Customização guiada: uma estratégia orientada a modelos para produção de objetos de aprendizagem

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❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞♦ ❈❡❛rá ❈❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ ❚❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛

❉❡♣❛rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❞❡ ❚❡❧❡✐♥❢♦r♠át✐❝❛

Pr♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ Pós✲❣r❛❞✉❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❞❡ ❚❡❧❡✐♥❢♦r♠át✐❝❛

▼❆❘■❆ ❉❊ ❋➪❚■▼❆ ❈❖❙❚❆ ❉❊ ❙❖❯❩❆

❈✉st♦♠✐③❛çã♦ ●✉✐❛❞❛✿

❯♠❛ ❊str❛té❣✐❛ ❖r✐❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛ ▼♦❞❡❧♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛ Pr♦❞✉çã♦ ❞❡

❖❜❥❡t♦s ❞❡ ❆♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠

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▼❆❘■❆ ❉❊ ❋➪❚■▼❆ ❈❖❙❚❆ ❉❊ ❙❖❯❩❆

❈✉st♦♠✐③❛çã♦ ●✉✐❛❞❛✿

❯♠❛ ❊str❛té❣✐❛ ❖r✐❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛ ▼♦❞❡❧♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛ Pr♦❞✉çã♦ ❞❡ ❖❜❥❡t♦s ❞❡

❆♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠

❚❡s❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛♦ Pr♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ Pós✲❣r❛❞✉❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❞❡ ❚❡❧❡✐♥❢♦r♠át✐❝❛ ❞❛ ❯❋❈✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♣❛rt❡ ❞♦s r❡q✉✐s✐t♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦❜t❡♥çã♦ ❞♦ tít✉❧♦ ❞❡ ❉❖❯❚❖❘✭❆✮ ❡♠ ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❞❡ ❚❡❧❡✐♥❢♦r♠á✲ t✐❝❛✳ ➪r❡❛ ❞❡ ❈♦♥❝❡♥tr❛çã♦✿ ❙✐♥❛✐s ❡ ❙✐st❡♠❛s✳

❖r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r❛✿ Pr♦❢❛✳ ❘♦ss❛♥❛ ▼❛r✐❛ ❞❡ ❈❛str♦ ❆♥❞r❛❞❡

P❤❉ ❡♠ ❈✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦

❈♦♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r✿ Pr♦❢✳ ❏♦sé ❆✐r❡s ❞❡ ❈❛str♦ ❋✐❧❤♦

P❤❉ ❡♠ ❊❞✉❝❛çã♦ ▼❛t❡♠át✐❝❛

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❉❛❞♦s ■♥t❡r♥❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❈❛t❛❧♦❣❛çã♦ ♥❛ P✉❜❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞♦ ❈❡❛rá

❇✐❜❧✐♦t❡❝❛ ❞❡ Pós✲❣r❛❞✉❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❙✼✶✻❝ ❙❖❯❩❆✱ ▼❆❘■❆ ❉❊ ❋➪❚■▼❆ ❈❖❙❚❆ ❉❊✳

❈✉st♦♠✐③❛çã♦ ❣✉✐❛❞❛✿ ✉♠❛ ❡str❛té❣✐❛ ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛ ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦❞✉çã♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ✲ ✷✵✶✷

✷✺✻ ❢✳ ✿ ✐❧✳ ❝♦❧♦r✳✱ ❡♥❝✳ ❀ ✸✵ ❝♠✳

❚❡s❡ ✭❞♦✉t♦r❛❞♦✮ ✲ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞♦ ❈❡❛rá✱ ❈❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ ❚❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛✱ ❉❡♣❛rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❞❡ ❚❡❧❡✐♥❢♦r♠át✐❝❛✱ Pr♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ Pós ✲ ●r❛❞✉❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❞❡ ❚❡❧❡✐♥❢♦r♠át✐❝❛✱ ❋♦rt❛❧❡③❛✱ ✷✵✶✷✳

➪r❡❛ ❞❡ ❈♦♥❝❡♥tr❛çã♦✿ ❙✐♥❛✐s ❡ ❙✐st❡♠❛s✳

❖r✐❡♥t❛çã♦✿ Pr♦❢❛✳ ❉r❛✳ ❘♦ss❛♥❛ ▼❛r✐❛ ❞❡ ❈❛str♦ ❆♥❞r❛❞❡✳ ❈♦♦r✐❡♥t❛çã♦✿ Pr♦❢✳ ❉r✳ ❏♦sé ❆✐r❡s ❞❡ ❈❛str♦ ❋✐❧❤♦✳

✶✳ ❚❡❧❡✐♥❢♦r♠át✐❝❛✳ ✷✳ ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❞❡ s♦❢t✇❛r❡✳ ■✳ ❚ít✉❧♦✳

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▼❆❘■❆ ❉❊ ❋➪❚■▼❆ ❈❖❙❚❆ ❉❊ ❙❖❯❩❆

❈✉st♦♠✐③❛çã♦ ●✉✐❛❞❛✿

❯♠❛ ❊str❛té❣✐❛ ❖r✐❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛ ▼♦❞❡❧♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛ Pr♦❞✉çã♦ ❞❡ ❖❜❥❡t♦s ❞❡

❆♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠

❚❡s❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛♦ Pr♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ Pós✲❣r❛❞✉❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❞❡ ❚❡❧❡✐♥❢♦r♠át✐❝❛ ❞❛ ❯❋❈✱ ❝♦♠♦ r❡q✉✐s✐t♦ ♣❛r❝✐❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♦❜t❡♥çã♦ ❞♦ ❣r❛✉ ❞❡ ❉❖❯❚❖❘✭❆✮ ❡♠ ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❞❡ ❚❡❧❡✐♥❢♦r♠á✲ t✐❝❛✳

❆♣r♦✈❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✵✻ ❞❡ ▼❛rç♦ ❞❡ ✷✵✶✷

❇❆◆❈❆ ❊❳❆▼■◆❆❉❖❘❆

Pr♦❢❛✳ ❘♦ss❛♥❛ ▼❛r✐❛ ❞❡ ❈❛str♦ ❆♥❞r❛❞❡

❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞♦ ❈❡❛rá ✭❖r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r❛✮

Pr♦❢✳ ❏♦sé ❆✐r❡s ❞❡ ❈❛str♦ ❋✐❧❤♦

❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞♦ ❈❡❛rá ✭❈♦✲♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r✮

Pr♦❢✳ ●✐♦✈❛♥♥✐ ❈♦r❞❡✐r♦ ❇❛rr♦s♦

❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞♦ ❈❡❛rá ✭❆✈❛❧✐❛❞♦r ■♥t❡r♥♦✮

Pr♦❢❛✳ ▲✐❛♥❡ ▼❛r❣❛r✐❞❛ ❘♦❝❦❡♥❜❛❝❤ ❚❛r♦✉❝♦

❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞♦ ❘✐♦ ●r❛♥❞❡ ❞♦ ❙✉❧ ✭❆✈❛❧✐❛❞♦r❛ ❊①t❡r♥❛✮

Pr♦❢✳ ❆❧❡① ❙❛♥❞r♦ ●♦♠❡s

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❆●❘❆❉❊❈■▼❊◆❚❖❙

❆♣❡s❛r ❞❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ t❡s❡✱ s❡r ♥❛ ❡ssê♥❝✐❛✱ ✉♠ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ✐♥❞✐✈✐❞✉❛❧✱ ❤á ❞✉r❛♥t❡ t♦❞♦ ♦ s❡✉ ♣❡rí♦❞♦ ❞❡ ❝r✐❛çã♦✱ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐çõ❡s ❞❡ ♥❛t✉r❡③❛ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s q✉❡ ♥ã♦ ♣♦❞❡♠ ❡ ♥❡♠ ❞❡✈❡♠ ❞❡✐①❛r ❞❡ s❡r ♠❡♥❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s✳ P♦r ❡ss❛ r❛③ã♦✱ ❞❡s❡❥♦ ❡①♣r❡ss❛r ♦s ♠❡✉s s✐♥❝❡r♦s ❛❣r❛❞❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦s✿

➚ Pr♦❢❡ss♦r❛ ❘♦ss❛♥❛✱ ♠✐♥❤❛ ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r❛✱ ♣❡❧❛ ❝♦♠♣❡tê♥❝✐❛ ❝✐❡♥tí✜❝❛ ❡ ✜r♠❡③❛ ♥♦ ❛❝♦♠♣❛♥❤❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♣❡❧❛s ❝rít✐❝❛s✱ ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ❡ s✉❣❡stõ❡s r❡❧❡✲ ✈❛♥t❡s ❢❡✐t❛s ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ❛ ♦r✐❡♥t❛çã♦ q✉❡ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉ír❛♠ t❛♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ♠✐♥❤❛ ✈✐❞❛ ❛❝❛❞ê♠✐❝❛ q✉❛♥t♦ ♣❡ss♦❛❧✳

❆♦ Pr♦❢❡ss♦r ❏♦sé ❆✐r❡s✱ ♠❡✉ ❝♦✲♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r✱ ♣❡❧❛ ❝♦♠♣❡tê♥❝✐❛ ❝✐❡♥tí✜❝❛✱ ♦r✐❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❛❞❛✱ ❛♠✐③❛❞❡ ❡ q✉❡✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ♠❡ ❡♥s✐♥♦✉ ❝♦♠ s❡r❡♥✐❞❛❞❡✱ ♣r❛③❡r ❡ ❞❡❞✐❝❛çã♦ ♣❛rt❡ ❞♦ q✉❡ s❡✐ s♦❜r❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✳

❆♦s Pr♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ❆❧❡① ❙❛♥❞r♦✱ ▲✐❛♥❡ ❚❛r♦✉❝♦ ❡ ●✐♦✈❛♥♥✐ ❈♦r❞❡✐r♦ ♣❡❧❛s r✐❝❛s ❝♦♥✲ tr✐❜✉✐çõ❡s ❛♦ ♠❡✉ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳ ▼❡ s❡♥t✐ ❤♦♥r❛❞❛ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✈♦❝ês ❡♠ ♠✐♥❤❛ ❜❛♥❝❛ ❞❡ ❞♦✉t♦r❛❞♦✳

❆♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ❞♦ Pr♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ Pós✲●r❛❞✉❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❞❡ ❚❡❧❡✐♥❢♦r♠át✐❝❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❞♦ ❛❞q✉✐r✐❞♦ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ❛s ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛s ❝✉rs❛❞❛s ♥♦ ❞♦✉t♦r❛❞♦✱ ❡♠ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧ ❛♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ●✐♦✈❛♥♥✐ ❈♦r❞❡✐r♦ ❡ ❉❛♥✐❡❧♦ ●♦♠❡s✳

