Top PDF Vehicle Assisted Data Delievery Technique To Control Data Dissemination In Vehicular AD - HOC Networks Vanets

Vehicle Assisted Data Delievery Technique To Control Data Dissemination In Vehicular AD - HOC Networks Vanets

Vehicle Assisted Data Delievery Technique To Control Data Dissemination In Vehicular AD - HOC Networks Vanets

standardizes the LAN and MAN. The MAC layer it’s a set of the protocol, which is responsible for the maintaining order and the management in the used of the Data shared system. our contribution is to involve the three different co-ordination functions for access the method. These limitation covered by the TLO (The Last One Algorithm) and the VADD (Vehicle Assisted Data Delivery Technique with the carry Forward technique). TLO is a position based algorithm which provides proper data dissemination in the ad-hoc networks. Which provide the proper solution to reduce the end to end delay and broadcast storm problem. In this approach the vehicle will know the each other geographical location of the each other. In this approach it provides the proper communication range to the each vehicle. In this approach the data packet will be forward with the carry approach technique and there will be no problem for losing the data packets and the buffering of the data. When the accident take place the accident vehicle send a broadcast alert message to other vehicle. The vehicle which is in the range of the TLO algorithm after receiving the message it will not rebroadcast it immediately. It will wait for some time and perform the TLO algorithm. In this algorithm each vehicles calculate distance from the emergency initiator vehicle and also compared their neighbor distance. In the range of 0-300 meters the 250 m is farther away from the emergency initiator. The vehicles A, B, C, D is knew that vehicle E is the farthest one. Now the last one is selected by the TLO algorithm will retransmit the alert message to the next set of the vehicles and when the threshold waiting time expires and the other nodes didn’t receive the alert message, it thinks there is no relay behind them and TLO is run again to find the next last node. Until a successful broadcast is carried out, this process is repeated.
Mostrar mais

6 Ler mais

Design Approach for Vehicle To Vehicle (V2V) Dissemination of  Messages in Vehicular Adhoc Network

Design Approach for Vehicle To Vehicle (V2V) Dissemination of Messages in Vehicular Adhoc Network

One of the main applications of the mobile Adhoc network is a Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET). Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks(VANETs) grown out of the need to support various wireless product that can be used in vehicles .VANETs wireless equipped vehicles form a network spontaneously while travelling along the road. In VANETs communication between vehicle to vehicle on the road, called (V2V) communication and vehicles communicate with roadside equipments, called (VRC) or Vehicles to Infrastructure (V2I) communication. In V2V communication one vehicle communicate with another vehicle without the use of any dedicated infrastructure (base station, access point, etc). In V2V and V2I communications data exchanges between vehicles and between infrastructure and vehicles with a greater radio range classical IEEE 802.11p [1][2] as compared to classical 802.11. On the dissemination of warning and control information allows a vehicles to obtain disseminate information about accidents, congestion and road surface conditions coming from other vehicles. This type of application relay on broadcast algorithm.
Mostrar mais

3 Ler mais

A BROADCAST BASED ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR INTER-CLUSTER DATA DISSEMINATION IN VEHICULAR COMMUNICATION

A BROADCAST BASED ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR INTER-CLUSTER DATA DISSEMINATION IN VEHICULAR COMMUNICATION

Vehicular communication is one of the fast growing and promising technologies for a safe and comfortable driving environment. These technologies do not end up with economic and safety ramifications, but also extended with other informational and entertainment oriented services. Data are being propagated multi-hop between source and destination vehicles for many real-life applications. Clustering is one of the effective and scalable solutions for data dissemination in wireless ad hoc networks. Though many cluster-based methods have been proposed for multi-hop data delivery in vehicular ad hoc networks, most of them do not consider the real-time changes in the network topology or imposes large penalties in routing such as unstable clusters, broken links, updating route tables. In order to address these issues, we propose a broadcast based routing protocol for inter-cluster data dissemination in this study that works on real-time vehicle information. Unlike, most existing routing algorithms, it only uses hello messages to obtain routing information without many other control messages. In addition, it alleviates the storage of routing information in every node, which largely reduces the overheads in routing. We performed extensive simulation to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed routing protocol. Results show that the proposed protocol outperforms other approaches in terms of average delay, average delivery ratio and average number of hops.
Mostrar mais

8 Ler mais

A Comparative Study of IEEE 802.11 Standards for Non-Safety Applications on Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks: A Congestion Control Perspective

A Comparative Study of IEEE 802.11 Standards for Non-Safety Applications on Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks: A Congestion Control Perspective

