1 2 1 Cumhuriyet Secondary School, Erzurum, Turkey
2 Faculty of Tourism, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya, Turkey
The aim of this research is to compare the state anxiety level of sportsmen who will take part in World Championship Competition.7 greco-roman aged between 17 and 34 who took part in World Championship in a National Wrestling Team, and 7 freestyle totally 14 men and 7 women joined the research. State Trait Anxiety Iventory (STAI) was used in the survey. In its solution and comment, Paried Samples t tests were used in State Anxiety level of sportsmen before and after competition and One Way Anova test were used sportsmen’s state anxiety levels before and after competion in Wrestling National Team according to weight variant. In evoloting datum and finding the calculated volve SPSS (Statistical package for social sciences) was used.
Difference of State Anxiety level of sportsman before and after competition in Wrestling National Team was determined meaningful [p<0.05]. The difference of state anxiety level of woman player before and after competition was determined meaningful [p<0.05]. The difference of state anxiety level of woman player before and after competition was determined meaningless [ p>0.05]. According to weight variant the difference of state anxiety level of sportsmen before and after competition in Wrestling National Team was determined meaningless [ p>0.05].
To sum up whatever sex,weight of sportsmen are, they need certain anxiety level for performance and concentration. The experience and personal charecteristics of sportsmen is important in low or high level of this type of axiety. In addition to tactic exercise in trainer exercise, they should put emphasi s on paining skills and improving skills.
State Anxiety, Sportsmen, Wrestling
Today sport sicience as a part of competition sport concept based on the principle CITIUS, ALTIUS, FORTIUS (faster,higher,stronger) struggles intensely to increase the sport performance. Every passing day the principles of work new speed, strength, endurance, swiftness are being searched different play tactics and more perfect tecnics are being tried and researches are being kept on to convey the sportsmen to the letter results. All these researches show that the magnificience of the physical capasity isn’t enough for a sportman to reach the climax psychological capacity causes unexpectable results especially in competition condition .
Sportsman during competition can be affected by some psychological factors can occur either with characteristic quality of sportsman or with on influence of a stimulant outside. One of the psychological factors which influences performance is anxiety .
Sport is the whole of events which occupy a place in lives and health of people. There is important psychological side in every event where people take part. Psychological side in sport is an important factor on people who aim at competing and living healty. Considering sport as a social activity sportsmen should be dealt with sicientific perspective as psycho-social creatures .
Before competition sportsmen are anxious, feared and excited and they reflect this in physiological intellectual, emotional and social reactions. Before match, most sportmen have a stomache, and may have negative thoughts and may show angry behaviours. In important competition it can be observed easily how stress and anxiety have on effect on sportsmen .
Anxiety is man emotion and emotive case which exists in people, anxiety occurs in threatening conditions .
Sportsmen over 2000 from 106 countries took part in Elders Free Greco-romen and Woman World Wrestling Championship which took place in istanbul between 12-18 september 2011. On behalf of Turkey Wrestling National Team 7 free, 7 greco-romen, 7 women wrestler joined. In the survey, according to personal variant of sportsmen joined the competition the effects on state anxiety level and comparison of state anxiety level before and after competition was intended.
State Anxiety Inventory were applied on test subjects in match morning, immediately after competition State Anxiety Inventory were applied. Relevant to this subject, local and foreign resources were researched by scanning method.
Answer choices for each scale is four each. Weight value of choices changes from one to four. As the scales occured in 20 each expressions total point value gained from each scale can change from 20 to 80. Highness of point indicates the hishness of anxiety. Individual who has a literacy of elementory school can fill in the forms without any special help. Some people may have difficulty in understanding the instruction or some expressions in the scale. In that case, ıf answer isn’t given to more than three, form filled will be invalid end won’t be graded .
Two types of expression are found in scales. We can call these direct, or straight and reversed. Direct expressions depict negative emotions, reversed expressions depict positive emotions while these second type of expressions are being graded. The ones worth 4 change into 1. In direct expressions answers worth 4 indicates that anxiety is high. In reversed expressions answer worth 1 indicates hish-anxiety answers worth 4 indicate low-anxiety. Expression of " I am unhappy " and " I feel calm " can be shown as examples of direct and reversed expressions respectively. In that case, ıf the choice of 4 for the expression of " I am unhappy " and the choice of 1 for the expression of " I feel calm " is marked. These answers will reflect high anxiety.
In State Anxiety Scale, these are ten reversed expressions.these are 1,2,5,8,10,11,15,16,19 and 20. İtems. In Permanent Anxiety Scale, the number of reversed expressions is 7 and these 21,26,27,30,33,36 and 39 items. Two seperate keys are prepared for each of the direct and reversed expressions, so total weights are determined with first key for direct expressions. Total mark of reversed expressions are subtracted from total mark of direct expressions. A value which were determined before and unchangeoble is added to this number. For State Anxiety Scale, this unchangeoble value is so, for Permanent Anxiety Scale, it is 35. Value which is gained last is individual’s anxiety mark .
In datum’s solution and comment, ın State Anxiety level of wrestflers before and after competition, according to sex variant in State Anxiety level before and after competition Paried Samples T test was used, accarding to weight variant, ın State Anxiety level of sports men before and after competion in Wrestling National Team One Way Anova test were used. In datum’s evaluating and finding the calculated values, SPSS program (Statistical package for social sciences) were used.