❆♦ Pr♦❢✳ ❈❤❛r❧❡s ❈❛s✐♠✐r♦✱ ❝♦♦r❞❡♥❛❞♦r ❞♦ ❝✉rs♦ ❞❡ Pós✲●r❛❞✉❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛✲ r✐❛ ❞❡ ❚❡❧❡✐♥❢♦r♠át✐❝❛ ✭PP●❊❚■✮ ♣♦r t♦❞❛ ❛ ❞❡❞✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡s♣❡♥❞✐❞❛ ❛♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❞❡st❡ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛✳

❆♦ ❘❡♥❛t♦✱ s❡❝r❡tár✐♦ ❞♦ PP●❊❚■✱ ♣❡❧❛ ♣❛❝✐ê♥❝✐❛✱ ❞❡❞✐❝❛çã♦ ❡ ♣r♦♥t✐❞ã♦ ❡♠ s♦❧✉✲ ❝✐♦♥❛r ♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s✳

❆♦ ❆♥❝❤✐❡t❛✱ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❞♦ ❝✉rs♦ ❞❡ ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❞❡ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ■❋❈❊ ❡ ❜♦❧s✐st❛ q✉❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✉ ❝♦♠✐❣♦ ♥❡st❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✱ ♣♦r s❡✉ ❝♦♠♣r♦♠❡t✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ✈❛❧✐♦s❛ ❛❥✉❞❛ ♥❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❈▲❖ ❙t✉❞✐♦✳

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▼✐①✐❧❡♥❡✱ ▼❛❣♥♦✱ ❙✐❜❡❧❡ ❡ ❨✉r✐ ♣♦r t❡r❡♠ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉í❞♦ ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞❡st❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛

❆ t♦❞♦s q✉❡ ❢❛③❡♠ ♦✉ ✜③❡r❛♠ ♣❛rt❡ ❞♦ ●r✉♣♦ ❞❡ ❘❡❞❡s ❞❡ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s✱ ❊♥✲ ❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❞❡ ❙♦❢✇❛r❡ ❡ ❙✐st❡♠❛s ✭●❘❊❛t✮ ♣♦r t♦❞❛ ❛t❡♥çã♦ ❞❡s♣❡♥❞✐❞♦s ❛ ♠✐♠✱ ❡♠ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧ à ❉❛r✐❧✉✱ ▲✐❧✐❛♥❡✱ ❈❤r✐st✐❛♥❡ ❈❛r✈❛❧❤♦ ❡ ❛ ❊♠❛♥✉❡❧❛✳ ❆♦s ❛♠✐❣♦s ❋❛❜✐❛♥❛✱ ❱❛❧ér✐❛✱ ❙♠❛②❧❡✱ ❲✐♥❞s♦♥ ❡ P❛✉❧♦ ❍❡♥r✐q✉❡ ♣❡❧❛s ♣r❡❝✐♦s❛s ❝♦♥✈❡rs❛s✱ ♣♦✐s ❢♦r❛♠ ❞❡❧❛s q✉❡ ❡①tr❛✐ ♦s ✈❛❧✐♦s♦s ✐♥s✐❣❤ts ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳

❆ t♦❞♦s ♦s ♠❡✉s q✉❡r✐❞♦s ❛♠✐❣♦s ❡ ❝♦❧❡❣❛s ❞❛ ❯❋❈ ❱✐rt✉❛❧ q✉❡ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ♦r❛çõ❡s✱ ♣❡♥s❛♠❡♥t♦s ♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s✱ ♣❛❧❛✈r❛s ❞❡ ❢♦rç❛ ❡ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ❞❡s❝♦♥tr❛çã♦✱ ✐♥❥❡t❛✈❛♠ ❡♠ ♠✐♠ ♦ â♥✐♠♦ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ♣❛r❛ ✜♥❛❧✐③❛r ❡ss❛ ❥♦r♥❛❞❛✳ ❊♠ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧ ❛♦s ❛♠✐❣♦s ❆❧✐s❛♥❞r❛✱ ❘❛q✉❡❧✱ Pr✐s❝✐❧❛✱ ▲✐♥❝♦❧♥✱ ▼❡❧♦ ❏r✱ ●❧❛✉❞✐♥❡②✱ ❍❡♥r✐q✉❡ P❡q✉❡♥♦✱ ❆❧❡①s❛♥❞r❛ ❡ ❚✐❝✐✲ ❛♥❛✳

❆♦ ❛♠✐❣♦ ❡ Pr♦❢❡ss♦r ❞♦ ■♥st✐t✉t♦ ❯❋❈ ❱✐rt✉❛❧✱ ❍❡r❜❡rt✱ ♣♦r t❡r ❛✈✐s❛❞♦ ❡ ✐♥❝❡♥✲ t✐✈❛❞♦ ♠✐♥❤❛ ✐♥s❝r✐çã♦ ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ s❡❧❡çã♦ ❞♦ PP●❊❚■✳

❆♦ ❞✐r❡t♦r ❞♦ ■♥st✐t✉t♦ ❯❋❈ ❱✐rt✉❛❧✱ Pr♦❢✳ ▼❛✉r♦ ❈❛✈❛❧❝❛♥t❡ P❡q✉❡♥♦✱ ♣♦r ❡st✐✲ ♠✉❧❛r ♦ ❝r❡s❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❛❝❛❞ê♠✐❝♦ ❞❡ t♦❞♦s ♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s q✉❡ ❢❛③❡♠ ♣❛rt❡ ❞❡st❛ ✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❛❝❛❞ê♠✐❝❛✳

❆♦s ♠❡✉s q✉❡r✐❞♦s ❡ ❛♠❛❞♦s ♣❛✐s✱ ❊①♣❡❞✐t♦ ✭■♥ ♠❡♠♦r✐✉♠✮ ❡ ■r❛❝✐ ✭✐♥ ♠❡♠♦r✐✉♠✮✱ ♣♦r t❡r❡♠ s✐❞♦ ♦s ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦s ❛♥❥♦s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❤❛ ✈✐❞❛ ❡ ❞❡s❞❡ ❝❡❞♦ ❜✉s❝❛r❛♠ ❝♦♠ t♦❞♦ ③❡❧♦ ❛❧✐♠❡♥t❛r ❡♠ ♠✐♠ ❛ ♣❡rs❡✈❡r❛♥ç❛✱ ❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❡ ❛ s❡❞❡ ♣❡❧♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦✳

❆♦s ♠❡✉s ✐r♠ã♦s✱ ◆❡t✐♥❤♦✱ ❙♦❝♦rr✐♥❤❛✱ ▲✐❞✉í♥❛✱ ▼❛rq✉✐♥❤♦s✱ ❋r❛♥③é✱ ❏❡♦✈á ❡ ❛ ♠✐♥❤❛ q✉❡r✐❞❛ ♣r✐♠❛ ❏✉s❝✐❧❡♥❡ ♣❡❧❛s ♦r❛çõ❡s ❡ t♦r❝✐❞❛✳ ❯♠ ❛❣r❛❞❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✱ ❛ ♠❡✉ ✐r♠ã♦ ▼❛rq✉✐♥❤♦s ♣♦r t❡r ♠❡ ❞❛❞♦ ❛♣♦✐♦ ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ r❡✈✐sã♦ ❡ tr❛❞✉çã♦ ❞♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s ❡♠ ✐♥❣❧ês✳

❆♦s ♠❡✉s s♦❣r♦s✱ ❈í❝❡r♦ ❡ ■✈❛♥ ❡ ❛♦s ♠❡✉s ❝✉♥❤❛❞♦s✱ ❝✉♥❤❛❞❛s ❡ s♦❜r✐♥❤♦s ♣❡❧♦ ❡stí♠✉❧♦✱ t♦r❝✐❞❛ ❡ ♦r❛çõ❡s✳

(8)