Abstract — Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) is an important component within the intelligent transportation systems (ITS) that have been part of global strategy and advanced applications. The aim is to provide innovative services relating to various modes of transportation and traffic management. These systems enable users to reach their destinations better, safer and more coordinated. In order to make the system workable, several radio access technologies (RAT) such as UMTS, WiFi, WiMAX and radio spectrum at 5.9 GHz have been proposed for next generation ITS. In this survey, we investigate the IEEE wireless standards for non-safety applications in a distributed VANET. Furthermore, Inter vehicle communication requires the use of wireless standard which support high data rate along with better communication range in sparse as well as in dense situation. The paper provides study of different wireless standards supported by VANET and compare their parameters (range, data rate, and frequency band). Finally, the survey recommends the best suitable wireless standards for non-safety applications both real time and simulation time environment.
Mostrar mais

5 Ler mais

SECURITY IN VEHICULAR AD HOC NETWORK BASED ON INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM

SECURITY IN VEHICULAR AD HOC NETWORK BASED ON INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM

In the current technology, the industry and academic research community focus on vehicular networking which has gained a lot of popularity. This concept may be used to provide safety to the transportations systems in an efficient way. Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) was created in October 2002 by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). The aim of its creation was to improve safety on the roads and transportations. The VANET belongs to the customized version of IEEE 802.11, namely IEEE 802.11p. Vehicular ad hoc network is a special form of MANET which is a vehicle to vehicle and vehicle roadside wireless communication network. It is also called as a subclass of MANET. In a typical VANET environment, we assume that each vehicle consists of an On-Board Unit (OBU) and a Road-Side Unit (RSU) installed along the roads. A protocol is used to communicate between OBUs and RSUs, called Dedicated Short Range
Mostrar mais

10 Ler mais

Achieving fault-tolerant consensus in ad hoc networks

Achieving fault-tolerant consensus in ad hoc networks

Turquois is a byzantine fault-tolerant binary k-consensus algorithm for wireless ad hoc networks. It takes advantage of the processing and memory limitations of the mobile devices in a MANET and it only uses the wireless broadcasting medium as the com- munication channel. It also avoids using expensive asymmetric cryptography during the normal execution of the algorithm. It circumvents the FLP [8] and the Santoro-Widmayer [22] impossibility results by applying randomization. The algorithm works in two tasks that execute concurrently. The first task periodically broadcasts the internal state of the process. The second task handles the received messages. Progress is ensured in rounds of three phases. Once a process collects a quorum of n+2 2 valid messages in its phase it makes progress to the next phase (more details are provided in the next chapter).
Mostrar mais

91 Ler mais

Paper Survey of Different Energy Efficient Schemes in Wireless Ad hoc Network

Paper Survey of Different Energy Efficient Schemes in Wireless Ad hoc Network

In a cellular network, a reduction in the number of active mobile nodes will reduce the amount of signal interference and channel contentions. However, the mobile nodes in Wireless Ad hoc Network need to relay their packets through the other mobile nodes toward the intended destinations, a decrease in the number of participating mobile nodes may lead to the network disconnected, thereby hurting the performance of the network. To prolong the lifetime of each mobile node in the network [8] as well the entire network itself, an ad hoc routing should take into account both the energy consumption at each mobile node and the total energy consumption for each connection request carefully. The effect of using it for a longer period is that the energy of the nodes along the chosen path may be quickly exhausted. If the node’s energy is quickly exhausted that may result in the network being partitioned affecting the information delivery even though there might still be enough energy to some of the nodes. Therefore, energy should always be considered during energy-awareness routing that confirm the guaranty of nodes with low energy in the network stay alive. The energy consumption parameters [8] are drain the network energy is as follows:
Mostrar mais

7 Ler mais

Data Dissemination in Mobile Computing Environment

Data Dissemination in Mobile Computing Environment

Flat Broadcast The simplest scheme for data scheduling is flat broadcast. With a flat broadcast program, all data items are broadcast in a round robin manner. The access time for every data item is the same, i.e., half of the broadcast cycle. This scheme is simple, but its performance is poor in terms of average access time when data access probabilities are skewed. Broadcast Disks Hierarchical dissemination architecture, called Broadcast Disk (Bdisk), was introduced in [1]. Data items are assigned to different logical disks so that data items in the same range of access probabilities are grouped on the same disk. Data items are then selected from the disks for broadcast according to the relative broadcast frequencies assigned to the disks. This is achieved by further dividing each disk into smaller, equal size units called chunks, broadcasting a chunk from each disk each time, and cycling through all the chunks sequentially over all the disks. A minor cycle is defined as a sub cycle consisting of one chunk from each disk. Consequently, data items in a minor cycle are repeated only once. The number of minor cycles in a broadcast cycle equals the Least Common Multiple (LCM) of the relative broadcast frequencies of the disks. Conceptually, the disks can be conceived as real physical disks spinning at different speeds, with the faster disks placing more instances of their data items on the broadcast channel.
Mostrar mais

