validate changes; this type of user has a high access level with the task of validating the changes, additions or removal operations initiated by other users; the user role is necessary in the context in which the application is working with valuable information such as bank details or scholarship indicators to ensure the integrity and accuracy of the database; the privileges are given depending on the position and the competence of the user having areas where it has the needed expertise to validate the fields or table changes;
To avoid information asymmetry and price dispersion at some extent, the consumer needs to search most e- commerce websites before purchasing a product through online shopping for a better price. Hence search plays a vital role in the present e-commerce. To search anything on the web we use search engines. Google Search is the most-used search engine on the World Wide Web (WWW), handling more than three billion searches each day. Present search engines collects text from public documents and assigns ranks to web pages and retrieves text based on the keywords given by the user. These keyword-based search engines return many inappropriate results to the user. For example, if a user wishes to retrieve data about “Nissan cars costing between 3 to 5 lakhs” will return some inappropriate results consisting of around one lakh links out of those many unnecessary links shown. Now the user needs to check all the links for appropriate information. As the web is growing at an astounding pace, many web pages will come up with lots of information that results many inappropriate results further to the user. This is because existing web content is meant for human consumption or human reading purposes, machines cannot understand what actually it contains. If the machines are able to understand the content, we can develop applications to retrieve appropriate results to the users. The growth of electronic commerce mainly depends critically on interoperability between different systems. Interoperability links systems together. For example, it enables banks to link together their cash-point networks, extending the number of points at which service can be provided in a consistent and predictable fashion even though ownership remains split between the individual banks. 
Nowadays, the software industry is vast and grows very fast, with it the choice of technolo- gies for software development is always growing. Technologies that might be adequate for some projects today, might not represent the same stability in the future. Every day it be- comes more and more complex to decide between different technologies. Whether a single programming language can tackle all challenges and even worse the decision of which soft- ware to develop, native or web and to which platform, in order to target as much users as possible. Nevertheless, some technologies get more attention than others such as Java being one of the most popular programming languages (Garbade) due to its flexibility to tackle different software markets such as Web and Native applications as well as mobile devices. Even though these technologies are very popular and always evolving, in some cases it is difficult to create software for all existing platforms using a single programming language without having to make some compromises such as targeting specific operating systems, specific users or even specific types of software (e.g. target windows devices or Mac OS devices and being able to offer the same user experience on both, or even decide between Desktop devices and Mobile devices). Due to these difficulties, Web applications have been growing since they can be developed using multiple programming languages, but mostly for their flexibility to target almost any device containing an Internet connection.
Abstract —The Service Level Agreement (SLA) becomes an important issue especially over the Cloud Computing and online services that based on the ‘pay-as-you-use’ fashion. Establishing the Service level agreements (SLAs), which can be defined as a negotiation between the service provider and the user, is needed for many types of current applications as the E-Learning systems. The work in this paper presents an idea of optimizing the SLA parameters to serve any E-Learning system over the Cloud Computing platform, with defining the negotiation process, the suitable frame work, and the sequence diagram to accommodate the E-Learning systems.
lack both performance stability and visibility due to hardware heterogeneity as well as the strategies used by hypervisors when allocating the virtual machines . Cloud performance variation can range from 20% for CPU to 268% for memory . This leads to a gap between the service levels expected by the users with the level delivered by the clouds . This mostly occurs because the clouds’ SLAs are nor- mally based on resource availability without performance guarantees. In this context, the users have to benchmark their applications on multiple resources, considering various optimization parameters. For instance, ﬁgure 9.2 shows the average network bandwidth of an Amazon EC2 instance type designed to deliver 10 Gbps of network throughput. However, this throughput is disabled by default and to enable it the users must (a) install and activate a network driver in the instance’s operating system; (b) stop the virtual machine and enable a feature called enhanced networking. In addition, they must know that this feature is only allowed on hardware-assisted virtualization type and to enable it, they have to call a method of the EC2’s API. In other words, the users cannot enable this feature through the EC2 console (Web interface); and they must know all the technical details of the instance types. Thus, application benchmarking can increase the ﬁnancial costs, it is often time-consuming, and demands system administration skills. Moreover, in some case, a global view of the environment is required in order to minimize the cost. For example, considering the scenario depicted in ﬁgure 9.2, the users must know the location of their resources to decide if data transfer between the resources must be done using an internal or an external IP address, as using the internal IP address implies zero costs. Fi- nally, for some constraints, the users should balance between performance, cost, and availability as some requirements are only available in non-optimal conﬁgurations.