❘❊❙❯▼❖

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❆❇❙❚❘❆❈❚

▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❖❜❥❡❝ts ✭▲❖✮ ❛r❡ ❞✐❣✐t❛❧ r❡s♦✉r❝❡s ✉s❡❞ t♦ ❤❡❧♣ t❡❛❝❤❡rs ✐♥ t❤❡ ❝❧❛ssr♦♦♠ ❛s ✇❡❧❧ ❛s t♦ s✉♣♣♦rt st✉❞❡♥ts t♦ ❜❡tt❡r ✉♥❞❡rst❛♥❞ t❤❡✐r ❧❡ss♦♥s✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ t❤❡s❡ r❡s♦✉r✲ ❝❡s ❤❛✈❡ ❧✐♠✐t❛t✐♦♥s t❤❛t r❡❞✉❝❡ t❤❡ ❜❡♥❡✜ts ♦❜t❛✐♥❡❞ ✇✐t❤ t❤❡✐r ✉s❛❣❡✳ ❖♥❡ ♦❢ t❤❡s❡ ❧✐♠✐t❛t✐♦♥s ✐s t❤❡ r❡s♦✉r❝❡s✬ ♦♣❡♥✐♥❣ ❧✐♠✐t❡❞ ❝❛♣❛❝✐t② t❤❛t ❞♦❡s ♥♦t ❛❧❧♦✇ t❤❡ ♦✇♥ t❡❛✲ ❝❤❡rs t♦ ❛❞❛♣t t❤❡♠ t♦ t❤❡✐r ♣❡❞❛❣♦❣✐❝❛❧ ♥❡❡❞s✳ ❚❤✐s ❛❞❛♣t❛t✐♦♥ ✐❞❡❛ ✐s ❝❧♦s❡❧② r❡❧❛t❡❞ t♦ t❤❡ ✈✐s✐♦♥ ♦❢ s❤❛r✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ❞❡♠♦❝r❛t✐③✐♥❣ ❦♥♦✇❧❡❞❣❡ ❛♥❞ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥ ✇❤✐❝❤ t❤❡ ❖♣❡♥ ❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❘❡s♦✉r❝❡s ✭❖❊❘✮ ♠♦✈❡♠❡♥t st❛♥❞s ❢♦r✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ ✐♥ ♦r❞❡r t♦ ♠❛❦❡ t❤❡ ❛❞❛♣t❛t✐♦♥s ❛❝❝♦r❞✐♥❣ t♦ t❤✐s ♠♦✈❡♠❡♥t✬s ♣❤✐❧♦s♦♣❤②✱ t❤❡ ❝✉rr❡♥t ♦♣❡♥✐♥❣ str❛t❡❣✐❡s r❡q✉✐r❡ t❤❛t t❤❡ t❡❛❝❤❡rs ❛❝❝❡ss t❤❡ r❡s♦✉r❝❡s s♦✉r❝❡ ❝♦❞❡s ❛♥❞ ❤❛✈❡ ❡♥♦✉❣❤ ❦♥♦✇❧❡❞❣❡ t♦ ❝❤❛♥❣❡ t❤❡♠✳ ❆♥♦t❤❡r ❖❆ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠ ✐s t❤❡ ❞❡✈❡❧♦♣✐♥❣ ♣r♦❝❡ss❡s ✉s❡❞ t❤❛t ❞♦ ♥♦t ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r t❤❡ ♠✉❧t✐❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛r✐t② ♦❢ t❤❡ t❡❛♠ ✐♥✈♦❧✈❡❞ ✐♥ t❤❡✐r ♣r♦❞✉❝t✐♦♥✳ ❚❤✉s✱ t❤✐s ✇♦r❦ ❛♣♣❧✐❡s s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❡♥❣✐♥❡❡r✐♥❣ ❝♦♥❝❡♣ts t♦ r❡❞✉❝❡ t❤❡s❡ ❧✐♠✐t❛t✐♦♥s ❛♥❞ ♣r♦♣♦s❡s ❛♥ ❛❞❛♣t❛t✐♦♥ str❛t❡❣② ❝❛❧❧❡❞ ●✉✐❞❡❞ ❈✉st♦♠✐③❛t✐♦♥✳ ❚❤✐s str❛t❡❣② ❛✐♠s t♦ ✐♥❞✐❝❛t❡✱ ✐♥ t❤❡ ❞❡s✐❣♥ ♣❤❛s❡✱ t❤❡ ❡❧❡♠❡♥ts t❤❛t ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ❤❛♥❞❧❡❞ ❜② t❤❡ t❡❛❝❤❡rs str❛✐❣❤t❧② ✐♥ t❤❡ r❡s♦✉r❝❡✬s ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡s✳ ❆ ♠♦❞❡❧✲❞r✐✈❡♥ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❞❡✈❡❧♦♣♠❡♥t ♣r♦❝❡ss ✇✐t❤ ❛ ❞♦♠❛✐♥ s♣❡❝✐✜❝ ❧❛♥❣✉❛❣❡ ✭❉❙▲✮ ✐s ✉s❡❞ t♦ ❛❧❧♦✇ t❤❛t ❛♥❞ t♦ ✐♠♣r♦✈❡ t❤❡ t❡❛♠ ❝♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥✳ ■♥ ♦r❞❡r t♦ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t t❤❡ ♣r♦♣♦s❡❞ str❛t❡❣②✱ ❛♥ ❛✉t❤♦r✐♥❣ t♦♦❧ ✭❝❛❧❧❡❞ ❈▲❖ ❙t✉❞✐♦✮ ✐s ❞❡✈❡❧♦♣❡❞ ❛♥❞ ✉s❡❞ t♦ ❡✈❛❧✉❛t❡ ❜♦t❤ t❤❡ ❞❡✈❡❧♦♣♠❡♥t ♦❢ ❛ ❈✉st♦♠✐③❛❜❧❡ ▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❖❜❥❡❝t ✭❈▲❖✮ ❜② ❛ ▲❖ ❞❡✈❡❧♦♣♠❡♥t t❡❛♠ ❛♥❞ ✐ts ✉s❛❣❡ ❜② t❡❛❝❤❡rs✳ ❚❤❡ r❡s✉❧ts s❤♦✇ t❤❛t t❤❡ ❈▲❖ ❞❡✈❡❧♦♣♠❡♥t ♣r♦❝❡ss ♥♦t ♦♥❧② ❡♥❝♦✉r❛❣❡s t❤❡ ❝♦♦♣❡r❛t✐♦♥ ❛♠♦♥❣ t❤❡ ❞❡✈❡❧♦♣♠❡♥t t❡❛♠ ❜✉t ❛❧s♦ ♠❛❦❡s ❝♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥ ❛♠♦♥❣ t❤❡♠ ❡❛s✐❡r✳ ❇❡s✐❞❡s t❤❛t✱ t❤❡ ♣r♦♣♦s❡❞ str❛t❡❣② ❣✐✈❡s ♥❡✇ ♦♣♣♦rt✉♥✐t✐❡s t♦ t❤❡ t❡❛❝❤❡rs✬ ❞❛✐❧② ♣r❛❝t✐❝❡s ❛♥❞ ✐♠✲ ♣r♦✈❡s t❤❡✐r ❛✉t♦♥♦♠②✳

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▲■❙❚❆ ❉❊ ❋■●❯❘❆❙

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶ ✲ ❋❛s❡s q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣õ❡♠ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❆❉❉■❊✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✷ ✲ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ Pr♦❝❡ss♦ ▲❛❜✈✐rt ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✻ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✸ ✲ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ Pr♦❝❡ss♦ ❘✐✈❡❞ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✼ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✹ ✲ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ Pr♦❝❡ss♦ ❘✐✈❡❞ ❆♣r✐♠♦r❛❞♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✽ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✺ ✲ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ Pr♦❝❡ss♦ ❈♦❧❛❜♦r❛t✐✈♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✾ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✻ ✲ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❉❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❖❆ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❆♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠

❙✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✵ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✼ ✲ ❊t❛♣❛s ❞♦ Pr♦❝❡ss♦ ❙♦♣❤✐❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✶ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✽ ✲ Pr♦❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ❖❆ ♥♦ Pr♦❝❡ss♦ ❙♦♣❤✐❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✶ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✾ ✲ ❉❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❖❆ ♥♦ Pr♦❝❡ss♦ ❙♦♣❤✐❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✵ ✲ ❉✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❞❡ ❖❆ ♥♦ Pr♦❝❡ss♦ ❙♦♣❤✐❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✸ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✶ ✲ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❉❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ▼■❉❖❆ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✷ ✲ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❉❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ❯❆❆ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✸ ✲ ▼❡t♦❞♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❆❖❉❉❊■ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✻ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✹ ✲ ❘❡❧❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❉❡♣❡♥❞ê♥❝✐❛ ❡♥tr❡ ■♥t❡r♥❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❡ ▲♦❝❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡

❙♦❢t✇❛r❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✺ ✲ ❚❡❧❛ Pr✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❞❛ ❋❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❞❡ ❆✉t♦r✐❛ ▼▲❖❆❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✼ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✻ ✲ ❘❊❉ ❝r✐❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❋❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❞❡ ❆✉t♦r✐❛ ▼▲❖❆❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✽ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✼ ✲ ❚❡❧❛ Pr✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❞❛ ❋❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❞❡ ❆✉t♦r✐❛ ●▲❖ ▼❛❦❡r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✾ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✽ ✲ ❚❡❧❛ ❝♦♠ ✈✐sã♦ ♣❛r❝✐❛❧ ❞♦ ▲❖❈ ♠♦str❛♥❞♦ ♦r✐❡♥t❛çã♦ ♣❡❞❛❣ó❣✐❝❛

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❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✾ ✲ ■♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❞❛ ❋❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❘❊▲❖❆❉ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✷

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶ ✲ ❈✉st♦♠✐③❛çã♦ ●✉✐❛❞❛ ♥♦ ❈♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞❡ ❉❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❘❊❉ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✵ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷ ✲ P♦♥t❡♥❝✐❛❧ P❡❞❛❣ó❣✐❝♦ ♥♦ ❙✉♠❛▼♦♥❡❞❛s ❱❡❞♦q✉❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✸ ✲ ❘❊❉ q✉❡ ❆❜♦r❞❛ ❛ ❈♦♠♣r❡❡♥sã♦ ❡ ❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛ ❋✉♥çã♦ ◗✉❛✲

❞rát✐❝❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✻ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✹ ✲ ❘❊❉ ❋❛③❡♥❞❛ ❘✐✈❡❞ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✼

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✶ ✲ ❚❡❧❛ ❞❡ ▲♦❣✐♥ ❞♦ ❖❆❈ ❍✐stór✐❛s ❋❛♥tást✐❝❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✽ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✷ ✲ ❖❆❈ ❍✐stór✐❛s ❋❛♥tást✐❝❛s ❝♦♠ ●r❛✉ ❞❡ ▲✐❜❡r❞❛❞❡ ✶ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✽ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✸ ✲ ❖❆❈ ❍✐stór✐❛s ❋❛♥tást✐❝❛s ❝♦♠ ●r❛✉ ❞❡ ▲✐❜❡r❞❛❞❡ ✸ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✾ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✹ ✲ Pr♦❝❡ss♦ ●❡♥ér✐❝♦ ❞❡ Pr♦❞✉çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❖❆ ▼♦♥♦❧ít✐❝♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✼ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✺ ✲ Pr♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ Pr♦❞✉çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❖❆❈ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✽ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✻ ✲ ❈❡♥❛s ❞♦ ❖❆ P♦♥t♦s ❡♠ ❇❛t❛❧❤❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✶ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✼ ✲ ❈❡♥❛ ■♥t❡r♥❛ ❞♦ ❖❆ P♦♥t♦s ❡♠ ❇❛t❛❧❤❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✶ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✽ ✲ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❈❡♥❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✾ ✲ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❚r❛♥s✐çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✶✵ ✲ ❋r❛❣♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❘♦t❡✐r♦ ❞❡ ❆t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✹

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(13)

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✸✵ ✲ ❋❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❞❡ ❘❡♣♦s✐❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❘❡❞✐♠❡♥s✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❈▲❖ ❙t✉❞✐♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✾ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✸✶ ✲ ❋❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❞❡ ❈♦♥❡❝t♦r ❞❡ ❈♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❞♦ ❈▲❖ ❙t✉❞✐♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻✵

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✳✶ ✲ Pr♦❥❡t♦ ❞♦ ❖❆❈ P✐③③❛❴❋r❛çã♦ ♥♦ ❈▲❖ ❙t✉❞✐♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✳✷ ✲ ❙✐♠✉❧❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❖❆❈ P✐③③❛❴❋r❛çã♦ ♥♦ ❈▲❖ ❙t✉❞✐♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽✻ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✳✸ ✲ ❖❆❈ P✐③③❛❴❋r❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❊①❡❝✉çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽✻ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✳✹ ✲ ❚❡❧❛ ❆t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ✶ ❞♦ ❖❆❈ ❍✐stór✐❛s ❋❛♥tást✐❝❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾✸ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✳✺ ✲ ❚❡❧❛ ❆t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ✶ ❞♦ ❖❆❈ ❍✐stór✐❛s ❋❛♥tást✐❝❛s ✭❈✉st♦♠✐③❛çã♦ ✶✮ ✳ ✶✾✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✳✻ ✲ ❚❡❧❛ ❆t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ✶ ❞♦ ❖❆❈ ❍✐stór✐❛s ❋❛♥tást✐❝❛s ✭❈✉st♦♠✐③❛çã♦ ✷✮ ✳ ✶✾✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✳✼ ✲ ❚❡❧❛ ❞♦ ❈❡♥ár✐♦ ❋❆❩❊◆❉❆ ❞♦ ❖❆❈ ❍✐stór✐❛s ❋❛♥tást✐❝❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾✻ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✳✽ ✲ ❚❡❧❛ ❈✉st♦♠✐③❛❞❛ ❞♦ ❈❡♥ár✐♦ ❋❆❩❊◆❉❆ ❞♦ ❖❆❈ ❍✐stór✐❛s ❋❛♥✲

tást✐❝❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾✼ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✳✾ ✲ ❚❡❧❛ ❞♦ ❈❡♥ár✐♦ ❋❆❩❊◆❉❆ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❝♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❞♦ ❜♦tã♦ ❆❏❯❉❆ ✳ ✳ ✶✾✽ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✳✶✵ ✲ ❚❡❧❛ ❈✉st♦♠✐③❛❞❛ ❞♦ ❈❡♥ár✐♦ ❋❆❩❊◆❉❆ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❝♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❞♦ ❜♦tã♦

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▲■❙❚❆ ❉❊ ◗❯❆❉❘❖❙

◗✉❛❞r♦ ✷✳✶ ✲ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❈♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈❛ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s Pr♦❝❡ss♦s ❞❡ ❉❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❘❊❉ ✺✶ ◗✉❛❞r♦ ✷✳✷ ✲ ◆♦t❛çã♦ ▼❛t❡♠át✐❝❛ ❡♠ ❉✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s P❛ís❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✺ ◗✉❛❞r♦ ✷✳✸ ✲ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❈♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈❛ ❞❛s ❋❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡ ❆✉t♦r✐❛ ❞❡ ❘❊❉ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✹

◗✉❛❞r♦ ✹✳✶ ✲ ❚✐♣♦s ❞❡ ❊❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❡ ■♥t❡r✈❡♥çõ❡s ❆❞❛♣t❛t✐✈❛s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❖❆❈ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✺ ◗✉❛❞r♦ ✹✳✷ ✲ ❆çõ❡s ❞❡ ❈✉st♦♠✐③❛çã♦ ① ●r❛✉ ❞❡ ▲✐❜❡r❞❛❞❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✼ ◗✉❛❞r♦ ✹✳✸ ✲ ❈♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ❖❆ ① ❖❆❈ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✽

◗✉❛❞r♦ ✺✳✶ ✲ ❋❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❯t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ♥♦ ❉❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❈▲❖ ❙t✉❞✐♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✼ ◗✉❛❞r♦ ✺✳✷ ✲ ◆♦t❛çõ❡s ❞♦ ❈▲❖ ❙t✉❞✐♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✺ ◗✉❛❞r♦ ✺✳✸ ✲ ▼❡t❛❞❛❞♦s ▲❖▼ ❞♦s ❖❆❈ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✵ ◗✉❛❞r♦ ✺✳✹ ✲ ❊❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❛ ❇❛rr❛ ❞❡ ❆çõ❡s ❞❡ ❈✉st♦♠✐③❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✸ ◗✉❛❞r♦ ✺✳✺ ✲ ❊❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞♦ ▼❡t❛♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞♦ ❈▲❖ ❙t✉❞✐♦ ① ❈♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❞❛ ▲✐♥✲

❣✉❛❣❡♠ ❋❧❡① ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✹

◗✉❛❞r♦ ✻✳✶ ✲ ▼❛t❡r✐❛✐s ❡ ■♥str✉♠❡♥t♦s ❯t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❆✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❊♠♣ír✐❝❛ ◗✉❛❧✐✲ t❛t✐✈❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼✵ ◗✉❛❞r♦ ✻✳✷ ✲ ❊str✉t✉r❛ ❞♦ ●r✉♣♦ ❋♦❝❛❧ ❞❡ ❆✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❈♦♥❝❡♣çã♦ ❡ ❉❡s❡♥✈♦❧✲

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✶✶

▲■❙❚❆ ❉❊ ❆▲●❖❘■❚▼❖❙

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▲■❙❚❆ ❉❊ ❆❈❘Ô◆■▼❖❙ ❊ ❙■●▲❆❙

❆❚▲ ❆t❧❛s ❚r❛♥s❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥ ▲❛♥❣✉❛❣❡ ❆❱❆ ❆♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❱✐rt✉❛❧ ❞❡ ❆♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠

❇■❖❊ ❇❛♥❝♦ ■♥t❡r♥❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ ❖❜❥❡t♦s ❊❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❈▲❆ss❘♦❖▼ ❈✉st♦♠✐③❛❜❧❡ ▲❡❆❘♥✐♥❣ ❖❜❥❡❝ts ▼♦❞❡❧✲❞r✐✈❡♥ ❈■▼ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ■♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t ▼♦❞❡❧

❉❆❘❚ ❉✐❣✐t❛❧ ❆♥t❤r♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❝❛❧ ❘❡s♦✉r❝❡s ❢♦r ❚❡❛❝❤✐♥❣

❉❙▲ ❉♦♠❛✐♥ ❙♣❡❝✐✜❝ ▲❛♥❣✉❛❣❡

❊▼❋ ❊❝❧✐♣s❡ ▼♦❞❡❧✐♥❣ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❊❖▲ ❊♣s✐❧♦♥ ❖❜❥❡❝t ▲❛♥❣✉❛❣❡ ❊❱▲ ❊♣s✐❧♦♥ ❱❛❧✐❞❛t✐♦♥ ▲❛♥❣✉❛❣❡ ❋❖P ❋♦r♠❛tt✐♥❣ ❖❜❥❡❝ts Pr♦❝❡ss

●❉ ●❡♥❡r❛❧ ❉❡s✐❣♥

●▲ ●r❛✉ ❞❡ ▲✐❜❡r❞❛❞❡

●▲❖ ▼❛❦❡r ●❡♥❡r❛t✐✈❡ ▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❖❜❥❡❝t ▼❛❦❡r ❛✉t❤♦r✐♥❣ t♦♦❧ ●❊❋ ●r❛♣❤✐❝❛❧ ❊❞✐t✐♥❣ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦

●▼❋ ●r❛♣❤✐❝❛❧ ▼♦❞❡❧✐♥❣ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ●▼P ●r❛♣❤✐❝❛❧ ▼♦❞❡❧✐♥❣ Pr♦❥❡❝t ●▼❚ ●❡♥❡r❛t✐✈❡ ▼♦❞❡❧✐♥❣ ❚♦♦❧s

●❘❊❛t ●r✉♣♦ ❞❡ ❘❡❞❡s ❞❡ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❞❡ ❙♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❡ ❙✐st❡✲ ♠❛s

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❏❊❚ ❏❛✈❛ ❊♠✐tt❡r ❚❡♠♣❧❛t❡s ▲❛❜✈✐rt ▲❛❜♦r❛tór✐♦ ❉✐❞át✐❝♦ ❱✐rt✉❛❧ ▲❖❈ ▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❖❜❥❡❝t ❈r❡❛t♦r

▲❖❈♦▼♦ ▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❖❜❥❡❝ts ❈♦♥str✉❝t✐♦♥ ▼❡t❤♦❞♦❧♦❣②

▲❖❈P◆ ▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❖❜❥❡❝ts ♣r♦❞✉❝t✐♦♥ ✇✐t❤ ❈♦❧♦r❡❞ P❡tr✐ ◆❡ts ▲❖▼ ▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❖❜❥❡❝t ▼❡t❛❞❛t❛

▼❉❆ ▼♦❞❡❧✲❉r✐✈❡♥ ❆r❝❤✐t❡❝t✉r❡ ▼❉❉ ▼♦❞❡❧✲❉r✐✈❡♥ ❉❡✈❡❧♦♣♠❡♥t ▼❉❊ ▼♦❞❡❧✲❉r✐✈❡♥ ❊♥❣✐♥❡❡r✐♥❣

▼❉❙❊ ▼♦❞❡❧✲❉r✐✈❡♥ ❙♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❊♥❣✐♥❡❡r✐♥❣

▼❡r❧♦t ▼✉❧t✐♠❡❞✐❛ ❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❘❡s♦✉r❝❡ ❢♦r ▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ❖♥❧✐♥❡ ❚❡❛❝❤✐♥❣ ▼■❉❖❆ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ■♥str✉❝❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ❡❧ ❉❡s❛rr♦❧❧♦ ❞❡ ❖❜❥❡t♦s ❞❡ ❆♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❥❡ ▼■❚ ▼❛ss❛❝❤✉s❡tts ■♥st✐t✉t❡ ♦❢ ❚❡❝❤♥♦❧♦❣②

▼▲❖❆❚ ▼✉❧t✐♠❡❞✐❛ ▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❖❜❥❡❝t ❆✉t❤♦r✐♥❣ ❚♦♦❧s

▼❖❋ ▼❡t❛✲❖❜❥❡❝t ❋❛❝✐❧✐t②

❖❆ ❖❜❥❡t♦s ❞❡ ❆♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠

❖❆❈ ❖❜❥❡t♦s ❞❡ ❆♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❈✉st♦♠✐③á✈❡✐s

❖❈ ❖♣❡♥ ❈♦♥t❡♥t

❖❉▼ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❞❡ ❉❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ▼✐❧ê♥✐♦ ❖❊❘ ❖♣❡♥ ❊❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❘❡s♦✉r❝❡

❖▼● ❖❜❥❡❝t ▼❛♥❛❣❡♠❡♥t ●r♦✉♣

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P❉❋ P♦rt❛❜❧❡ ❉♦❝✉♠❡♥t ❋♦r♠❛t P◆● P♦rt❛❜❧❡ ◆❡t✇♦r❦ ●r❛♣❤✐❝s P■▼ P❧❛t❢♦r♠ ■♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t ▼♦❞❡❧

P◆❯❉ Pr♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❛s ◆❛çõ❡s ❯♥✐❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❉❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦

P❘❖❆❚■❱❆ ●r✉♣♦ ❞❡ P❡sq✉✐s❛ ❡ Pr♦❞✉çã♦ ❞❡ ❆♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ■♥t❡r❛t✐✈♦s ❡ ❖❜❥❡t♦s ❞❡ ❆♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠

P❙▼ P❧❛t❢♦r♠ ❙♣❡❝✐✜❝ ▼♦❞❡❧

◗❱❚ ◗✉❡r✐❡s✴❱✐❡✇s✴❚r❛♥s❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥s ❘❊❆ ❘❡❝✉rs♦ ❊❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❆❜❡rt♦

❘❊❆❈ ❘❡❝✉rs♦s ❊❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❝♦♠ ❆❞❛♣t❛çõ❡s ❈✉❧t✉r❛✐s ❘❊▲❖❆❉ ❘❡✉s❛❜❧❡ ❡▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❖❜❥❡❝t ❆✉t❤♦r✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ❉❡❧✐✈❡r② ❘❊❉ ❘❡❝✉rs♦s ❊❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❉✐❣✐t❛✐s

❘❊❙❈ ❘❡❝✉rs♦s ❊❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❝♦♠ ❙❛❧✐ê♥❝✐❛s ❈✉❧t✉r❛✐s ❙❊❊❉ ❙❡❝r❡t❛r✐❛ ❞❡ ❊❞✉❝❛çã♦ ❛ ❉✐stâ♥❝✐❛

❘✐✈❡❞ ❘❡❞❡ ■♥t❡r❛t✐✈❛ ❱✐rt✉❛❧ ❞❡ ❊❞✉❝❛çã♦ ❚❈❙ ❚❡①t✉❛❧ ❈♦♥❝r❡t❡ ❙②♥t❛①

❯❆❆ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞ ❆✉tó♥♦♠❛ ❞❡ ❆❣✉❛s❝❛❧✐❡♥t❡s ❯▼▲ ❯♥✐✜❡❞ ▼♦❞❡❧✐♥❣ ▲❛♥❣✉❛❣❡

❯◆❊❙❈❖ ❖r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❊❞✉❝❛çã♦✱ ❈✐ê♥❝✐❛s ❡ ❈✉❧t✉r❛

❳▼■ ❳▼▲ ▼❡t❛❞❛t❛ ■♥t❡r❝❤❛♥❣❡

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❙❯▼➪❘■❖

✶ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ✷✶

✶✳✶ ❈♦♥t❡①t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✶ ✶✳✷ ▼♦t✐✈❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✺ ✶✳✸ Pr♦❜❧❡♠át✐❝❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✺ ✶✳✹ ❍✐♣ót❡s❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✼ ✶✳✺ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✽ ✶✳✻ ❈♦♥tr✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❡ ❘❡❧❡✈â♥❝✐❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✾ ✶✳✼ ▼ét♦❞♦ ❞❡ ❉❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ❚❡s❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✵ ✶✳✽ ❖r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❚r❛❜❛❧❤♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✶

✷ ❉❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❆❞❛♣t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❘❡❝✉rs♦s ❊❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❉✐❣✐t❛✐s ✸✷ ✷✳✶ ❘❡❝✉rs♦s ❊❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❉✐❣✐t❛✐s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✷ ✷✳✶✳✶ Pr♦❝❡ss♦s ❞❡ ❉❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✸ ✷✳✶✳✶✳✶ ❆❉❉■❊ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✹ ✷✳✶✳✶✳✷ ▲❆❇❱■❘❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✺ ✷✳✶✳✶✳✸ ❘■❱❊❉ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✻ ✷✳✶✳✶✳✹ P❘❖❆❚■❱❆ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✽ ✷✳✶✳✶✳✺ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ Pr♦❝❡ss♦ ❈♦❧❛❜♦r❛t✐✈♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✽ ✷✳✶✳✶✳✻ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❉❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❇❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❆♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠

(20)

✷✳✶✳✶✳✽ ❉❆❘❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✸ ✷✳✶✳✶✳✾ ▼■❉❖❆ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✸ ✷✳✶✳✶✳✶✵ ▼❡t♦❞♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❞❡ ❉❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ❯❆❆ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✺ ✷✳✶✳✶✳✶✶ ❖❆❉❉❊■ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✻ ✷✳✶✳✶✳✶✷ ▲❖❈♦▼♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✽ ✷✳✶✳✷ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❈♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈❛ ❞♦s Pr♦❝❡ss♦s ❞❡ ❉❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✾ ✷✳✷ ❆❞❛♣t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❘❡❝✉rs♦s ❊❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❉✐❣✐t❛✐s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✷ ✷✳✷✳✶ ❚é❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❆❞❛♣t❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✸ ✷✳✷✳✷ ❋❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡ ❆✉t♦r✐❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✻ ✷✳✷✳✷✳✶ ▼✉❧t✐♠❡❞✐❛ ▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❖❜❥❡❝t ✭▼▲❖❆❚✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✼ ✷✳✷✳✷✳✷ ●❡♥❡r❛t✐✈❡ ▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❖❜❥❡❝t ▼❛❦❡r ✭●▲❖ ▼❛❦❡r✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✽ ✷✳✷✳✷✳✸ ▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❖❜❥❡❝t ❈r❡❛t♦r ✭▲❖❈✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✵ ✷✳✷✳✷✳✹ ❘❡✉s❛❜❧❡ ❡▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❖❜❥❡❝t ❆✉t❤♦r✐♥❣ ✫ ❉❡❧✐✈❡r② ✭❘❊✲

▲❖❆❉✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✶ ✷✳✷✳✷✳✺ ❖✉tr❛s ❋❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✷ ✷✳✷✳✸ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❈♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈❛ ❞❛s ❋❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡ ❆✉t♦r✐❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✸ ✷✳✸ ❉✐s❝✉ssã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✺ ✷✳✹ ❈♦♥❝❧✉sã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✻

✸ ❈✉st♦♠✐③❛çã♦ ●✉✐❛❞❛ ✻✽

(21)

✸✳✹ ●r❛✉ ❞❡ ▲✐❜❡r❞❛❞❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✽ ✸✳✺ ❉✐s❝✉ssã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✵ ✸✳✻ ❈♦♥❝❧✉sã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✶

✹ ❈▲❆ss❘♦❖▼ ♥♦ ❉❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❖❜❥❡t♦s ❞❡ ❆♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❈✉s✲

t♦♠✐③á✈❡✐s ✽✷

✹✳✶ ❖❜❥❡t♦s ❞❡ ❆♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❈✉st♦♠✐③á✈❡✐s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✷ ✹✳✶✳✶ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞❡ ❖❆❈ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✸ ✹✳✶✳✷ P♦r q✉❡ ❝✉st♦♠✐③❛r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✹ ✹✳✶✳✸ ❖ q✉❡ ❝✉st♦♠✐③❛r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✺ ✹✳✶✳✹ ❱❛♥t❛❣❡♥s ❡ ▲✐♠✐t❛çõ❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✵ ✹✳✷ ❈♦♠♦ ❈♦♥str✉✐r ❖❜❥❡t♦s ❞❡ ❆♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❈✉st♦♠✐③á✈❡✐s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✶ ✹✳✷✳✶ ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❞❡ ❙♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❖r✐❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛ ▼♦❞❡❧♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✷ ✹✳✷✳✷ Pr♦❝❡ss♦ ❈▲❆ss❘♦❖▼ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✻ ✹✳✷✳✷✳✶ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✵ ✹✳✷✳✷✳✷ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞❡ ■♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❞❡ ❈❡♥❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✷ ✹✳✷✳✷✳✸ ❘♦t❡✐r♦ ❞❡ ❆t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✸ ✹✳✷✳✷✳✹ ❚❡♠♣❧❛t❡s ❞❡ ■♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✺ ✹✳✷✳✷✳✺ ❘❡❣r❛s ❞❡ ❚r❛♥s❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✺ ✹✳✸ ❉✐s❝✉ssã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✻ ✹✳✹ ❈♦♥❝❧✉sã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✼

(22)
(23)

✺✳✻ ❉✐s❝✉ssã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻✵ ✺✳✼ ❈♦♥❝❧✉sã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻✶

(24)

✻✳✺ ❈♦♥❝❧✉sã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵✶

✼ ❈♦♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❡ ❚r❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❋✉t✉r♦s ✷✵✹

✼✳✶ ❈♦♥❝❧✉sã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵✹ ✼✳✷ ❚r❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❋✉t✉r♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵✼

❘❊❋❊❘✃◆❈■❆❙ ✷✶✶

❆ ▼❡♠❛t♦❞❡❧♦ ❊♠❢❛t✐❝✴❊✉❣❡♥✐❛ ❞♦ ❈▲❖ ❙t✉❞✐♦ ✷✷✷

❇ ❘❡❣r❛s ❞❡ ❱❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❊❱▲ ✷✷✺

❈ ❙❝r✐♣ts ❞❡ ❚r❛♥s❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ✷✷✼

❈✳✶ ●❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❚❡♠♣❧❛t❡s ❞❡ ■♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦✲❈▲❖✷❋❧❡①✳♠✷t ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✷✼ ❈✳✷ ●❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❆rq✉✐✈♦s ❞❡ ❙✐♠✉❧❛çã♦✲❈▲❖✷❋❧❡①❙✐♠✳♠✷t ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸✹ ❈✳✸ ●❡r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❘♦t❡✐r♦ ❞❡ ❱❡rsõ❡s✲❈▲❖✷❱❡rs✐♦♥s✳♠✷t ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸✼ ❈✳✹ ●❡r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❘♦t❡✐r♦ ❞❡ ❆t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s✲❈▲❖✷❋♦♣✳♠✷t ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸✾ ❈✳✺ ●❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ▼❡t❛❞❛❞♦s ▲❖▼✲❈▲❖✷▲❖▼✳♠✷t ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✹✶

❉ ❘♦t❡✐r♦s ❞❡ ❊♥tr❡✈✐st❛ ✷✹✸

❉✳✶ ❘♦t❡✐r♦ ❞❡ ❊♥tr❡✈✐st❛ ❞❛ ❊q✉✐♣❡ ❞❡ ❉❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✹✸ ❉✳✷ ❘♦t❡✐r♦ ❞❡ ❊♥tr❡✈✐st❛ ❞♦ Pr♦❢❡ss♦r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✹✼

