masculine faces and voices across repeated exposures to these traits. The finding that this pattern was not evident for the two other categories of aggressive primes or for the negative affect pathogen primes indicates that imagesofmale-on-female aggres- sion were especially salient to our participants. The overall pattern is consistent with the view that any masculinity preference that women might have is moderated by the cost-benefit tradeoffs signaled bymasculinetraits and the processing of these tradeoffs occurs implicitly, without conscious decision making. These tradeoffs might reflect ambiguity regarding whether an associated tendency toward behavioral aggression during conflicts could be directed toward them (male-on-femaleaggression) or toward other males (male-on-maleaggression) [10–12]. It is also possible that our primes elicited implicit concerns about sexual coercion [16,17], independent of women’s mate choice tradeoffs. In any case, women reported feelings of anger and disgust after viewing male-on-femaleaggression and these emotional responses may be the implicit mechanism that disrupts their masculinity preference, at least for faces. The finding that these emotions were not related to their decreased preference for masculinized voices may have been due to the modality of the primes. If so, verbal male-on- femaleaggression may elicit these same emotions and disrupt a preference for masculinized voices.
Recent research shows that women also assess aspects ofmale quality from men’s dance movements. Darwin (1871) suggested that human dance might be a sexually selected display and there is corroborating evidence for the hypothesis that human dance may communicate health, strength, and thus sexual attractiveness (Hanna, 2010). For example, Hugill et al. (2009) showed that women perceive dances of men who are physically strong as attractive and assertive, thus concluding that physical strength is not only conveyed via static representations ofmale morphology but also via their dance movements. To identify the biomechanical characteristics of “good” male dancers, Neave et al. (2011) had women rate dance quality of virtual characters (avatars) with applied motion-captured dance movements of British men. “Good” dancers were characterized by large and variable movements in relation to bending and twisting movements of their head/neck and torso and these movements were perceived to signal physical strength (McCarty, Hönekopp, Neave, Caplan, and Fink, 2013). Like in many animal species, sexually dimorphic traits in humans (such as strength) may have evolved in response to intra-sexual conflicts, but also in the course of inter-sexual selection (Puts, 2010). Women prefer masculinemale features (but see Rhodes, 2006), especially in times of high fertility (see above), and although preliminary evidence exists that this preference extends to dynamic behavioral displays, no study has investigated women’s attractiveness preferences for male dance masculinity across the ovulatory cycle. We predicted that in times of higher fertility, women would judge high-masculinemale dancers higher on attractiveness than in times of lower fertility, but no such effect was expected for low-masculinemale dancers.
Previous research has shown that lay people can accurately assess male sexual orientation based on limited information, such as face, voice, or behavioral display. Gender-atypical traits are thought to serve as cues to sexual orientation. We investigated the presumed mechanisms of sexual orientation attribution using a standardized set of facial and vocal stimuli of Czech men. Both types of stimuli were rated for sexual orientation and masculinity-femininity by non-student heterosexual women and homosexual men. Our data showed that by evaluating vocal stimuli both women and homosexual men can judge sexual orientation of the target men in agreement with their self-reported sexual orientation. Nevertheless, only homosexual men accurately attributed sexual orientation of the two groups from facial images. Interestingly, facial imagesof homosexual targets were rated as more masculine than heterosexual targets. This indicates that attributions of sexual orientation are affected by stereotyped association between femininity and male homosexuality; however, reliance on such cues can lead to frequent misjudgments as was the case with the female raters. Although our study is based on a community sample recruited in a non-English speaking country, the results are generally consistent with the previous research and thus corroborate the validity of sexual orientation attributions.