Note that browsing is the most common user behavior across all categories of activities. Thus, we take a closer look at brows- ing related activities. We categorize them into four types: (i) browsing of media content such as photos and videos, (ii) profile content (both one’s own and others’), (iii) text messages of testimonials, scraps, and messages, and (iv) community content which belongs to not a user but a community within Orkut. Table 4 displays the popularity of these categories based on the fraction of associated requests and the average time spent on each state. In total, browsing accounted for 92.7% of all requests! Compared to other non-browsing activities in the same category, browsing typically engaged 2–100 times more users. For in- stance, the number of users who ever browsed messages was 13 times larger than those who sent messages. In fact, other behaviors that require more user engagement were less prominent in the trace; time-intensive behaviors like browse a favorite video (activity 10) and participation-oriented behaviors like posting in a community topic (activity 32) are not popular.
Our fast paced day-to-day life has been facilitated by the use of mobile phones. Our grow- ing demand on applications that are used for business, entertainment and research areas has been pushing forward the development of the mobile platform. Problems arise when such devices intrinsically furnished with limited resources (e.g. battery, memory and CPU) can not offer the expected quality of service and can barely go through a normal working day without a recharge. Cloud-assisted Mobile Offloading consists of techniques to save battery and opportunistically improve execution time of applications. In this scenario, code is op- timally executed on the cloud, depending on some heuristics, culminating in lower mobile resource usage. Offloading frameworks provide an easy start-up and a powerful set of tools to enable Offloading in mobile applications. Identifying common shortcomings of previous works, this dissertation develops ULOOF, an User Level Online Offloading Framework. Our work is a general-use transparent framework that was designed to work in a plug-and-play fashion. We employ an accurate online energy model derived from real device data; and a time model that employs a black-box approach for execution time estimation. Our contri- bution also includes prediction of latency according to user location, resulting in enhanced contextualized Offloading decisions while incurring low overhead. We created two experi- mental applications, and their evaluation indicates that ULOOF can reduce the application’s energy usage up to 80% and lower execution time up to 47.64% under our setup.
OSN. In order to design usable technologies, it must be designed with a secure applications and interface so that end-users would be able to comprehend the functions provides for them . Nowadays, most researchers have started to focus on this issue and also the privacy and identity albeit users do not want to reveal the information as they wanted . Most of the OSN products provides with security settings which offer from basic to advanced security protection for their end-users. However, most of the end-users would apprehend the default settings which had been provided once they installed the application in their computer rather than having some tweak on the settings for better protection. The main question that can be highlighted here is why the end- users would do that. There are some concerns on how current security settings have been implemented on each application or products which make it cumbersome to be used. By relying upon the default setting is not an adequate solution given the facts that single default level of security unable to serve to all level of users. The developers should not put the end-users in baffle situation where they need to deal with it without a proper guide. In this context, the presentation and usability plays an important role to ensure that end-users able to understand how to manage their security functionality.
The security models for online banking systems currently in use are strongly based on Internet banking user identification and authentication methods, which are also the components where most Internet banking systems' vulnerabilities are found. The aforementioned methods depend on the user's knowledge of secret authentication information and the user's ability for maintaining both this information and the device used to access internet banking services secure. If the user's platform (i.e. computing devices, operating systems and applications) is compromised, the banking system is compromised as a whole, allowing the execution of fraudulent transactions. As result of these issues, most of the online banking systems currently in operation may be compromised and subverted. Two attacks which efficiently render current security models ineffective are presented, demonstrating how vulnerable internet banking systems are.