❊ ❉✐ár✐♦s ❞❡ ❈❛♠♣♦ ✷✺✵

❊✳✶ ❉✐ár✐♦ ❞❡ ❈❛♠♣♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❊q✉✐♣❡ ❞❡ ❉❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✺✵ ❊✳✷ ❉✐ár✐♦ ❞❡ ❈❛♠♣♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ Pr♦❢❡ss♦r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✺✶

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✷✶

❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✶

■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦

❖ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ é ♥ã♦ ♣❛r❛r ❞❡ q✉❡st✐♦♥❛r✳✑ ✕ ❆❧❜❡rt ❊✐♥st❡✐♥✳

◆❡st❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❛♦ q✉❛❧ ❡st❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❡stá ✐♥s❡r✐❞❛ ❡ ♦s ❢❛✲ t♦r❡s q✉❡ ♠♦t✐✈❛r❛♠ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ♠❡s♠❛✱ ♠♦str❛♥❞♦ ❝♦♠ ✐ss♦ ❛ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠át✐❝❛ ❧❡✈❛♥t❛❞❛ ❡ ❛ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡ tr❛t❛❞❛ ♥❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ t❛♠❜é♠ sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❛ s❡r❡♠ ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛❞♦s✱ ❛ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❡ ❛ r❡❧❡✈â♥❝✐❛ ❞❡st❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✱ t❛♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ â♠❜✐t♦ ❞❛ ❡♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❞❡ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ q✉❛♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ â♠❜✐t♦ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ❛ ❡str❛✲ té❣✐❛ ❛❞♦t❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ t❡s❡ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ♠♦❞♦ ❞❡ ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳

✶✳✶ ❈♦♥t❡①t♦

❆ ❊❞✉❝❛çã♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞❛ ❛ ❝❤❛✈❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s ♣❛ís❡s ✭❍❆✲ ❚❆❑❑❆✱ ✷✵✵✾✮✳ ◆♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ r❡❧❛tór✐♦ ❞❛ ❖r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❊❞✉❝❛çã♦✱ ❈✐ê♥✲ ❝✐❛s ❡ ❈✉❧t✉r❛ ✭❯◆❊❙❈❖✮✱ ❛ s✉❛ ❡❢❡t✐✈❛çã♦ ❛✐♥❞❛ é ✉♠ ❣r❛✈❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❡♥❢r❡♥t❛❞♦ ♣♦r ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ♣❛ís❡s ♥♦ ♠✉♥❞♦✱ q✉❡ ♣r❡❝✐s❛ s❡r s♦❧✉❝✐♦♥❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ♦s ♠❡s♠♦s ♣♦ss❛♠✱ ❞❡ ❢❛t♦✱ s❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡r ✭❆▲❆▼❀ ■❙▼❆■▲❀ ▼■❙❍❘❆✱ ✷✵✶✵❀ ❍❆▲▲❆❑✱ ✶✾✾✾✮✳ Pr♦✈❛ ❞✐ss♦✱ é q✉❡ ❡♠ ♣❧❡♥♦ sé❝✉❧♦ ✷✶ ❞❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❞❡ ❉❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ▼✐❧ê♥✐♦ ✭❖❉▼✮✱ ❛rt✐❝✉❧❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ Pr♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❛s ◆❛çõ❡s ❯♥✐❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❉❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ✭P◆❯❉✮✶✱ ❛ ❡r✲ r❛❞✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❛♥❛❧❢❛❜❡t✐s♠♦ ❛✐♥❞❛ é tr❛t❛❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ♠❡t❛s ❛ s❡r ❛t✐♥❣✐❞❛ ❛té ✷✵✶✺ ♣❡❧♦s ✶✾✶ ❡st❛❞♦s ♠❡♠❜r♦s ❞❛s ◆❛çõ❡s ❯♥✐❞❛s✳ ❊ss❛ ♠❡t❛ ❞❡✈❡ s❡r ✈✐❛❜✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦s ♣❛ís❡s✱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❞✐çõ❡s✱ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ t♦❞❛s ❛s ❝r✐❛♥ç❛s ♣♦ss❛♠ ♦❜t❡r ♦ ❡♥s✐♥♦ ❜ás✐❝♦✳ ❈♦♥t✉❞♦✱ ❛ ❝♦♥s❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❡ss❛ ♠❡t❛ ❡♠ ♣❛ís❡s ❡♠ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♠♦

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✶✳✶ ❈♦♥t❡①t♦ ✷✷ ♦ ❇r❛s✐❧✱ ❡stá ❧✐❣❛❞❛ ❛ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ❢❛t♦r❡s✱ t❛✐s ❝♦♠♦ ❛s t❛①❛s ❞❡ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❡s❝♦❧❛r ❡ ❞❡ t❡♠♣♦ ♠é❞✐♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❞♦ ❡♥s✐♥♦ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧✳

❉❡♥tr❡ ❛s ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❡str❛té❣✐❛s q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✉s❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛♣♦✐❛r ❛ ✈✐❛❜✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ss❡ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦✱ é ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ q✉❡ ♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❞♦r❡s ✉t✐❧✐③❡♠ r❡❝✉rs♦s q✉❡ ♠♦t✐✈❡♠ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❡ ♦s ♠❛♥t❡♥❤❛♠ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❛❞♦s ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❡ t♦❞♦ ♦ ♣❡rí♦❞♦ ❡♠ q✉❡ ♣❡r♠❛♥❡❝❡♠ ♥❛s ❡s❝♦✲ ❧❛s✳ ◆❡st❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ✐♥❞✐❝❛♠ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❝♦♠♦ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛❧ q✉❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❡❢❡t✐✈♦s ♥❡st❛ ❞✐r❡çã♦ ✭❋❊❘◆❆◆❉❊❙❀ ❈❖❙❚❆✱ ✷✵✵✾❀ ❇❆❑■❀ ➬❆❑■❘❖●▲❯✱ ✷✵✶✵✮✳ ❊♥tr❡ ❛s ❛❧t❡r♥❛t✐✈❛s t❡❝♥♦❧ó❣✐❝❛s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ❛t✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♥♦ ❝♦♥✲ t❡①t♦ ❞❛ s❛❧❛ ❞❡ ❛✉❧❛✱ ♦s ❘❡❝✉rs♦s ❊❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❉✐❣✐t❛✐s ✭❘❊❉✮✱ t❛✐s ❝♦♠♦ ✐♠❛❣❡♥s✱ ✈í❞❡♦s✱ ❤✐♣❡rt❡①t♦s ❡ s♦❢t✇❛r❡s✱ tê♠ s✐❞♦ ❛♠♣❧❛♠❡♥t❡ ✈❛❧♦r✐③❛❞♦s✱ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♣❡❧♦ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡ q✉❡ ❡ss❡s r❡❝✉rs♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❢❛❝✐❧♠❡♥t❡ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ❡ ❛❝❡ss❛❞♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ■♥t❡r♥❡t✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ s❡r ✉♠❛ ❢♦♥t❡ ❞❡ ♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ❡ ❛❧✉♥♦s✱ ♦s ❘❊❉ t❛♠❜é♠ s❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❡❢❡t✐✈❛s ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ✭❇❆❑■❀ ➬❆❑■❘❖●▲❯✱ ✷✵✶✵✮✳

❯♠ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ❘❊❉ ❛♠♣❧❛♠❡♥t❡ ❞✐❢✉♥❞✐❞♦ ♥❛ ■♥t❡r♥❡t sã♦ ♦s ❖❜❥❡t♦s ❞❡ ❆♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ✭❖❆✮ ✭▲❖◆●▼■❘❊✱ ✷✵✵✵✮✳ ❊ss❡s r❡❝✉rs♦s sã♦ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r ♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ❛ ❝r✐❛r ♥♦✈❛s ❡str❛té❣✐❛s ❞❡ ❡♥s✐♥♦ q✉❡ ❢❛✈♦r❡ç❛♠ ❛ ❛❜str❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛❧✉♥♦✳

P❛r❛ ❙❤❡♣❤❡r❞ ✭✷✵✵✵✮ ❡ ❲✐❧❧❡② ✭✷✵✵✶✮✱ ♦s ❖❆ sã♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s r❡s✉❧t❛♥t❡s ❞❛ ♦r✐✲ ❡♥t❛çã♦ ❛ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ♥♦ ♠✉♥❞♦ ❞❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❡ sã♦ ♣❡q✉❡♥♦s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s r❡✉sá✈❡✐s ✭✈í❞❡♦✱ ❞❡♠♦♥str❛çõ❡s✱ t✉t♦r✐❛✐s✱ ♣r♦❝❡❞✐♠❡♥t♦s✱ ❤✐stór✐❛s ❡ s✐♠✉❧❛çõ❡s✮ q✉❡ ♥ã♦ s❡r✲ ✈❡♠ s✐♠♣❧❡s♠❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦❞✉③✐r ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s✱ ❡ s✐♠✱ ♣❛r❛ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡r ♣❡ss♦❛s✳ ❊ss❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ♦❝♦rr❡ ♣♦rq✉❡ ♦s ❖❆ ❢♦r♥❡❝❡♠ ❝❡♥ár✐♦s ✐♥t❡r❡ss❛♥t❡s ❡ ❝♦♠ ✐ss♦ sã♦ ❝❛♣❛③❡s ❞❡ ❛❥✉❞❛r ♥❛ ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥sã♦ ❞♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❡ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s ✭❇❆❑■❀ ➬❆❑■❘❖●▲❯✱ ✷✵✶✵✮✳

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✶✳✶ ❈♦♥t❡①t♦ ✷✸ ◆❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛✱ ♦s ❘❊❉ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❡ú❞♦s ♣❡❞❛❣ó❣✐❝♦s ❞✐❣✐t❛✐s ♦✉ ♠❛t❡r✐❛✐s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❞✐❣✐t❛✐s✳ ■♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡ ❞❛ ❞❡♥♦♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❛❞♦t❛❞❛✱ ❡ss❡s ♠❛t❡r✐✲ ❛✐s✱ ❝♦♥t❡ú❞♦s ♦✉ r❡❝✉rs♦s ❜✉s❝❛♠✱ ♣♦r ✐♥t❡r♠é❞✐♦ ❞❛ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛✱ s❡r❡♠ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❞❡ ♠♦❞♦ ❛ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛r s✉❛ ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥sã♦✳

❉✐❛♥t❡ ❞❡ss❛s ✐♥ú♠❡r❛s ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s✱ ♦s ór❣ã♦s ❣♦✈❡r♥❛♠❡♥t❛✐s✱ ✉♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡s ❡ ✐♥s✲ t✐t✉✐çõ❡s ♣r✐✈❛❞❛s ✈ê♠ ❛♠♣❧✐❛♥❞♦ ❡ ✐♥❝❡♥t✐✈❛♥❞♦ ❛s ❝♦♥❞✐çõ❡s ❞❡ ✉s♦ ❞❡ss❡s r❡❝✉rs♦s ❡♠ s❛❧❛ ❞❡ ❛✉❧❛ ❝♦♠♦ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r ❛♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❡♥s✐♥♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ r❡♣♦s✐tór✐♦s ❡ ❝✉rs♦s✳ ◆♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ❣r❛♥❞❡s ♣r❡♦❝✉♣❛çõ❡s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s ❛ ❡ss❡s r❡❝✉rs♦s✱ ❞✐③ r❡s♣❡✐t♦ à ❢♦r♠❛ ❝♦♠♦ ❡st❡s sã♦✱ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s✱ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞♦s ❡ ❛❝❡ss❛❞♦s✳

❈♦♠♦ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ✐♥✈❡st✐r ♥♦ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❡✱ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡✱ ♥❛ ❞✐ss❡♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ t❡❝♥♦✲ ❧♦❣✐❛s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ ❢♦r❛♠ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s ❡s♣❛ç♦s ❞❡st✐♥❛❞♦s ❛♦ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❜✉s❝❛ ❞❡ ❘❊❉✱ ❞❡♥♦♠✐♥❛❞♦s ❞❡ r❡♣♦s✐tór✐♦s✳ ❖s r❡♣♦s✐tór✐♦s ❡①✐st❡♠ t❛♥t♦ ♥♦ â♠❜✐t♦ ♥❛❝✐♦✲ ♥❛❧ q✉❛♥t♦ ✐♥t❡r♥❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ◆♦ â♠❜✐t♦ ♥❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❝✐t❛r ♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❘❡❞❡ ■♥t❡r❛t✐✈❛ ❱✐rt✉❛❧ ❞❡ ❊❞✉❝❛çã♦ ✭❘✐✈❡❞✮ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ❞♦s ❣r❛♥❞❡s ✐♥✈❡st✐♠❡♥t♦s ❞♦ ❣♦✈❡r♥♦ ❜r❛s✐❧❡✐r♦✳ ❊st❡ ♣r♦❥❡t♦✱ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❡♠ ♣❛r❝❡r✐❛ ❝♦♠ ♦ P❡r✉ ❡ ❛ ❱❡♥❡③✉❡❧❛ ♥♦ ❛♥♦ ❞❡ ✶✾✾✾✱ t❡✈❡ ♣♦r ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❛ ♣r♦❞✉çã♦ ❡ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ♣ú❜❧✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❖❆✳ ❈♦♠ ❛ s❛í❞❛ ❞♦s ♣❛ís❡s ♣❛r❝❡✐r♦s ❛✐♥❞❛ ♥♦ ✐♥í❝✐♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦✱ ♦ ❣♦✈❡r♥♦ ❜r❛s✐❧❡✐r♦ r❡s♦❧✈❡✉ ✜♥❛♥❝✐❛r s♦③✐♥❤♦ ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞♦s r❡❝✉rs♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ❡❞✐t❛✐s ❡♥❞❡r❡ç❛❞♦s às ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡s Pú❜❧✐❝❛s ❇r❛s✐❧❡✐r❛s✳

P♦st❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡✱ ♥♦ ❛♥♦ ❞❡ ✷✵✵✽✱ ♦ ❣♦✈❡r♥♦ ❜r❛s✐❧❡✐r♦ ❞❡✉ ✐♥✐❝✐♦ ❛ ✉♠ ♥♦✈♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦✱ ❡♠ s✉❜st✐t✉✐çã♦ ❛♦ ❘✐✈❡❞✳ ❈♦♠ ♦ ♣r♦♣ós✐t♦ ❞❡ ❜✉s❝❛r ❡ ❝❛t❛❧♦❣❛r ❝♦♥t❡ú❞♦s ❞✐❣✐t❛✐s ❞❡ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ♣❛rt❡ ❞♦ ♠✉♥❞♦✱ ♦ ❇❛♥❝♦ ■♥t❡r♥❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ ❖❜❥❡t♦s ❊❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ✭❇■❖❊✮✷ ❢♦✐ ❝r✐❛❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ r❡♣♦s✐tór✐♦ ❞❡ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❧✐✈r❡ ❛❧✐♠❡♥t❛❞♦ ♣❡❧❛s ✉♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡s ♣ú❜❧✐❝❛s q✉❡ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✜♥❛♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❣♦✈❡r♥❛♠❡♥t❛❧ r❡❛❧✐③❛♠ ❜✉s❝❛s ❡ ❝❛t❛❧♦❣❛♠ ♦s r❡❝✉rs♦s ❞♦s ♠❛✐s ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ❢♦r♠❛t♦s✳

❈♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦s ✐♥✈❡st✐♠❡♥t♦s ❣♦✈❡r♥❛♠❡♥t❛✐s ❡♠ ♥í✈❡❧ ✐♥t❡r♥❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ é ♣♦ssí✲ ✈❡❧ ♠❡♥❝✐♦♥❛r ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❋❡❞❡r❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❆♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ✭▲❡❅r♥✐♥❣ ❋❡❞❡r❛t✐♦♥✮✸✳ ❆ ▲❡❅❛r♥✐♥❣ ❋❡❞❡r❛t✐♦♥ é r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❡ ✐♥✈❡st✐♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ❢✉♥❞♦s ❞♦ ❣♦✈❡r♥♦ ❞❛ ❆✉strá❧✐❛ ❡ ◆♦✈❛ ❩❡❧â♥❞✐❛ ❡ t❡♠ ♣♦r ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡r ❝♦❧❛❜♦r❛t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ✉♠❛ ❢♦♥t❡ ❝♦♥tí♥✉❛ ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s ❞✐❣✐t❛✐s ❞❡ ❛❧t❛ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡✱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠❛ sér✐❡ ❞❡ ♣r♦❥❡t♦s✱ ❡ ❢♦r♥❡❝ê✲❧♦s às ❡s❝♦❧❛s ❛✉str❛❧✐❛♥❛s ❡ ♥❡♦③❡❧❛♥❞❡s❛s✳

◆♦ â♠❜✐t♦ ❞❛s ✉♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡s✱ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❝✐t❛r ♦ ▼■❚ ❖♣❡♥ ❈♦✉rs❡✇❛r❡✹✱ t❛♠❜é♠ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ▼■❚ ❖❈❲✳ ❊st❛ ✐♥✐❝✐❛t✐✈❛ é ✉♠❛ ❛çã♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t❛ ❞♦ ▼■❚ ❝♦♠ ❛s ❢✉♥❞❛✲

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✶✳✶ ❈♦♥t❡①t♦ ✷✹ çõ❡s ❲✐❧❧✐❛♠ ❛♥❞ ❋❧♦r❛ ❍❡✇❧❡tt ❡ ❆♥❞r❡✇ ❲✳ ▼❡❧❧♦♥ ❡ t❡♠ ♣♦r ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛r ❛❝❡ss♦ ❣r❛t✉✐t♦ ❛♦s ♠❛t❡r✐❛✐s r❡❧❛t✐✈♦s ❛♦s ❝✉rs♦s ❞♦ ▼■❚ ♣❛r❛ ❡❞✉❝❛❞♦r❡s ❞❡ ✐♥st✐✲ t✉✐çõ❡s s❡♠ ✜♥s ❧✉❝r❛t✐✈♦s✱ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ❡ ❛✉t♦❞✐❞❛t❛s ❞♦ ♠✉♥❞♦ t♦❞♦✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞❡ ❝r✐❛r ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣❛❞r♦♥✐③❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ♦✉tr❛s ✉♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡s ♣♦ss❛♠ ❝♦♣✐❛r ♣❛r❛ ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛r ♦s ♠❛t❡r✐❛✐s ❞❡ s❡✉s ♣ró♣r✐♦s ❝✉rs♦s✳

❆✐♥❞❛ ♥♦ â♠❜✐t♦ ✐♥t❡r♥❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ♠❛s ❛❣♦r❛ ♥❛ ❡s❢❡r❛ ❞❛s ✐♥st✐t✉✐çõ❡s ♣r✐✈❛❞❛s✱ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❝✐t❛r ♦ ✐❈❛♠♣✉s Pr♦❥❡❝t✺✳ ❖ ✐❈❛♠♣✉s é ✉♠ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ♣❡❧❛ ▼✐❝r♦s♦❢t ❘❡s❡❛r❝❤ ❡♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ▼❛ss❛❝❤✉s❡tts ■♥st✐t✉t❡ ♦❢ ❚❡❝❤♥♦❧♦❣② ✭▼■❚✮ ❡ t❡♠ ♣♦r ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❡①♣❛♥❞✐r ♦ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❛♦s ❝✉rs♦s ❞❡st❛ ✐♥st✐t✉✐çã♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❧❛❜♦r❛tór✐♦s ✈✐rt✉❛✐s ❡ ♦✉tr❛s t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞❛s ♥♦ ▼■❚✳

❆❧é♠ ❞♦s ❥á ❝✐t❛❞♦s✱ ❡①✐st❡♠ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s r❡♣♦s✐tór✐♦s ❡s♣❛❧❤❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ♠✉♥❞♦✳ ◆♦ ❘❡✐♥♦ ❯♥✐❞♦ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❝✐t❛r ♦ ❏♦r✉♠✻✳ ◆❛ ❈❛❧✐❢ór♥✐❛ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❝✐t❛r ♦ ▼✉❧t✐♠❡❞✐❛ ❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❘❡s♦✉r❝❡ ❢♦r ▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ❖♥❧✐♥❡ ❚❡❛❝❤✐♥❣ ✭▼❡r❧♦t✮✼ ❞❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr♦s✳

❉❡✈✐❞♦ ❛ ❡ss❛ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s ✐♥s❡r✐❞♦s ♥♦s ♠❛✐s ❞✐✈❡rs♦s r❡✲ ♣♦s✐tór✐♦s ❡①✐st❡♥t❡s✱ s✉r❣❡ ❛❣♦r❛ ❛ ♣r❡♦❝✉♣❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥s♦❧✐❞❛r ♥ã♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s ♦ ❝♦♠♣❛r✲ t✐❧❤❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s r❡❝✉rs♦s✱ ♠❛s t❛♠❜é♠ ♦ ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❉✐❛♥t❡ ❞❡ss❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡✱ s✉r❣❡ ♦ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡♠ ❞❡❢❡s❛ ❞❛ ❛❜❡rt✉r❛ ❞♦s ❘❊❉✱ ❞❡♥♦♠✐♥❛❞♦ ❖♣❡♥ ❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❘❡s♦✉r❝❡s ✭❖❊❘✮✳ ❊ss❡ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛ ❞♦s ✐❞❡❛✐s ❞♦ ❖♣❡♥ ❙♦✉r❝❡✱ ❡ ❞❡❢❡♥❞❡ q✉❡ ♦s ♠❛t❡r✐❛✐s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❞✐❣✐t❛✐s ❞❡✈❛♠ s❡r ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s ❞❡ ♠♦❞♦ ❛❜❡rt♦ ❡ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❧✐✈r❡✱ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ♣♦ss❛♠ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♣❡❧❛ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❛❝❛❞ê♠✐❝❛ ❡♠ ❣❡r❛❧✱ ♥♦ ❡♥s✐♥♦✱ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✳