Trnka (2013) also provided several interesting evolutionary hypotheses for why this difference might exist. Three of his hypotheses make use of Harris’s (1994) finding that women are more likely to approve ofaggressionbywomen against men than against other women. While I am not dismissing these hypotheses, I would like to comment that this finding related to a scenario involving potential romantic partners (on a date). Outside of that context, men were more approving ofaggression against other (unknown) men. I am thus not convinced by Trnka’s arguments that women might be more likely to make angry displays against men either because they think men will be more resilient to such displays (Hypothesis 4) or because they might face greater social sanctions for aggressing against other women (Hypothesis 1). Instead, a specific elevation ofaggressionbywomen towards male romantic partners can be accounted for by parental investment theory, since the man’s investment in his partner’s reproductive effort should make it maladaptive for him to respond to her anger with overwhelming levels of physical aggression. This idea is not incompatible with a modified version of Trnk a’s third hypothesis—which noted that women feel intense stress in response to male anger displays —since an angry display by a male romantic partner might serve as a signal that he did not, in fact, have a sense of shared parental investment with her.
Spotted, long oligonucleotide microarrays representing ,19,000 genes, duplicates and controls (17,752 non-redundant genes and ESTs) were used to interrogate mRNA abundance (GEO platform accession GPL6761; GEO Samples GSM283874 through GSM283896). The oligonucleotide library was designed by Compugen and manufactured by Sigma-Genosys. Liver samples were taken from cryogenic storage and fragmented in liquid nitrogen. Total RNA was purified by Qiagen RNeasy Mini kit. Briefly, several small pieces totaling 200 mg taken from different locations from an individual liver were homogenized in Qiagen guanidine isothiocyanate lysis buffer, and then subsequent steps were performed according to the Qiagen protocol. All pools of RNA were made by combining equal amounts of each individual RNA sample subsequent to purification and quantifi- cation of RNA samples from the individual livers. Microarray design and preparation, sample labeling, and microarray hybrid- ization and scanning services were performed by the Harvard Partners Center for Genetics and Genomics (now Partners Center for Personalized Genetic Medicine). Stratagene Universal Mouse Reference RNA was chosen as a control for two-color hybridiza- tion . Fluorescent labels were incorporated directly during cDNA synthesis using the ChipShot direct labeling and cleanup system according to the manufacturer’s instructions (Promega, Madison, WI). Total liver RNA was labeled with Cy3 and control RNA was labeled with Cy5. Following dye incorporation and sample cleanup, sample cDNA and control cDNA were mixed
The painted goby Pomatoschistus pictus is a small marine benthic fish species that inhabits coastal sandy, rocky or gravel substrates. Breeding occurs from January to May, when nesting males court nearby females by performing displays with both visual and vocal components. After spawning females abandon the nest while the males take care of the brood. Males with a higher lipid content appear to invest more in acoustic (drum signals) rather than in visual courtship, suggesting that drumming activity is a good indicator ofmale fat reserves. Thus, males with higher acoustic activity could be signalling better male quality and likely better parental care abilities, as the latter is typically condition-dependent. Here we tested the effect of different calling rates onfemale mate choice with playback experiments to assess if the males with highest acoustic signalling rates are the most successful in mating. During trials females could choose between matched size males associated with either high or low calling rate. Females consistently showed preference for males associated to high drum playback rates, provided they had access to the males. However, if females did not have visual contact with males, no preference was shown. The females preference appeared to be solely determined by the calling rate since the total visual courtship and male condition (K factor) were similar between males associated with high and low calling rates. Taken together these results suggest that females select males based on higher acoustic courtship intensity because this may be an indicator of parental quality.
hours. The percentage of calling males gradu- ally decreased to 86% after four hours, and to nearly 10% at six hours. Males were not seen calling after seven hours (Fig. 3). The mean percentage of mated flies observed feeding, was slightly higher than that observed for vir- gin flies. Feeding occurred mainly during the period between four and eight hours of light conditions. Mated female flies were not ob- served ovipositing during the dawn period. Females which landed on an artificial fruit at that time of the day, often fed on it. Oviposi- tion started immediately after the beginning of full light conditions, occurred throughout the day, and was observed even in the dusk period. The highest oviposition percentage (28.7%) was observed five hours into the light period. A female remained ovipositing or probing fruits with the proboscis for several minutes, and repelled any intruder using the proboscis and wings. On the following day, a female which had previously been observed defending a territory on a particular fruit, was often found displaying similar behavior on another fruit.