The ontology is developed to represent various categories of problem types and their symptoms and to support the dynamic interface on which users can choose to describe and identify the problems. Apart from that, the popularity of using ontology to manage technical knowledge makes it possible for help desk to reuse other help desks or IT companies’ knowledge in terms of ontology. For example, company A has reached an agreement with Oracle and Norton to allow the help desk of company A to reuse technical support knowledge of Oracle and Norton products. By integrating or merging their ontologies, software agent from Company A should be able to retrieve technical knowledge from Oracle and Norton. This means that users in company A can make use of Oracle and Norton’s technical support knowledge to troubleshoot their own problems. The reusability of ontology also allows help desk to save a lot of resources and efforts in creating duplicate sets of knowledge that have already been created in other companies or help desks. The dynamic user interface is designed to pinpoint the weakness of the FAQ and “keyword search” interfaces used inonline knowledge base. The interactive communication and
Barth, 2016). In both cases, individuals have readily available objective information that can be used to form judgments about the other person (e.g., what the other person is looking for in a partner), which will influence interpersonal attraction. However, attraction occurs after simply noticing another person without any objective interpersonal information. This UIA phenomenon constitutes the first necessary step for individuals to become interested in wanting to interact and know other people, and possibly initiate a voluntary interpersonal relationship (e.g., Bredow et al., 2008; Rodrigues & Lopes, 2014). Online social platforms are a relevant context on which to examine the UIA phenomenon, because users often share a limited amount of information about themselves (e.g., online dating services), or almost no interpersonal information (e.g., Tinder or Grinder applications). In these latter cases, decisions to interact with others are mostly based on super-quick glances at user profile photos.
With the increasing empowerment of healthcare consumers and users of medical services and products in Australia, there has also been the creation of consumer peer tutoring programmes. These are programmes where users of medicines tutor other new or less experienced users about how to use their medicines and about healthcare issues in general, and there are similar activities in other settings. 32-35 In Australia there are a few reasons for these peer tutoring programmes coming into existence. One reason is due to the relatively low access to healthcare professionals due to living in rural areas where access to doctors or pharmacists is low, or living in areas with a low doctor-to-population ratio or low pharmacist-to-population ratio. These may be reasons for minimal opportunity for the users and consumers to get to know their new medicines or medical routines. Other reasons are that consumers may simply not understand the medical information even after speaking to a healthcare professional. Things like inadequate cultural and linguistic translations may prevent the proper dissemination of the relevant medical information to a consumer from a multicultural background, and this is something that organisations such as the NPS and FECCA mentioned previously are collaborating on to overcome. 28 In Australia, more experienced users and consumers have seen this gap in the healthcare journey and acted to help newer consumers. Examples of peer tutoring do occur in Australia but are not recorded in the published science communication literature to this author’s knowledge. There are some institutional reports that elaborate on this and other methods of communication though. 36,37 The fact that users and consumers can teach other users and consumers of health and medical information is testament to the power and effectiveness of user-led bioscience and medical communication.
There are a few ambitious middleware systems that were proposed as meta- operating systems capable of providing an integrated programming model for application developers [6, 13, 3, 4, 1]. Despite this considerable research effort, in recent years we have been witnessing a growing perception about a persistent gap between the promises of the area and its real achievements. A major conclu- sion at influent events in the field, such as UbiSys06 and CMPPC07, was that most systems have never had any real use outside their own development envi- ronment and incremental research has been the exception. We argue that there are four fundamental reasons for this limited success . The first is a chicken and egg problem with applications. Without widely accepted reference scenar- ios, it is very hard to identify requirements and make informed design decisions on the type of system support that may be needed. Without a rich and opera- tional infrastructure it is very hard to create an integrated environment where meaningful applications may emerge. The second is the implicit knowledge that prevails in those systems. Even though discovery, selection and dynamic interac- tion are all key goals for most platforms, there is too much hidden behaviour and too many assumptions about the environment that must be in place to boot- strap and deploy the system . A third problem results from a vision of smart spaces as caring environments that sense and intelligently react to people, which raises very complex requirements associated with the need to model, detect or infer peoples feelings, intents or situations of life . A final reason is the strong coupling between physical space and functionality, but we argue that Human activity is too dynamic, subtle and mobile to be captured in the infrastructure of any specific physical space.