As seen in Table 2, the difference of state anxiety level of men wrestlers before and after competition was determined meaningful
[ t value= -2,349 p=0,035<0.05]. When we look at the average values, state
anxiety level before competition was determined as 43,2857 + 4,1589.
The difference of state anxiety level of women wrestlers before and after competition was
determined meaningless [ t value = -1,528 p=0,177>0.05].
As seen in Table 3, According to weight variant, the difference of state anxiety level of sportsmen in Wrestling National Team was determined meaningless
[F value = 1,510 p=0,300>0.05].
According to weight variant, the difference of state anxiety level of sportsmen before and after competition in Wrestling National Team was determined meaningful
[ F value = 4,786 p=0,030<0.05].The difference of state anxiety level of sportsmen in Wrestling National Team was determined meaningful [p<0.05]. when we look at average values, values of state anxiety level before competition was determined as 45,3810
+3,7878. The values of state anxiety level after competition was determined as 43,1429
The difference of state anxiety level of men wrestlers before and after competition was determined meaningful [p<0.05]. when we look at average values, values of state anxiety level before competition was determined as 45,6429 + 3,2251. . The values of state anxiety level after competition was determined as 43,2857 + 4,1589.
Before competition sportsmen were observed to have a certain anxiety rate. In the light of these results , there are some reasons why level of anxiety is high ; they have their own responsibility as on individual in the results they will gain in the competition they joined, the wrestling sport is a difficult and individual sport branch, the sportsmen the fate of whisch appears in an only day, prepares themselves with heavy training conditions for whole year. The individuals who wrestle in Turkey have low socio-economic status and they have the desire to suppor their family financially.
This result in which we studied supports the fact that state anxiety before competi tion is in high level in the study Morgan and Hanmer did and level of anxiety is low in mensuration after competition.
The difference of state anxiety level of women wrestlers before and after competition was determined meaningless [ p>0.05]. According to obtained findings in terms of state anxiety Marks, important difference between sexes wasn’t observed.
Özbekçi couldn’t find any differences between competition stress levels as a result of
searching stress of competition environmant of players of athleticism, basketball and volleyball
according to sex (1989).
couldn’t find meaningful difference when compared state anxiety level of 55
women, 224 men total 279 sportsmen who took part in the study called" The Effects of Success of Motivation on State Anxiety Level on Elite Sportsmen " as a result of search according to sex.
A meaningful difference between total permanent anxiety mark and sex wasn’t found as a result of Öğüt’s study called " Comparison of Permanent Anxiety Level in Sport and self-respect.
Yücel couldn’t find meaningful difference between state and permanent anxiety levels according to sex in his study he made on taekwondo sportsmen.
When this results are taken into consideration. It has been thought that great number of studies should be done to understand that there is a meaningful relationship between, anxiety and sex and to express with a certain language.
According to weight variant, the difference of state anxiety level of sportsmen in Wrestling National Team before and after competition was determined meaningful [p<0.05]. Noteworthy and adequate study reloted to this variant wasn’t found. It is thought that more domestic and abroad studies should be done to speak about that stuation.
At this time when the sport is lifestyle sport is not only a thing that is done to improve physical and psychological health but also ıt became important in socio-economic and role-status ways. Sport organizations are so important that some contries see it as all kinds of cold-wars. Sportsmen who are the chief architect of this important event feel themselves under pressure and responsibility. As a result of this, high level of anxiety occurs. Offers below can be improved in the light of findings obtained from researches to reduce the anxiety as we said :
Trainers should practice psychological excercises as well as technic, tactics and condition.
State anxiety of sportsmen should be determined and solution ways should be known by trainers sportsmen should be taught to cope with the state anxiety.
It is thought to be useful that trainers and organizers should have knowledge of state anxiety and they should avoid the speech and behavior which will put the sportsmen into the high anxiety.
Anxiety levels of sportsmen can be reduced to minimum level when we budget more and support the amateur sportsmen financially and remove the anxiety of future of sportsmen.
If we think that success won’t came about without a certain anxiety, organizers and trainers should stabilize level of anxiety which sportsmen have and they should change it into positive anxiety so, it is thought that sportsmen will be motivated much better.
Friendship and sportsmen- trainer relationship is important in both team sports and individual sporta. It is thought that team-mate relationship should be provided much better to reduce the state anxiety level and sportsmen should trust his/her trainer at the corner of sportsmen.
Sportsmen should determine their targets realistic. They shouldn’t remain below and above the expectations. It is thought that will prevent sportsmen from carrying high or low level of anxiety. "Psychology of sport " which become more important nowaday should be cared about by clubs and National Team organizers , we should work with expect about sport psychology and these work should be supported in that field.
It is thought that some of the appropriate trainings causes the reduction in anxiety in real competition. Level of anxiety is thought to be reduced by giving the opportunity to sportsmen to take part in much more competitions.
Level of anxiety is thought to fall to the positive level without forgetting that sport is a compet ion and fraternity underlies and without making gained result the matter of life and death. If we reflect this to the sportsmen.
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