A questionnaire that focuses on sexual prac- tices can measure to what extent sexual experi- ence changes over life. The process of learning sexuality is reflected as practices are added to the initial repertoire. Thus, reference to oral sex becomes more frequent as time since sexual initiation increases: the rates for recently initi- ated youth (males and females) are lower than those reported by individuals with at least six years of sexual activity (Table 3). Likewise, the number of sex partners and stable relationships are important elements in individual socializa- tion concerning sexuality. Both are sources of diversification for experiences, attesting to the gradual acquisition of experience in this area. The percentage of responses claiming “unaware- ness” of oral sex decreases with the increase in the number of partners and longer relationships. Young people’s sexual trajectories are thus dif- ferentiated according to situations and events such as earlier or later sexual debut, steady as opposed to multiple sex partners, and relation- ships with greater or lesser intimacy and types of caresses. Our results thus agree with those of renowned authors on sexual behavior: the spread of oral sex illustrates how sexuality is conditioned by the prevailing mindset in a giv- en social context and historical time 6,7,8 . Table 1
In light of these considerations, we also em- phasize the need for providing women who decide to report their aggression with all the protection and assistance as provided by law. This requires that public management restructure the services of its care network, so as to guarantee that she can have access to and be cared for by qualiied pro- fessionals in the different healthcare, education, social and legal assistance services, sensitive to the issue of gender violence. They must be capable of implementing the necessary actions for attending to the women’s needs, as well as inciting her to exercise her citizenship. This means avoiding pre- scriptive attitudes as well as those that reproduce the “naturalization” of violence.
In this sense, a careful look at women’s sexual health (sin- gle or married) is essential, especially those living in informal urban settlements (poor urban settlements) under precarious conditions. he study group has social characteristics that greatly resemble the proile of areas afected by the AIDS epidemic in Brazil. he interest in developing this study did not only arise because of the described scenario, but also as a relection of the nurse’s role as an agent responsible for health promotion and disease prevention in the ield of sexuality.
Another way to verify female participation in scientific production is the question of the authors' contribution to the paper. It should be noted that such studies are more difficult to perform, since the journal or journal itself would have to require this type of disclosure by the authors. Macaluso, Larivière, Sugimoto and Sugimoto (2016) carried out a study of this type. The research was only possible because the consulted database, the Public Library of Science (PLOS), requires each author to indicate their contribution to the work to be published, and this contribution refers to at least one of the following tasks: (1) (2) designed and designed the experiments, (3) contributed reagents / materials / analysis tools, (4) performed the experiments and (5) wrote the paper. After analyzing 85,000 articles published between 2008 and 2013 in PLOS journals, from the descriptive and regression analyzes, the authors were able to identify how the female contribution occurred in the production of these articles. The authors observed that women were significantly more likely to be associated with experiencing, and men were more likely to be associated with all other authoring roles. Finally, the researchers point out that the requirement of the authors' contribution to research is an act of transparency, allowing an equitable allocation of funding for research, as well as the recognition of researchers, since some researchers, especially young people and women , they develop the most significant part of the work, but do not obtain greater recognition, financing or responsibility.
An important observation about a conceptual metaphor (CM) relates to its constitution. It is comprised of two levels: a conceptual level and a linguistic one. While the latter refers to either the lexical or phrasal choices the speaker or writer has made to convey a particular message, the former alludes to the overall conceptual structure and mental representations which underpin the linguistic level that shapes and frames the lexical or phrasal choices made by the speaker or writer. For instance, if a speaker or writer uses linguistic expressions such as investing, commitment, compromises, deals, wasting, profits etc. when talking about love, we could say that the conceptual structure or mental schema underpinning those linguistic expressions is one based on viewing or conceptualising love in terms of enterprise or business. The conceptual level is translated into the linguistic level in terms of viewing the lovers as though they were the two parties or companies involved in the business, their profits as achievements during the course of their relationship, investing as putting effort and time in making the business successful. In this way, when unpacking metaphors in language or discourse, one should bear in mind what lies behind the linguistic level and pay attention to the conceptual system that provides an account of how, for instance, a language user views or conceptualizes a particular phenomenon.