App Annie is the number one trusted tool by the largest mobile applications developers for tracking downloads and revenues. According to GuestU’s head of development, Marcelino Moreno, this is because App Annie retrieves its data directly from the two largest application stores (Google’s PlayStore and Apple’s App Store) which differentiates it from otherwise similar tools. App Annie’s data does not include all of GuestU’s applications. Table 6 shows the number of downloads measured for 109 applications since the beginning of 2015 until end of October. The newer GuestU applications were not yet implemented with App Annie’s SDK and their data was thus not tracked. But the latest customers were obtained applying the same measures as the previous and were not treated differently. Therefore, there is no selection bias or structural variance in treatment and the incompleteness of the data does not affect the results. Google Analytics not only tracks revenues and downloads but multiple other key performance indicators (KPIs). The tracking method particular for new users/downloads differs to that of App Annie’s which results in slightly different results 6 . The differences should be negligible
Ebner (2009) reported ubiquitous use of Wikipedia, YouTube and social networking sites among undergraduate university students. Dede (2005) described the learning style of digital natives (individuals born after 1989, the digital revolution) as characterized by “fluency in multiple media, valuing each for the types of communication, activities, experiences, and expressions it empowers; learning based on collectively seeking, sieving, and synthesizing experiences rather than individually locating and absorbing information from a single best source; active learning based on experience that includes frequent opportunities for reflection; expression through non-linear associational webs of representations rather than linear stories; and co- design of learning experiences personalized to in- dividual needs and preferences” (p. 10). In 2011, all students enrolled in the first-year Adelaide University undergraduate science program received a free Apple iPad (K IDMAN , 2010). Mel-
Thin-film silicon solar cells have the following important advantages compared to crystalline cells: the thickness of silicon can be drastically reduced to 50 μm; thin films can be deposited on low-cost substrates; and thin films can be fabricated on module-sized substrates and in integrally interconnected structures. According to some calculations, the thickness of silicon films can be reduced down to 1 μm (Razykov et al., 2010). The superior optical, electric, and chemical properties of nanomaterials offer the chance for solar cells to get higher efficiencies. Competitive costs and performance can be achieved by using quantum wells and quantum dots in crystalline solar cells. The quantum well solar cell is a novel device with the potential to achieve high efficiency in an alternative approach to tandem or cascade solar cells. Quantum dots are nanometer-sized crystallite semiconductors that can be produced by a variety of methods. The advantage of quantum dots is the ability to tune the absorption threshold simply by choosing the dot diameter. Dye- sensitized solar cells have been extensively studied for their reasonable photoelectric conversion efficiency, simple assemble technology, and potential low cost (Razykov et al., 2010).
Table A could hold zip code and city address. Table C includes street address and street number. Objects conceptually belong to each other and form a complex address of an object. Objects that conceptually belong to each other in sense of modeling in a real world are treated as a single complex object, thus the conflicts could be detected and if the data in different tables are changed. Normal process of replication would not detect the conflict and merge the data without showing them to the user. Developers can determine the objects of the class which form complex object’s class. This information then is used in the time of synchronization. There are three reasons that the synchronization of complex objects is a better process: data model can be normalized and dependent data should not be considered, data model can change, however same conflicts are not detected and conflict detection in object instead of data tables is more understandable for the user.
