different needs (Silius, et al., 2010). Kärkkäinen (2007) observed that one ofthe crucial problems in university level studies is that the very early steps at the beginning of studies are the most difficult for many students. One reason for this is that only a few new students know any of their peers at the beginning of studies in their new university. The integration of students into a student community can be supported in many ways. One method is to usethe opportunities, techniques and customs offered by social media (Kärkkäinen, 2007 as cited in Silius, et al., 2010) As a result ofthe ubiquitous nature and pervasive informational function of interactive digital and mobile technologies, social media (SM) has now transformed from being used informally in educational settings to gaining formal acceptance by students, faculty, and administrators (Tess, 2013; Voorn & Kommers, 2013; Waldeck & Dougherty, 2012; Wang et al., 2012). This represents a major paradigm shift in education today. Interactive and mobile technologies, under the domain of Web 2.0 communications, span a wide variety of mediums such as blogs, wikis, socialnetworking, and virtual worlds (Moran & Tinti-Kane, 2012). The unique attributes represented across all SM forums are encompassed by the following functional features: communication, collaboration, community, creativity, and convergence (see Friedman & Friedman, 2013). Such attributes enable more unrestricted and participatory discursive practices, which are at the heart ofthe instructional-learning praxis (Selwyn, 2011). Today’s students and educators live inthe world of Facebook, Twitter, Wikipedia and YouTube. These and many other socialnetworking and social media applications are part ofthe so- called Social Web (i.e., Web 2.0), best
From a constructivist perspective, the PLE can boost the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) of an individual enabling a multidirectional learningin which the students can use all the available resources and people on the Internet (Peña-López, 2012). At the same time, a PLE removes thelearning curve ofthe typical institutional virtual learning environments (VLE) based on LMS that are limited for learning personalization due to a predefined and closed structure (Torres Kompen & Mobbs, 2008). Specifically, inthe context ofhigher education, a PLE eases the integration of formal and informal learning with social networks and enhances the development ofthe users’ digital identity (Bustos, Engel, Saz, & Coll, 2012; Dabbagha & Kitsantas, 2012; Salinas, 2013). Some empirical and theoretical studies have been carried out on PLEs in varied contexts. For instance, on the definition of PLE, its origins, its evolution, its pedagogical implications, its supporting technologies and tools, instructional designs based on the concept of PLE and so on. Based on a study of 375 items of literature, Gallego-Arrufat and Chaves-Barboza (2014) analyze the trends inthe studies and works related to PLE and point out that PLE is a new concept that demands more empirical research.
Based on thesocial-interactionist education theory and on the pedagogical practices in Western societies, this paper presents the constructivist spiral as an active teaching-learning methodology. It discusses the origins and utilization of active methodologies inhigher education and focuses on problem-based learning, problematization methodology, the scientific method, and theuseof narratives, simulations or role-playing in real practice scenarios. The exploration ofthe constructivist spiral, according to the movements “identifying problems”; “formulating explanations”; “developing questions”; building new meanings” and “evaluating processes and products”, highlights similarities and differences in relation to the active methodologies approached inthe paper. The educational intentionality behind the utilization ofthe constructivist spiral is revealed by the nature ofthelearning triggers that are used and by the transformative sense of reality derived from a critical and reflective posture inthe interaction of “subject” and “object”.
For Mallat et al. (2008), the main aspect of m-learning is mobility. In this sense, Kakihara and Sørensen (2001) point that the mobility concept consists of three different dimensions of human interaction: (a) the temporal dimension, (b) the spatial dimension, and (c) the contextual mobility. Thus, for a proper understanding ofthe concept of m-learning, one must understand that mobility can be understood in different ways (KAKIHARA; SØRENSEN, 2002; KUKULSKA-HULME et al., 2009; LYYTINEN; YOO, 2002; SACCOL; SCHLEMMER; BARBOSA, 2010; SHARPLES, 2000; SHERRY;SALVADOR, 2002, SORENSEN; AL- TAITOON; KIETZMANN, 2008): there is the physical mobility of apprentices, i.e., during transit people may want to take advantage of opportunities to learn. There is also the technology’s mobility which means that several mobile devices may be used when the apprentice is in movement. On the other hand, conceptual mobility proposes that we are always learning, and our attention has to be shared between the different concepts and contents with which we have contact daily. Regarding social/interactional mobility, it is stated that we learn by contacting with different social groups, including family, co-workers, etc. Finally, there is the chronological/temporal mobility, in which one may learn at different moments.