4 Ler mais

A Survey: variants of TCP in Ad-hoc networks

A Survey: variants of TCP in Ad-hoc networks

MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc network) forms a temporary network of wireless mobile nodes without any infrastructure where all nodes are allowed to move freely, configure themselves and interconnect with its neighbors to perform peer to peer communication and transmission. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) offers reliable, oriented connection and mechanism of end to end delivery. This article provides the review and comparison of existing variants of TCP for instance: The TCP Tahoe, The TCP Reno, The TCP New Reno, The Lite, The Sack, The TCP Vegas, Westwood and The TCP Fack. TCP’s performance depends on the type of its variants due to missing of congestion control or improper activation procedures such as Slow Start, Fast Retransmission, and Congestion Avoidance, Retransmission, Fast Recovery, Selective Acknowledgement mechanism and Congestion Control. This analysis is essential to be aware about a better TCP implementation for a specific scenario and then nominated a suitable one.
Mostrar mais

8 Ler mais

Data Fusion Using Different Activation Functions in Artificial Neural Networks for Vehicular Navigation

Data Fusion Using Different Activation Functions in Artificial Neural Networks for Vehicular Navigation

The input layer is the set of source nodes (sensory units).The second layer is a hidden layer of high dimension. In the hidden layer Euclidean distance (represented as ||…||) is calculated and most commonly used Gaussian radial basis function is applied. The output layer gives the response of the network to the activation patterns applied to the input layer. The parameters w1, w2, w3, w4, w5 are weights and w0 is bias in the output layer. Linear activation function is used in the output layer. RBF include the following advantages: They are universal approximators. They have more compact topology than other neural networks. Their learning speed is high because of their locally tuned neurons. The hidden layer is easier to interpret than the hidden layer in a Multilayer perceptron (MLP).The transformation from the input space to the hidden-unit space is nonlinear. On the other hand, the transformation from the hidden space to the output space is linear.
Mostrar mais

15 Ler mais

EFFECTIVE APPROACH FOR REDUCING THE FLOODING IN ROUTING MECHANISM FOR MULTIHOP MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

EFFECTIVE APPROACH FOR REDUCING THE FLOODING IN ROUTING MECHANISM FOR MULTIHOP MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

In the counter-based mechanism, a counter variable is maintained to calculate and store the number of received messages. The node will rebroadcast the message while the value of the counter is less than a predefined threshold within a period of Random Assessment Delay (RAD) time. However, this scheme is not suitable for the applications that have a very high speed movement like Vehicular Ad hoc Networks VANETs. Recently, the merits of the probabilistic model and counter approach has been proposed, which solves the BSP in MANETs based on realistic mobility model and Performance evaluation of an efficient counter-based scheme for mobile ad hoc networks based on realistic mobility model [17]. In the distance-based scheme, the distance between two hosts is always calculated and compared with a threshold. If the distance is very small, i.e. less than a threshold, the broadcast message will not be rebroadcasted. This is due to the fact that the additional coverage will be very small. In case, if the distance exceeds certain threshold, the packet is rebroadcasted because the additional coverage will be significant. In contrast, in the locations-based scheme, a host receives a broadcast message for the first time. The additional coverage provided by the host will be initialized and compared with a predefined coverage threshold for deciding the broadcast operation. However, this scheme requires additional hardware, say, GPS (Global Positions System) to find the location of the hosts. In addition, the power consumption along the cost for using GPS are considered a critical issue in wireless network [13] and [17].
Mostrar mais