and its potential consequences. Tgfbi encodes a secreted adhesion molecule whose expression is sharply induced by TGF-b , a protein that senses oxidative stress and orchestrates the response to the DNA-damaging effects of ionizing radiation . Stat1 integrates signal transduction and transcriptional responses to cell stressors, including ultraviolet B radiation, inﬂammation and infection . Anti-DNA antibodies are activated by reactive oxygen species, which are byproducts of the hydrolysis of intracellular water by IR. The ensuing free radicals cause oxidative damage to DNA, and DNA modiﬁed in this way becomes highly immunogenic, activating the production of antibodies direc- ted against it . Among those with no direct link to radiation, Mcsp is a structural protein of mitochondria that has been characterized for its role in sperm motility . However it is also relatively highly expressed in spleen (UCSC Mouse Genome Browser, Aug. 2005 build), where its function is unknown to date. No functional information is available for Tmem65. However given its repeated and tight associations with the other genes discussed here, Tmem65 may also have an important role in the response to IR, a possibility that could now be pursued experimentally. Tulp4 is an uncharacterized member of the tubby superfamily of proteins, all of which share the tubby signature motif, nuclear localization signals and suppressor of cytokine signaling domains . Co- expression between all seven members of this gene set in IR but not control suggests that they may function in the same or intersecting pathways in the radiation response, a possibility worth further exploration.
ATLAS (presented in Figure 2.2.a)) is a THKAF exoskeleton formed by 3 degree of freedom (DOFs) for each leg (hip, knee and ankle) . It is particularly focused in assistance of children suffering from quadriplegia, providing active motion for the hip and knee flexion/extension and ankle flexion/extension under-actuated by connecting to a linkage between the thigh and shank. The motion of the joints is driven by elec- trical motors at the hip, knee and ankle. It is composed by goniometers at the hip, knee and ankle of the user to measure joint angles, an inertial measurement unit (IMU) at the torso, and an in-shoe plantar pressure measurement system at each foot . An impedance controller is programmed to follow natural joint trajectories which have been obtained making use of clinical gait analysis data (employs two FSMs to separately tune the hip and knee joints trajectories recorded from healthy children), while reacting compliantly to small perturbations in the sagittal plane (plane that divided the body in right and left portions, as described in Chapter 3) . HAL, presented in Figure 2.2.b), is developed to physically augment joints power of healthy people, or assist people affected by gait disorders to move and execute dai- ly living activities [32, 24]. Different types of HAL were developed: a HKAF exo- skeleton; and a single-leg device. When HAL targets to aid people having difficulties in walking, an autonomous controller is used to provide assistance on the hip and knee joints, while the ankle joint behaves passively as a spring [32, 24]. The hip and knee joints of HAL are controlled based on swing phase and stance phase. The de- sired joint patterns are pre-recorded from a healthy subject and are allocated to these two gait phases by a real-time intention estimator (understanding user’s start walking, stop walking, leg swing) which counts on floor reaction force and torso angle . The motion support of HAL is activated consistently with the user’s motion intention which could be estimated by the knee flexor bioelectrical signals . This WR is composed by angular sensors, acceleration sensors and floor reaction force sensors.
We employed computer vision technique for objects identification. For this purpose, we incorporated Moodstocks API  to distinguish 3D objects around the user by using their 2 dimensional images. There are several other image recognition engines such as VisionIQ , to perform the same task. We store the images of the objects before the experiment into the database of Moodstocks. Later the user can recognize the real world objects with the help of images already stored. Currently, the image recognition engines require sample images. There are chances of failure to recognize the objects, therefore during the experiment, the users were requested to choose objects having vivid patterns for accurate recognition. The rest of the objects around the user were not recognized by the user. In near future, we believe that these recognition engines will be able to recognize objects more efficiently. Thus, in this manner, the context element of objects around is captured by the prototype device and can be used toretrieve accurate lifelogs of the time when the objects were used in the past.