Referring back to the main purpose of this study, the functional requirements ofthe CPA should be identified. Therefore a detailed analysis is done in order to collect the functional requirements. The authors usethe Prometheus Methodology to design and develop the CPA. Prometheus is best used for agent based system which means in creating a proactive system. This is due to its characteristic where it implies an iterative approach. Iterative allows the design and development of an agent as a whole without needing to integrate with the design of other agent inthe system. Therefore for this study, focus only is on the CPA. Although this study is on the CPA, but it is important to follow the three main stages of Prometheus methodology which is the system specification stage, architectural design phase and the detailed design phase.
Several higher educational institutionsin Saudi Arabia have acquired the E-Learning platforms from different vendors. One ofthe leading universities in using Blackboard system is the King Saud University. However, we still face the limitations, such as, to collect, create and organize online content manually. Our students still have to bear with those huge lists of searching results. Another problem is that the university has to use two different systems; one for E- learning and another for Registration and Administrative purposes.
This study is perhaps a first step in getting a better understanding ofthe importance of closeness expectations in brand-page communication insocialnetworkingsites. Facebook users mostly interact with their real-life friends, with whom they have higher closeness expectations and from whom they allow and expect more playful communication. Inthe same way, and despite users’ apparent disinterest in engaging with brands (which was also manifested inthe answers given to items 1.3 and 1.4 of Part 4 ofthe questionnaire, with about 60% of respondents having answered they only “like” 10 or less brands on Facebook and 43% stating they look for or visit brand pages less than once every two weeks), they show higher intention to engage with brands with whom they expect a closer relationship when their communication efforts are congruent with these expectations, the same being valid for brands with whom they expect a more distant relationship. This showcases the ever-growing need for companies to devote more time to crafting their social media communications taking into account customers ’ relationship closeness expectations.
outside staff and lecture rooms, send and receive emails and communicate on social networks. This Polytechnic in particular, was one ofthe first institutions to install the wireless access points that accessed internet through the main fibre backbone. In 2009 it went on to procure laptops for staff members, starting with senior management, the Heads of departments and finally lectures. Students were then allowed to bring their own devices which could be configured to be able to access institutional WIFI (The Polytechnic ICT policy document, 2010). This was the beginning of mobile computing at the Polytechnic. Since then further strides were made in such areas as installation of applications that run on mobile devices through wireless connections, increasing internet bandwidth to improve speed as demand for internet went up, upgrading wireless access points to improve strength of connectivity, upgrading of servers to handle the demand and volumes and expansion of campus area network to cover the whole Polytechnic, procurement of more mobile devices. And the institution now boasts of such things as e-learning, m- learning, m-education, among other technologies that are giving it a competitive advantage over sister Polytechnics.
One ofthe privileged health communication channels for the dissemination ofin- formation to the population is the internet/socialnetworkingsites (Berry, 2007) and its use by patients for health-related reasons is growing (Smailhodzic, Hooijsma, Boon- stra & Langley, 2016; Van De Belt, Berben, Samson, Engelen & Schoonhoven, 2012). As Asano (2017) described, a person currently spends more time on socialnetworkingsites than eating, drinking or socializing.
Abstract - Despite a massive expansion of education in Portugal, since the 1970’s, educational attainment ofthe adult population inthe country remains low. The numbers of working-age people in some form of continuing education are among the lowest, according to the OECD and EU-27 statistics. Technological Schools (TS), initially created inthe 1990’s, under the umbrella ofthe Ministry of Economy in partnership with industry and industrial associations, aimed to prepare qualified staff for industries and services inthe country, particularly inthe engineering sector, through the provision of post secondary non-university programmes of studies, the CET (Technological Specialization Courses). Successful CET students are awarded a DET (Diploma of Technological Specialization), which corresponds to Vocational Qualification level IV ofthe EU, according to the latest alteration (2005) ofthe Education Systems Act (introduced in 1986). In this, CET’s are also clearly defined as one ofthe routes for access to Higher Education (HE), in Portugal. The PRILHE (Promoting Reflective and Independent LearninginHigher Education) multinational project, funded by the European Socrates Grundtvig Programme, aimed to identify thelearning processes which enable adult students inhigher education to become autonomous reflective learners and search best practices to support these learning processes. During this research, both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to determine how students organise their studies and develop their learning skills. The Portuguese partner inthe project’ consortium used a two case studies approach, one with students ofHigher Education Institutions and other with students of TS. This paper only applies to students of TS, as these have a predominant bias towards engineering. Results show that student motivation and professional teaching support contribute equally to the development of an autonomous and reflective approach to learningin adult students; this is essential for success in a knowledge economy, where lifelong learning is the key to continuous employment.