11 Ler mais

Realtime multiprocessor for mobile ad hoc networks

Realtime multiprocessor for mobile ad hoc networks

RAPTOR2000 rapid prototyping system, the test environ- ment can be reused as described in section 2.4.1. The hier- archical design of the ASIC shortens development time, be- cause parts as the processing elements and the switch boxes have to be designed only once an then can be multiply instan- tiated. This is also an advantage of our SoCs as wire-length can be calculated better in advance and more aggressive sig- naling strategies can be used. In the fabricated multiproces- sor (see Fig. 6) four processing enginges are connected to one switch box. Two of these processor clusters form the eight-core MPSoC. This architecture results from a design space exploration and simulation of different architectures as described in Sect. 1 and achieves a high ressource effi- ciency which is important for low power applications as mo- bile ad hoc networks. The proposed system has been manu- factured in 180 nm UMC standard-cell-technology and oc- cupies an area of 25 mm 2 using six metal layers. It em- beds 2.1 MBit memory and consists of 1.6 million transistors. At a clock frequency of 100 MHz, the average power con- sumption is 772 mW. At this speed, a communication band- width of up to 2.1 Gbps is achieved for each link of the NoC. 4.2 Gbps throughput per switch box are achieved in total with all six links active which is a disadvantage of memory shared switching. The off-chip communication bandwidth via two physical ports is 500 MBit/s. A daughterboard for RAPTOR2000 has been developed, comprising the MPSoC, 4 MB external memory, and a Spartan XC3S1500 FPGA, in- tegrating an interface to the RAPTOR2000 motherboard (see Fig. 7). The user can easily interact with the MPSoC, using the PCI bus interface of RAPTOR2000.
Mostrar mais

5 Ler mais

Fuzzy-controlled Rebroadcasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Fuzzy-controlled Rebroadcasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Figure 1 demonstrates the effects of saved rebroadcast (SRB) with respect to the total number of nodes in the network. It shows that, for all rebroadcast schemes except flooding, SRB increases as number of nodes increase and Fuzzy-controlled Rebroadcasting saves maximum rebroadcasts throughout the simulation period and the improvement is very significant. Reasons behind the efficiency of our proposed scheme is that it considers both the global characteristics of the network (like network density, radio-quotient and hop-count quotient) as well as local topological information (i.e. rebroadcast responsibility) around the node which is about to take rebroadcast decision. Figure 2 illustrates the degree of reachability (BSR) achieved by the schemes compared here. The results show that reachability improves as the number of nodes in the network increase. Flooding has the best performance in terms of reachability. ECS-formula and Fuzzy-controlled Rebroadcasting perform almost similarly as far as reachability is concerned. Both of them have low reachability than flooding in sparse network. On the other hand, in dense networks, all of them mentioned broadcast schemes are approximately equivalent.
Mostrar mais

5 Ler mais

Routing Based Data Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Network Using Group Key Management

Routing Based Data Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Network Using Group Key Management

The proposed Group Key Management is efficiently designed for a routing based data security process to provide a secure data communication in MANET. The proposed RBDS using GKM is implemented in NS-2 simulator. The simulations are carried to assess the performance of the proposed RBDS using GKM with dissimilar applications for a secure data communications in MANET. The radio model is based on the viable hardware with a wireless transmission range of 270 meters and channel capacity of 3Mbps. Each simulation runs for 270 seconds and the results are compared with an existing Integrated Security and QoS Routing and Data Communication Framework (ISQRDC) which is designed only for an authentication purpose. The proposed RBDS using GKM infrastructure framework is designed in (Fig. 2). The proposed RBDS for a secure data communication carried three types of operations {route discovery, GKM, RBDS using GKM…..}. Operations can be assigned to different services of nodes in the infrastructure framework. The performance of the proposed RBDS using GKM is evaluated by the following metrics routing overhead, throughput, security group.
Mostrar mais

7 Ler mais

LINK STABILITY WITH ENERGY AWARE AD HOC ON DEMAND MULTIPATH ROUTING PROTOCOL IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

LINK STABILITY WITH ENERGY AWARE AD HOC ON DEMAND MULTIPATH ROUTING PROTOCOL IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

Like the RREQ, a RREP is only processed on first sighting and is discarded unless it has a greater destination sequence number than the previous RREP or the same destination sequence number but a smaller hop-count. The route expiration time is the time after which the route is considered to have expired and a new route discovery process must be undertaken. Source node sends packets via the first path it hears about. If it receives a later RREP which has either fresher information or a shorter hop-count, it swaps to that, discarding the original route information. When an active route link breaks, a Route Error (RERR) packet, with sequence number incremented from the corresponding RREP and hop-count of 1, is sent by the upstream node of the broken link to source node. Upon receipt of a RERR, source node initiates a new route discovery process if it still has packets to send to destination.
Mostrar mais