50·mg·l –1 MS-222 was pumped over the gills via a silicon tube placed in the mouth. The ring of cartilage surrounding the single nostril on the right side was cut away. The olfactory rosette was then continually irrigated with dechlorinated, charcoal-filtered tapwater via a gravity-fed system (6·ml·min –1 ) that terminated in a small glass tube that was held close to the olfactory rosette. The DC voltage was recorded by glass micropipette electrodes filled with 0.9% NaCl in 4% agar, the recording electrode being placed close to the olfactory epithelium near to the raphe between two adjacent lamellae. The reference electrode was placed lightly on the skin near the nostril and connected to earth via the headstage of the amplifier. Odorant-containing water was introduced into this flow via a three-way valve for a period of 10·s. The resultant EOG was recorded on a personal computer running appropriate software (Axoscope 1.1; Axon Instruments, Inc., Foster City, CA, USA). The peak amplitude of the EOG was measured, blank-subtracted and normalized (using the response to the ‘standard’ 10 –5 ·mol·l –1 L -serine) as previously described (Frade et al., 2002). Normalization reduces the variation due to differences in the absolute amplitude of the EOG recorded. This variation may be due to differences in electrode position or conductivity of the water as well as differences in the olfactory sensitivity of individual fish. However, the overall pattern of responses was very similar among different fish. Blanks and standards were run at regular intervals throughout the recording period.
that of designing white-Afrikaans speakers in South Africa, especially after 1875 and during the mid- twentieth century. It should be noted, though, that the term is rife with different usages, being first employed in 1707 and eventually coming to designate Europeans who spoke Dutch or Afrikaans. ‘Afrikaans’ is a creolised version of Dutch. See Herman Giliomee, The Afrikaners: Biography of a People (London: C. Hurst & Co, 2011). One of its first uses was by Estienne Barbier, a political insubordinate towards the Dutch East India Company (VOC, Vereenigde Oost-Indisch Compagnie), displeased by the contracts between the company and the Khoikhoi. See Nigel Penn, ‘Estienne Barbier: An Eighteenth- Century Cape Social Bandit’, in Rogues, Rebels and Runaways: Eighteenth-Century Cape Characters (Cape Town: David Philip Publishers, 1999), pp. 101-129 (p. 101). Barbier’s life would also be fictionalized by the hands of André Brink in On the Contrary: Being the Life of a Famous Rebel, Soldier, Traveller, Explorer, Reader, Builder, Scribe, Latinist, Lover and Liar (London: Martin Secker & Warburg Limited, 1993).
presenting the variables that were significantly asso- ciated with each one of the dependent variables, the prevalence ratios and their respective 95% confi- dence intervals (95%CI). Model 1: female students who had been subjected to any type of violence (yes/no); Model 2: female students who had been subjected to sexual violence (yes/no); Model 3: male students who had perpetrated any type of violence (yes/no); Model 4: male students who had perpe- trated gender violence (yes/no); and Model 5: male students who had perpetrated sexual violence against women (yes/no). The following independent vari- ables were considered: age (in years), marital status (single/stable union), color (white/non-white), source of income (employed/other; student grant only), family income (≤5 minimum salaries/ >5 minimum salaries), religion (some/ none), impor- tance given to religion (very important/ other impor- tance or no religion), field of study (exact sciences/ humanities or biological sciences); level (undergra- duate/ postgraduate), residence (university dorms or mixed-sex student accommodation/ with family/other), score for attitude towards gender (<14; 14), score for attitude towards ethics (≥48; <48).