Regarding the selection for the entrepreneurship courses, the interviewee Miguel Barbosa stressed that “Segregation of students for this courses is a very important issue, but to that I have no answer. An entrepreneur is born or trained as such? I think that inthe end is a bit of both. Some people have it on their DNA and some don’t. Even if you are an entrepreneur you may need to acquire those skills.” In other perspective, regarding to the "consumers" ofthe entrepreneurship education, Wylie research said “Proponents claim that a daily dose of computer games can make you more focused, boost memory and processing speed, quicken your decision-making, and improve your problem-solving ability”. The new generations, including new entrepreneurs, are using the easily available information with more independency, which give them more autonomy to choose their path and grave new ways to fill their goals, in private, professional and social life (Wylie, 2011). According to Cheng research, recent entrepreneur courses adapted their programs for the new reality ofthe knowledge-based econ- omy. In entrepreneurship education programs, the most common method is via lectures with more interactive approach, by using case studies, guest speakers and interaction with successful entrepre- neurs (Cheng et al., 2009). Interviewee Miguel Henrique mentioned that “The teaching focused on entrepreneurship allows certainly for an entrepreneur’s culture and spirit, and seems to have a positive impact for those with an entrepreneur’s spirit. In Portugal, we had a long time apart and our culture is not entrepreneurial, I think the impact is very positive, because we more easily grasp hold of innova- tions and fashion, I think we can have a very positive impact.”
Given that the work we carried out with the students is based on theuseofthe potential of digital technologies in a network, in close articulation with thelearning portfolio concept (Barrett, 2000), we were especially interested to deepen the reflection and draw conclusions about the most suitable approaches when this kind of working strategy is suggested to higher education students. In other words, we were interested in paving the way for a relatively recent working proposal that calls for the creation and utilisation of personalised online spaces as an ideal learning strategy (Attwell, 2007), based on analysing the
All data used inthe present work have been obtained from a Polish grey cast iron foundry, equipped with two Disamatic molding lines (2110 Mk3 and 2110 Mk5 with a sand cooling system. The original source data included 624 records collected during three summer months, in 39 working days (16 records per day in 1 hour intervals). The following green sand properties were measured and recorded: moisture content of used and fresh sands, compression strength, permeability, compactibility, and temperatures of used and fresh sands.
In this situation, which seems to be natural and typical of a transition context inhigher education under the Bologna Process, there seems to be some difficulty in enacting some ofthe formative assessment methods, mainly the ones with more emancipatory character, and particularly when the number of students is too high. Although, considering the transnationality ofthe Bologna Process it should be noted that this transition could be emerging in most ofthe 47 countries, what would indicates that these study results might be similar in other nations and/or universities. This assertion justifies the necessity of conducting this type of studies in a transnational context, to better identify the impact of this transition inthe assessment procedures and, furthermore, to realize if these modifications are the reflection of an emerging transnational curriculum. Indeed, it seems to be of major importance to question if the transnational change implicated by the Bologna Process brought more homogeneity or, by the contrary, reinforce the existing heterogeneity between assessment practices in different countries and higher education institutions. On the other hand, this study allows us to conclude that the type of degree program does not interfere significantly inthe respondents’ perceptions because the values for the dimensions relative to assessment do not differ according to this variable. This fact lends itself for the hypothesis that the nature ofthe degree programs and the specificities that may exist in each of these Faculties at the University of Porto do not constitute relevant aspects for the type of assessment used. Furthermore, it seems possible to admit that in a curricular perspective, a more emancipatory formative assessment could contribute for the development ofthe students’ autonomy, transversely to the different areas of study, almost as if it was a component ofthe “hidden curriculum” within the universities’ degree programs.
Data analysis invokes a hermeneutical model in order to identify textual data because its basic question is: what is the meaning of such text? (Radnitzky, 1970) Besides, Tan, Wilson and Olver (2009) advocate that a systematic and continuous process (feedback amongst the parts and the whole) enables an interpretive and detailed analysis. For this achievement, the authors enabled seven analytical procedures (Mayring, 2003): (i) proper communication model (empirical results); (ii) systematic and rule-based analysis (content units); (iii) interpretive categories reviewed through feedback loops (two reviews); (iv) reference to subject instead of technique (open-code structure); (v) verification of instruments (pilot analysis— Kikot et al., 2013); (vi) theory-guided analysis (GBL literature); and (vii) trustworthiness (authors’ procedures). The open-code structure was ID section_ID query_ID subject_code body. As a final note, translation was avoided to minimise the loss of sensitive meanings.
