The re search focused on user aspects, conducted at Palacký University Olomouc, has shown that userpreferences are not same as user needs. Therefore, it is important not only to ask map users for their preferences on the use of image maps, but it is also important to perform user testing. User testing, evaluation of user requirements, user needs and userpreferences are closely related to the research area of mapuser issues. Image maps (orthoimage maps) have become very popular and frequently produced cartographical outputs in geosciences during recent years. This paper deals with the new approach to user testing of userpreferencesinimagemapusing eye-tracking technology (Popelka, Vozenilek 2013).
How much time are you spending at your apartment,/house, office, or other indoor places every day? According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), approximately 318,943,000 people in United States, spend around 90% of their time at indoor places (U.S. EPA, 2015). This record simply shows how crucial the spatial information of the indoor places could be. In recent years, spatial information of indoor spaces provided in the context of Building Information Models (BIM) has gained a lot of attention not only in the architectural community but also in other engineering communities. The semantically rich and geometrically accurate indoor models can provide powerful information for many of the existing engineering projects. However, gathering the spatial information of indoor spaces with complex structures is difficult and it needs a proper implementation of sensors. Moreover, implementing the suitable reconstruction algorithm for generating the indoor space 3D models which has to be also adaptive to the incoming data is pretty much crucial. Considering the cost and data processing time, single images proved to be one of the reliable data gathering sources for modeling. Even though recovering the 3D model from a single image is inherently an ill-posed problem and usually single images can only cover a limited field of view, they are still suitable for modeling well-structured places of indoor spaces. Given a single image from a well-structured corridor, our goal
Once we construct this map, we then ask: Does the reddit backbone network display the same complex network characteristics observed in many other real-world networks? By viewing subreddits as nodes linked by users with common interests, we find that the reddit social media world has a scale-free, small-world, and modular community structure. We hypothesize that the scale-free property is the result of a preferential attachment process in which new reddit users, or existing users who are exploring, are most likely to encounter and become active in the largest and most active sub-reddits. However, because other processes may also account for the scale-free property, this hypothesis requires further investigation. Additionally, the small-world property explains how the big world of reddit can seem small and navigable to users when it is mapped out. Finally, the modular community structure in which narrow interest-based subreddits (e.g., dubstep or rock music) are organized into broader communities (e.g., music) allows users to easily identify related interests by zooming in on a broader community. We suggest that the integration of such interest maps into popular social media platforms will assist users in organizing themselves into more specific interest groups, which will help alleviate the overcrowding effect often observed in large online communities ( Gilbert, 2013).
imagery. And especially focuses on how adding some features into GIS platform can make image processing more purposeful. This method follows the doctrine that some areas in a city usually do not change and sometimes should not change in short term such as historical sites whereas other areas are in the process of reforming such as old-town areas. Regarding to this point, ESRI news website states that: “the key to efficient map updating is changing only those elements that need to be changed” (Traurig, 2011). Actually integration of satellite images in GIS has nearly three decades history (Ehlers et al., 1989; Mesev, 2008; Star et al., 1997).
The problem, however, is how to achieve that appearance of things at a given place and time conceived will be recorded and displayed as something actually existing at the place and time, even when no perceiver is present and a constituent of the object whose appearance it is, i.e. a scenic picture giving an effect of extension of the vista i.e. three dimensionality results. With other words, the problem of imaging and displaying is connected to the means how to obtain the optical imprint of the three-dimensional world in such a way that the cortex space in our mind matches the physical space, which is mostly experienced by touch, muscle tension and movement.
Abstract—In modern sciences and technologies, images gain much broader scopes due to the ever growing importance of scientific visualization (of often large-scale complex scientific/experimental data) like microarray data in genetic research, or real-time multi-asset portfolio trading in finance etc. In this paper, a proposal has been presented to implement a Graphical User Interface (GUI) consisting of various MATLAB functions related to image processing and using the same to create a basic image processing editor having different features like, viewing the red, green and blue components of a color image separately, color detection and various other features like noise addition and removal, edge detection, cropping, resizing, rotation, histogram adjust, brightness control that is used in a basic image editor along with object detection and tracking. This has been further extended to provide reliable and a more natural technique for the user to navigate a robot in the natural environment using gestures based on color tracking. Additionally, Voice control technique has been employed to navigate the robot in various directions in the Cartesian plane employing normal Speech recognition techniques available in Microsoft Visual Basic.
It would be beneficial to use the three features color, shape and texture in many applications like searching a certain disease from a database of medical images. Therefore, an efficient combination of these features into multimodal descriptors of the audio-visual content should be considered in more detail in future work. Another issue is the development of a flexible and dynamically adjustable similarity measure based on relevance feedback obtained from the end-user should be taken into account. The issue of distance measures between feature vectors also need to be considered. Euclidean distance was used in this method because of its simplicity and interpretability, but it would be valuable to evaluate other distance measures and their effect on retrieval performance.