The occurrence of ribosomal DNA in sex chromosomes has been observed in several groups of organisms. Cistrons of 5.8 S, 18S and 28S ribosomal genes, which form the NORs in animals and are also stained with silver nitrate, were found in sex chromosomes of insects, such as Drosophila (Parise- Maltempi & Avancini, 2001), beetles (Juan et al., 1993), mammals (Yonenaga-Yassuda et al., 1983; Oshida et al., 1999), and plants (Nakayama et al., 2001). In fish, reports of NORs in sex chromosomes are restricted to Fundulus diaphanus (Howell & Black, 1979), Salvelinus alpinus (Reed & Phillips, 1995), Triportheus guentheri (Artoni & Bertollo 1999), Hoplias malabaricus (Born & Bertollo, 2000) and Hisonotus sp. A (Andreata, 2002).
The role each adolescent plays in society, while explor- ing their sexuality, can represent a health risk. In order to play the role of being a man or a woman, adolescents must practice safe sex regarding STD/Aids and life risks. Young men set themselves in dangerous situations and frequently turn to violence against their partners due to their desire for power and control; on the other hand, girls frequently risk their own health, as in sexual intercourse when the partner refuses to use a condom.
In Florida, nurse shark mating aggregations seem to occur during the summer, from June to July (Castro, 2000). In FEN, however, nurse shark mating activity spanned from late April to mid-August, i.e. during the austral winter and for a longer period of time. Little seasonal variability in most environmental features (e.g. seawater temperature and salinity) in this oceanic equatorial region could partially explain such a contrast. Conspicuous nurse shark aggregations in shallow waters off FEN have never been reported despite a continuous use of the area by tourists, researchers and residents. It is thus not possible to ascertain whether the observed seasonality prevailed during previous years neither the periodicity of the mating season. Female nurse sharks seem to breed every other year off Florida (Pratt & Carrier, 2005) hence they might also exhibit a biennial mating cycle off FEN. Notwithstanding, assuming a gestation period of 5-6 months for this species (Carrier et al., 2003; Castro, 2000), parturition would expectedly occur between September and February, i.e. through a longer period of time compared to Florida, where 27-30 cm TL offspring are born mainly during November and early December (Castro, 2000). However, Garla et al. (2009) reported neonates visually-estimated at 30 cm TL to occur off FEN considerably earlier, mostly from July to September, which chronologically matches the observation of a 30-cm individual at the nearby Atol das Rocas in August (Castro & Rosa, 2005). The fact that the presence of yolk sac scars was not assessed, though, together with pigmentation distinctive of newborns persisting until ~55 cm TL (Castro, 2000), both bring uncertainty to the actual free-swimming age of these individuals. Regardless, the currently available information suggests the nurse shark mating season in FEN to be protracted in time compared to tropical latitudes.
The sequential nature of the treatments to which the birds were exposed prevent us from fully excluding any date effect that could have been confounded with daylength. Several birds in the last treatment (9 L:15 D) could, for example, have been photorefrac- tory at the time of testing, or some females might have been stressed by the succession of photoperiods they experienced, which in turn would have influenced their behaviours. However, we assess any such effect to be small. First, keeping female songbirds under short photoperiods, whatever their photoperiodic state (photosensitive or photorefractory), results in low oestrogen levels [67,68], which are suspected to play a significant role in the transduction of the photoperiodic effects oberved on the behaviour of the females (see above). In particular, low estradiol levels are expected to result in a diminution of the cognitive abilities, and by extension, to lead to a lower choice discrimination [9,55–58], which is what we observe here. Second, among the different traits recorded in this study, only preference strength did vary with treatment and in the predicted direction, while female interest, male and female levels of behavioural activity did not, which suggests that birds were not stressed or in unnatural physiological states, and by extension, that photoperiod per se is an important factor in mate choice. Finally, and as stated earlier, birds in the wild also experience different photoperiods at different dates. Females choosing social and extra-pair mates in nature, also assess them at different periods of the year.