itself is non-deterministic. So we have to make sure that leader and follower use same memory using mutex, which is locked and unlocked deterministically.Many researches are going on scheduling of periodic and aperiodic task. One of the classical scheduling mechanism is on the basis of priority of the task . Authors in  introduces scheduling method which uses the rate motonic scheduling in which the priority of the task is defined on the basis of the time required. The task having shorter time period have the highest priority and assigned the core first. The Earliest Deadline First algorithm in which the task with earlier deadline has the highest priority. An alternate scheduling approach is Primary Backup (PB) that is a standout amongst the other methodologies, in which two version of the task is schedule on two different cores. An acceptance test is required for validation of results.
Suppose that the subunit denoted 1 of bainitic ferrite forms without diffusion, but any excess carbon is soon rejected into the residual austenite. Consequently, all the subunits denoted 1 were formed at the early stage of transformation from austenite whose carbon concentration is initially identical to that of bulk alloy (region of upper bainite). The subunits denoted 2 and 3 were formed from enriched austenite as a consequence of carbon redistribution occurring after the growth event (region of lower bainite). The transition between these two regions is not sharply defined. There is then the possibility of the reaction beginning with the growth of upper bainite but decomposing to lower bainite from the enriched austenite at the later stages of reaction. This explains why both upper and lower bainite sometimes can be found in the same temperature.
Checking the dependency of attributes is done to omit the un- necessary attributes, the step which can be of crucial importance in optimising the decision-making process. A smaller number of attributes means less of a dialogue with the user and quicker search of the rule base looking for adequate procedure of reason- ing. In the case of decision tables that contain very large sets of redundant attributes (created during the operations associated with data mining), the possibilities of reduction can become critical elements in building of a knowledge base. A totally different situation occurs when the decision table is created by knowledge engineers in a controlled manner, based on e.g. literature, expert knowledge, and/or standards, when the set of attributes is authori- tatively created basing on the available knowledge about the phenomena. In this case, the reduction of attributes is not neces- sary, as it can be assumed that the number of unnecessary attributes (if any) shall not deteriorate the model classificability.
properties unattainable in their conventional counterparts. Considering this fact, it is not surprising that they are nowadays in the centre of interest and undergo a very rapid development. Their fabrication is important to stimulate progress in aviation, automotive industry, power engineering, biomedical applications and electronics. In the family of functional materials, very important are the functionally gradient materials (FGMs) . Their most important feature is gradual change of a specific property, viewed against the background of a selected reference system. An example can be the gradient layers produced by powder metallurgy , laser-treated materials [3,4], centrifugally cast aluminium pipes containing particles of an intermetallic Mg 2 Si phase , composite castings with gradient content of SiC
The city of Ibadan in south western Nigeria (7°23, N, 3°5' E) is the largest urban centre in Africa south of the Sahara . It is characterized by a West African Monsoon type of climate with hot dusty dry season (Nov-April) and cold, humid rainy season (May-October) . Ona River has a length of 55km 2 an area of 81.0km 2 and it flows through the low density western part of Ibadan . The river flows in a north-south direction from its source at Ido Local Government Area) where it is dammed and also flows through Apata Genga (Ibadan south-west Local Government Area) to Oluyole Local Government (Fig.1). Companies located along this river include 7up Nigeria Plc, Zartech, Sumal and Interpac a paper mill industry (not in operation). Channelled effluents from these industries are connected by a network of canals channelled directly into Ona River . Ona River receives allochtonous input of organic matter from the surrounding vegetation, derived through run- offs from the surface of the soil. The water body receives a lot of wastes ranging from industrial, agricultural and domestic sources, which apart from adversely affecting the normal hydrochemistry of the river, also decreases its channel capacity at various points, and this has been largely responsible for flood disasters in the river . The river is often used as a ‘latrine’ which makes it offensive to sight and smell and therefore not good as a natural resource .