Figure 2 shows the results obtained about the main drivers for using an AR technology, namely social influence, price, auto-adjustment, and comfort/design. It was found that 84% (i.e., 96 partici- pants) look into the comfort/design that the technology brings. Other important driver is the fact that the system automatically adjusts its configuration (features and information) according to the activity (93 participants). Note this also implies higher comfort when compared with a system that calls for manual adjustment. Regarding recommendations, only 11% stated that they would not buy an AR system even if their friends or family had this technology, an aspect which corroborates the importance of social influence. Price is a significant feature: 51% (i.e., 58 participants) will only buy an AR system if it is cheap.
Abstract—Service robots directly interact with people, so finding a more natural and easy user interface is of fundamental importance. While earlier works have focused primarily on issues such as manipulation and navigation in the environment, few robotic systems are used with user friendly interfaces that possess the ability to control the robot by natural means. To facilitate a feasible solution to this requirement, we have implemented a system through which the user can give commands to a wireless robot using gestures. Through this method, the user can control or navigate the robot by using gestures of his/her palm, thereby interacting with the robotic system. The command signals are generated from these gestures usingimage processing. These signals are then passed to the robot to navigate it in the specified directions.
Georeferencing of a scanned map depends on many factors such as; the scale of the map, the resolution of the image, the number of control points (NCP), the chosen coordinate transformation method (CTM), map production method, and some uncontrolled factors like user experience and working conditions etc. Whether these factors have an individual or joint effect on georeferencing can be investigated using experimental design (COMLEKCI, 2003) except uncontrolled factors. Uncontrolled factors cannot be defined so they cannot be investigated using experimental design. Experimental design is used in many kinds of fields. Problem- solving and process improvement studies related to various fields of activity utilizing experimental design have increased in recent years. Experimental design examines every possible combination of factors at the tested levels (GEORGE et al., 2005). The effects of two-level factors can be explained by a 2 n (n: number of factors) factorial design, which is a special application of the full factorial design of experiments (NAVIDI, 2008; MONTGOMERY et al., 2001). Below is an explanation of some concepts used in experimental design:
One of clustering method based on artificial neural network which is the most commonly used is Self- Organizing Map (SOM). SOM studies each inputs component and then classifies the input into the corresponding class. SOM has been applied inimage processing, e.g. for image compression , and color quantization . SOM is also widely used inimage segmentation applications -. In color image, SOM is used to perform color reduction, then followed by Simulated Annealing (SA) to obtain the results of segmentation . SOM is also used for the sonar image segmentation by taking action to the existing noise . Euclidean distance is commonly used to measure the distance between input vector and weight vector in SOM method ,. Mahalonobis distance has also been utilized in the measurement of the distance to the SOM method . In this study, determination of the winner weight for each input, is done by calculating the distance using Normalized Euclidean Distance.
Although some features have been chosen by researchers, finding simple and discriminative features is still a challenging problem. This paper proposed a new segmentation method based on block-wise features generated by Haar wavelet decomposition and using Kohonen’s Self-Organizing Maps to classify the blocks into background or foreground. Our method of segmentation would be expected to segment fingerprint images adaptively without user intervention. Although the method produces blocking effect, but the segmented image still reserve a lot of important information that can be used in the next processes, such as classification or recognition.
A virtual environment can be defined as a three dimensional computer-modeled environment that allows user interaction. One of the most common applications is in simulators. Simulators are popular because they are safe, relatively cheap, and have various applications in entertainment, training, education and even rehabilitation. Notable examples: flight simulators used for pilot training, simulators for military operations, and the gaming industry. One aspect that can increase the immersiveness of virtual reality is the type of interaction between human and machine. If the interaction is done through a classic controller such as a mouse or joystick, the users need to learn the mapping between their own movement and its consequence in the virtual environment (Wise & Murray, 2000). However, the mapping is facilitated if the interaction is done through a natural user interface (NUI). Research has shown that natural user interfaces, in which users can recognize their own movements in the virtual environment, are more immersive (Bruder et al., 2009; Francese et al., 2012).
Direct and inverse conversions using the proposed model were tested using different images. The proposed conversion was tested using an original color image to get the gray image and without applying any processing we got the color imageusing inverse conversion, the experimental results showed that the correlation between the original image and the obtained color image was always equal one, which means full matching between the original image and the obtained one.
ABSTRACT. Sandy and/or conglomeratic turbidites and shales of Urucutuca Formation outcrops occur in onshore Almada Basin, northeast Brazil. These rocks are part of an exhumed portion of the filling-section of the Almada Canyon, which is well mapped by seismic studies in offshore part. Such outcrops can be considered as analogues to some important turbidite reservoirs of Campos Basin, the main Brazilian petroleum basin. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is an electromagnetic method that can obtain subsurface images with a sub-meter vertical resolution, which is appropriated to study such thin structures usually found in turbidite outcrops. This work shows the results from a set of georadar (GPR) profiles obtained at one outcrop in Almada Basin. Those data yielded high-resolution images of the outcrop, which aided by a geological interpretation of the exposed section and radar 2D forward modeling, could assist on the delineation of channels and layering patterns. That information may prove to be useful in designing more detailed stratigraphical models, which can improve the knowledge of analogues turbidite reservoirs, aiming to enhance the production of oilfields associated to this kind of reservoirs.