Knowledge-based approach opens up new questions about the interaction ofthe explicit and tacit (Polanyi, 1962) knowledge assets (Spender, 2002). This new organizational reality challenges the traditional planning, organizing, leadership, controlling, accounting and other organizational practices (Sveiby, 1997), (Guthrie, 2001), (Mouritsen et al., 2001). Firms need to redefine their strategies and functions to compete inthe knowledge era. The “knowledge intensive firms” represent the new kind of organizations that employ large proportion of highly qualified staff (the “knowledge workers” - Drucker, 1993) (Blackler, 2002). The knowledge-based competitive advantage (Nonaka, 1991), (McEvily and Chakravarthy, 2002) is sustainable because the more a firm already knows, the more it can learn (“absorptive capacity” - Cohen and Levinthal, 1990). Knowledge management gathers its creation and transfer (Sveiby, 1996), (Nonaka et al., 2000), (Buckley and Carter, 2000), (Choo, 2002), (Zack, 2002).
Internet Technology has effectively initiated a soft revolution inthe current teaching-based education system  . Particularly introduction of Web-Based Instruction tools to distance education  and the exploitation of portals in industrial training  have motivated researchers to investigate the feasibility of adopting WBI-CMS as a standard feature of future education. In general, the researchers believe that this could induce a transformation ofthe traditional teaching-based education into a new e-Learning-based education. In fact, individual instructors, driven by self- motivation, are enhancing their courses electronically using email communication and web technology. At the same time course management portals such as WebCT [6,7,8] and Blackboard  have been used on experimental basis towards improving the services of traditional education. Overall theuseof Web Technology to deploy online mode of on-campus education is increasing [10,11] . Factors such as efficiency, globalisation, availability of interactive multimedia facilities and low-cost implementation may force the transformation of traditional classroom education into a fully Web-based on-line learning (i.e. e-Learning). The ultimate aim is to derive a standard and effective e-Learning scheme to achieve more efficient results than currently derived from the traditional education. It is worth noting that a wide useof CMS has prompted
The study ofthe context brings about attention of other authors in whose approaches we can find numerous similarities to the opinions of other aforementioned authors. The interpretations of context of some authors (Barth, 2004; Bronfenbrener, 1976) are mostly intertwined and have several shared points which concern the elements ofthe context and their co-effect. Going from the standpoints of aforementioned authors, the interpretation ofthe context is possible to be seen in at least two levels: the level of inner and outer context. The inner context means a unique, personal context ofthe person who is learning, first and foremost of a child and an adult. Adults, like children with all their personal traits, stances and knowledge and experiences, have personal conceptions, theories or certain ways of thinking. Part ofthe inner context is made of previous knowledge and experience, personal viewpoints, skills and potentials that an individual brings into the process oflearning, and it makes the basis for the further process of construction ofthe knowledge and experience system. A special significance is inthe inner motivation which inthe boundaries ofthe inner context affects the development ofthelearning and progress strategies. To the process and effects oflearning it is of extreme importance the style in which we learn, the ability to perceive one’s own thoughts and to accept the position of others. The important part of inner context are capabilities, skills and knowledge, as parts of a unique cognitive menu, which children and adults have acquired in their previous experiences. Previous experiences and knowledge make possible various analyses and research, understanding of new situations, revealing connections and relations, which has an effect on the construction of knowledge and experience. The outer context refers to the physical and social conditions and it’s in tight relationship with the organization ofthelearning environment. The elements ofthe outer context make for the surroundings where the process oflearning and teaching goes on, and as especially significant these are pointed out: organization of space and time, the relationships between the students and the openness to creating outer partnership networks. In this sense, the outer context refers to the creation ofthe conditions for learning, adequate organization ofthe physical and social environment for the process oflearning and teaching, but also to the “promotion of a certain kind of relationship, activity, roles and way to understand learning and teaching” (Aleksendri ć, 2010, p. 476). In this sense, the meanings that the students build inthe context are specific as much as their understandings, experiences and conditions in which they realize their activities (Krnjaja, 2008).
The work was aimed to determine the influence of aluminium inthe amount from about 0.6% to about 2.8% on the structure of cast iron treated with cerium mischmetal and subjected to graphitizing modification with 75% ferrosilicon. Four experimental melts were held during the investigation. The charge was composed ofthe specially prepared grey iron, containing the basic elements within the presumed limits. While determining the desirable quantity of carbon inthe charge cast iron, two contradicting conditions were taken into account, i.e. that the purpose is to achieve the nodular cast iron (which means that the relatively large carbon amount would be demanded) and that introducing aluminium to the melt results inthe decreased solubility of carbon in cast steel. Taking this into account, it was stated that the quantity of carbon inthe charge cast iron should be maintained within the range of 3.2÷3.4%. It has been assumed that the silicon content inthe charge material should fall within 0.7÷1.0%, as it was during the former investigations. Manganese content was restricted to 0.1% maximally in order to achieve the desired structure with ferrite fraction as high as possible. It has been also assumed that the content of both sulphur and phosphor should be at the possible lowest level.