5 Ler mais

Strategies for Service Discovery over Ad Hoc Networks

Strategies for Service Discovery over Ad Hoc Networks

DSR protocol is the best. With the uniform mem- oryless strategy, if the sizes of posting and querying sets are relatively low, the NTM is low and, in each round, almost remains constant. It uses a relatively low amount of network bandwidth. For an ad hoc network which can only spare a dedicated bandwidth for service discovery, this strategy combined with the DSR protocol or DSDV protocol is the most appropri- ate. The with memory strategy aims to improve the SR. It can achieve a high SR with a low NTM and a long AWT. In contrast with the uniform memory- less strategy, the SR of the with memory strategy is higher. But the tradeoff is that each node is required to build a cache of about 0.2 KB to store the IDs of previously visited nodes. When requiring a high SR and a low NTM and can bear with more memory us- age, regardless of the AWT, the with memory strategy combined with the DSR protocol is the most suitable.
Mostrar mais

13 Ler mais

  Intrusion Detection in Computer Networks using a Fuzzy-Heuristic Data Mining Technique

Intrusion Detection in Computer Networks using a Fuzzy-Heuristic Data Mining Technique

In this article the use of Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm for creating a consistent intrusion detection system is presented. The ability of fuzzy systems to solve different types of problems has been demonstrated in several previous studies. Simulated Annealing based Fuzzy Intrusion Detection System (SAF-IDS) crosses the estimated cognitive method of fuzzy systems with the learning capability of SA. The objective of this paper is to prove the ability of SAF-IDS to deal with intrusion detection classification problem as a new real-world application area which is not previously undertook with SA-based fuzzy system. Here, the use of SA is an effort to efficiently explore and exploit the large examines space usually related with the intrusion detection problem, and finds the optimum set of fuzzy if-then rules. The proposed SAF-IDS would be capable of extracting precise fuzzy classification rules from network traffic data and relates them to detect normal and invasive actions in computer networks. Tests were performed with KDD-Cup99 intrusion detection benchmark which is widely used to calculate intrusion detection algorithms. Results indicate that SAF-IDS provides more accurate intrusion detection system than several well-known and new classification algorithms.
Mostrar mais

14 Ler mais

J. Braz. Comp. Soc.  vol.8 número1

J. Braz. Comp. Soc. vol.8 número1

Query User Interface Data visualizer visualization query result scan data message:result Query processor (mediator) metadata processor metadata processor metadata processor ad-hoc query [r]

11 Ler mais

A Technique to improve Security of Data in Multilevel Trust

A Technique to improve Security of Data in Multilevel Trust

A network is developed to protect the privacy of person specific data. This proposed network system is useful in the medical field. The patient records are kept confidential and can be used in research studies by analyzing the patients’ habits of life, epoch and obesity condition to predict their lifetime and to observe the characteristics of several diseases. The patients’ diseases are kept secret because they don’t like to expose it. Therefore the disease attributes of patients is distorted by the addition of noise. In the existing system, there is a possibility that the confidential data can be intruded by the authorized party by making diversity attacks with the help of non-linear techniques. To address this issue, the proposed network system is trained with nonlinear techniques using Sequential Generation Algorithm. Therefore, the attackers are not unable to trace the original secret data with diversity attacks.
Mostrar mais

4 Ler mais

Using Real-World Car Traffic Dataset in Vehicular Ad Hoc Network Performance Evaluation

Using Real-World Car Traffic Dataset in Vehicular Ad Hoc Network Performance Evaluation

the speed profile obtained through SUMO simulation tends to be very smooth when compared to the original MOCoPo data. When considering the different approximations of this latter, namely the Fixed speed 0.5, 1, 3, 5 and 10, the curves show that they tend to get closer to SUMO curves as they are less precise in comparison with the original MOCoPo. This means that the simulated trajectory obtained through SUMO using the parameters that reproduce a specific traffic condition may result in a faithful trajectory in terms of positions while not offering any guarantee on the speed profile of the vehicles. Consequently, though simulated trajectories from SUMO could be useful for global simulation requiring realistic vehicle trajectories on the roads, the specific studies that investigate the performance in realistic traffic conditions, especially when the speed profile is important, should better rely on real-world traces such as car traffic dataset. Even when considering only few points of the original trajectory, in order to reduce the amount of data necessary to reproduce the trajectory in the simulation, one can observe that the resulting approximative curves (Fixed speed 0.5, 1, 3, 5 and 10) remain closer to the original traces when compared to SUMO trajectory. This is particularly clear when considering group 2 and group 3 which are the most concerned with speed variations due to congestion in their traffic.
Mostrar mais

9 Ler mais

Show all 10000 documents...