To protect the privacy of our location information while taking advantage of location-aware services, we wish to hide our true identity from the applications receiving our location; at a very high level, this can be taken as a statement of our security policy. Now we try to develop a more sophisticated system for location-based service (Fig1) . Here the user accesses the application server through a trusted proxy server. The user is authorized to use the service by this trusted proxy. The proxy and the user decide a pseudonym for the user. User sends the location and the requested service to proxy. The trusted proxy sends location and the request to the application server with user’s pseudonym. Response from the application server reaches the user through proxy. There are many users requesting the service through proxy. Proxy has to maintain a table for the user ID and the corresponding pseudonym redirect the response from the application to appropriate user. Here the application is aware of the location and the request from the user but doesn’t know her identity. Pseudonyms are changed frequently. So indirectly location privacy is gained.
The method describes a new way of denoising the image based on the wavelet transform. Because of some limits of conventional methods inimage denoising, several drawbacks such as edge degradation are seen in the conventional methods. Those can be removed by using the new technique which is based on the wavelet transforms. We have analyzed the various techniques of image denoising by using the proposed methods. The proposed method 1 and proposed method 2 has good result at different noise level as compared to the existing methods. The circular kernel and Min Max method gives the better result visually but the PSNR is not good for this method as compared to all methods. This technique preserves the details of the image like edges as compared to the existing technique. The nearest neighbor method has better result as compared to the all existing method as well as all proposed technique. The cluster averaging technique has comparable excellent PSNR values. For Gaussian noise, all functions work better than the existing threshold. In Speckle noise, nearest neighbor methods give a better result. In Poisson’s noise, all methods give comparable results. In Salt and Pepper noise, our proposed cluster method has better results. The results would be improved by using various applications of the filter masks. The improvement can be seen with a change in the type of wavelet family function that is used in the image transformation.
Byzantine fault is an arbitrary failure occurs in the distributed environment causes heavy damage to the system. The word “Byzantine” refers to Byzantine generals problem which can be used in army in the past decades.Byzantine problem can be tolerated only there are 3N+1 nodes in the distributed environment. For example, Dynamo uses tens of thousands of servers located in many data centers around the world to build a storage back-end for Amazon’s S3 storage service and its e-commerce platform[11,13].Byzantine fault can be tolerated using distributed Byzantine Quorum systems techniques to provide security in the database storage[2,14].This Quorum system can be integrated with protocol for proactive recovery of servers[3,18].But it cannot be completely eradicated and also understand. By using some techniques it can be tolerated but it is not sufficient in the recent days. Byzantine fault tolerant algorithms will be increasingly important in the future because malicious attacks and software errors are increasingly common and cause faulty Nodes to exhibit arbitrary behavior[4,19]. In distributed system byzantine failure is used to describe the worst possible failure semantics in which any type of error occur[5,17]. The distributed environment uses membership service. The membership service is used it periodically notifies of other system nodes of membership changes[6,16].The membership service is used dynamically. It allows only authorized service to communicate with this group of system in the distributed environment.To reduce this byzantine fault occurred in the distributed environment provide the predefined constraints in the distributed system. The membership service allows only the service with possible constraints related to the distributed system constraints.
Access to system partitions is restricted to the Android operating system. By default, users do not have permission to access system reserved areas. The system is shielded in order to prevent malicious or poorly developed applications to af- fect the OS's stability and reliability. However, it is possible to exploit a set of system or device vulnerabilities to obtain super user (root) privi- leges. Thus, it is possible to use applications or a shell that has full and unrestricted access to the system. As a result, a forensic analyst can make a mirror copy of all of the system partitions as well as access files which were not accessible by using Android conventional credentials. The techniques vary depending on each Android ver- sion and may also depend on the device manu- facturer and model. Moreover, those techniques are often invasive and may even damage data stored on the device, so they should be used wisely.
Although the first release of the maize genome (i.e. B73 RefGen_v1) is now realized, as with any genome sequence, several improvements are still needed to produce an even more accurate reference sequence for maize. First, six percent of the genome (127.8 Mb in total) still needs to be genetically ordered and oriented. This includes 20.6 Mb (1.0% of the physical mapin 21 contigs) to be oriented, 90.1 Mb (4.3% in 48 contigs) to be precisely ordered and oriented, and finally, 17.1 Mb (0.8% in 35 contigs) to be genetically mapped. Secondly, the physical map covers ,93% of the B73 genome in 435 contigs, and significant physical gaps remain to be bridged. For example, approximately 5% of the maize full-length cDNA data set could not be mapped to the genome (i.e. B73 RefGen_v1; ). Finally, we must continue to better orient sequence contigs within BACs using multiple data types, such as the optical map, syntenic relationships across the cereal genomes, full-length cDNA evidence, and paired-end whole genome shotgun sequence. Data generated from the maize diversity project should provide enough evidence to anchor most unanchored contigs (Ed Buckler, pers. comm.). Efforts to further improve the B73 RefGen_v1 are now underway, and new AGP releases will be made available regularly through the AGI website (www2.genome.arizona.edu/genome/maize).