❙❡❣✉♥❞♦ ❍②❧é♥ ✭✷✵✵✻✮✱ ♦ ❖❊❘ é ✉♠ ❢❡♥ô♠❡♥♦ r❡❧❛t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ♥♦✈♦✱ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✈✐st♦ ❝♦♠♦ ♣❛rt❡ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ t❡♥❞ê♥❝✐❛ ♠❛✐♦r ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❛❜❡rt✉r❛ ❡♠ ❡♥s✐♥♦ s✉♣❡r✐♦r✱ ✐♥✲ ❝❧✉✐♥❞♦ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦s ♠❛✐s ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦s ♠✉♥❞✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❡ ❡st❛❜❡❧❡❝✐❞♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❖♣❡♥ ❙♦✉r❝❡ ❙♦❢t✇❛r❡ ✭❖❙❙✮ ❡ ♦ ❖♣❡♥ ❆❝❝❡ss ✭❖❆✮✳ ❆ ❛❜❡rt✉r❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ♣♦r ❡ss❡ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❢♦❝❛ ♥❛ ❧✐❜❡r❞❛❞❡✱ ❤❡r❞❛❞❛ ❞♦ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❧✐✈r❡✱ ♣❛r❛ ❛❧t❡r❛r ♦ ❝ó❞✐❣♦ ❢♦♥t❡ ❞♦ r❡❝✉rs♦✳

◆❡ss❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦✱ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ❡ ❛❧✉♥♦s s❡ ❞❡♣❛r❛♠ ❛t✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♥✲ t❡ú❞♦ ❛❜❡rt♦✱ r❡❝✉rs♦s ❛❜❡rt♦s✱ ❡♥s✐♥♦ ❛❜❡rt♦✱ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❛❜❡rt❛ ♥♦ ❞❡s✐❣♥ ❞❡ ❡s♣❛ç♦s ❢ís✐❝♦s ❡ ✈✐rt✉❛✐s✱ ❝ó❞✐❣♦ ❛❜❡rt♦✱ ❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❛❜❡rt♦ ✭❇❆❚❙❖◆❀ P❆❍❆❘■❆❀ ❑❯✲ ▼❆❘✱ ✷✵✵✽✮✳ ❈♦♥t✉❞♦✱ é ♣r❡❝✐s♦ ❛♠♣❧✐❛r ❛ ❞✐s❝✉ssã♦ s♦❜r❡ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ss❛s t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s ✈✐s❛♥❞♦ ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥❞❡r ❛s ❧✐♠✐t❛çõ❡s ❞♦ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ❛❜❡rt✉r❛ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❛♦ ❡♥s✐♥♦ ❡ ❝♦♠♦ ♦s r❡✲ ❝✉rs♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s sã♦ ♣r♦❥❡t❛❞♦s✱ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s ❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♣♦r ❛q✉❡❧❡s q✉❡ ❜✉s❝❛♠ ♣♦r ♥♦✈❛s ♦♣♦rt✉♥✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❡♥s✐♥♦ ❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠✳

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✶✳✷ ▼♦t✐✈❛çã♦ ✷✺

✶✳✷ ▼♦t✐✈❛çã♦

❙❡❣✉♥❞♦ ❇❛❡❦✱ ❏✉♥❣ ❡ ❑✐♠ ✭✷✵✵✽✮✱ ♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s tê♠ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ ❡♠ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ♦s ❘❊❉ ❡♠ s❛❧❛ ❞❛ ❛✉❧❛✳ ◆♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛♣♦♥t❛❞♦ ♣♦r ❛❧❣✉♥s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛❞♦r❡s✱ ❤á ♠✉✐t♦s ♦❜s✲ tá❝✉❧♦s q✉❡ ♦s ✐♠♣❡❞❡♠ ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③á✲❧♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ✐♥❢r❛❡str✉t✉r❛ ✐♥❛❞❡q✉❛❞❛ ✭▼❊❍▲■◆●❊❘❀ P❖❲❊❘❙✱ ✷✵✵✷❀ P❊▲●❘❯▼✱ ✷✵✵✶✮✱ ❢❛❧t❛ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥✲ t♦s ♣❡ss♦❛✐s ✭❏❆❈❖❇❙❖◆❀ ❲❊▲▲❊❘✱ ✶✾✽✽❀ ❙❈❍❘❯▼✱ ✶✾✾✾❀ ❙❚❘❯❉▲❊❘❀ ❲❊❚❩❊▲✱ ✶✾✾✾❀ ❲■▲▲■❙❀ ❚❍❖▼P❙❖◆❀ ❙❆❉❊❘❆✱ ✶✾✾✾✮✱ ❡ s✉♣♦rt❡ té❝♥✐❝♦ ❢r❛❝♦ ✭◆❊❚❉❆❨✱ ✷✵✵✶❀ ❙❈❍❘❯▼✱ ✶✾✾✺✮✱ ❞❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr♦s✱ sã♦ ♦s ❞❡s❛✜♦s ♠❛✐s ❝✐t❛❞♦s✳

P❛r❛ ❆❧♠❡✐❞❛ ✭✷✵✵✵✮ ❡ P❡❧❣r✉♠ ✭✷✵✵✶✮ ✉♠ ❞♦s ♠❛✐♦r❡s ♦❜stá❝✉❧♦s ❞✐③ r❡s♣❡✐t♦ à ❛✉t♦♥♦♠✐❛ ❡①❡r❝✐❞❛ ♣❡❧♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s✱ ♣♦✐s ❛ ❢❛❧t❛ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦s ♣❡ss♦❛✐s t❛♥t♦ ♥♦ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ❞♦ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r q✉❛♥t♦ ♥♦ s♦❢t✇❛r❡✱ ❛❝❛❜❛ ♣♦r s❡ ❝♦♥st✐t✉✐r ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ♠❛✐♦r ❛♥s✐❡❞❛❞❡ ♣♦r ♣❛rt❡ ❞❡ss❡s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s✳

❆❧♠❡✐❞❛ ✭✷✵✵✵✮ r❡ss❛❧t❛ ❛✐♥❞❛ q✉❡ ♥ã♦ ❜❛st❛ s✐♠♣❧❡s♠❡♥t❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❛ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❡♠ s❛❧❛ ❞❡ ❛✉❧❛✱ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ♦❜s❡r✈❛r q✉❡ s♦♠❡♥t❡ ♣❡❧♦ ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦ ❞❛ ❞❡♠♦❝r❛❝✐❛✱ ❞❛ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛çã♦✱ ❞❛ ❧✐❜❡r❞❛❞❡ r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ❡ ❞♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ❛✉t♦♥♦♠✐❛ s❡rá ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❡✈✐t❛r ♦s ❡❢❡✐t♦s ❞❡❝❡♣❝✐♦♥❛♥t❡s ❞❡ s✉❛ ✐♥❝♦r♣♦r❛çã♦ ♥♦ ❡♥s✐♥♦ ❡ ♥❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠✳

◆❡ss❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞❡ ❛❜❡rt✉r❛ ❡ ❝♦❧❛❜♦r❛çã♦ ❡♠ ♣r♦❧ ❞♦ ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛✲ çõ❡s ❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ♦ s✉r❣✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❖❊❘ ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥♦✉ ❛✈❛♥ç♦s ♥❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ♣❡♥s❛r ❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡r r❡❝✉rs♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❞✐❣✐t❛✐s✳ ▼✉✐t♦ ❡♠❜♦r❛ ❛✐♥❞❛ ❤❛❥❛ ❧✐♠✐t❛çõ❡s ♥❛ ❛✉t♦♥♦♠✐❛ ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ♣♦r ❡ss❡ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦✱ t❡♥❞♦ ❡♠ ✈✐st❛ q✉❡ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠❛ ♣❛r❝❡❧❛ ❞♦s q✉❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♠ ❡ss❡s r❡❝✉rs♦s t❡♠ ❝♦♥❞✐çõ❡s ❞❡ ✉s✉❢r✉✐r ❞❡ss❛ ❛✉t♦♥♦♠✐❛✳ ❊ss❛ ♣❛r✲ ❝❡❧❛ ❡stá r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ àq✉❡❧❡s q✉❡ tê♠ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ té❝♥✐❝♦ ♣❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ♠♦❞✐✜❝❛çõ❡s ❡♠ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ ❝ó❞✐❣♦✱ q✉❡ é ❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ♣❡❧❛ q✉❛❧ ❡ss❛ ❛❜❡rt✉r❛ s❡ ❞á ♣❛r❛ s❡✉s ✉s✉ár✐♦s✳

◆♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ ♣♦r s❡ tr❛t❛r❡♠ ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ ❛s ♠♦❞✐✜❝❛çõ❡s ❛ s❡r❡♠ r❡❛✲ ❧✐③❛❞❛s✱ ♠✉✐t❛s ✈❡③❡s✱ sã♦ ❜❛st❛♥t❡ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛s ❡ ♣♦r ✐ss♦ r❡q✉❡r❡♠ ❛ ✐♥t❡r✈❡♥çã♦ ❞✐r❡t❛ ❞♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✱ q✉❡ ♥❛ ♠❛✐♦r✐❛ ❞❛s ✈❡③❡s✱ ♥ã♦ ♣♦ss✉✐ q✉❛❧✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❡ss❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r✈❡♥çã♦✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ♠❡s♠♦ q✉❡ ❡ss❛ q✉❛❧✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❡①✐st❛✱ ♠♦❞✐✜❝❛çõ❡s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ✐♥❞✐s❝r✐♠✐♥❛❞❛ ♣♦❞❡♠ ❛❧t❡r❛r ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ♣❡❞❛❣ó❣✐❝♦s ❞♦s r❡❝✉rs♦s✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❡ss❛s q✉❡stõ❡s ❛❝❛❜❛♠ ♣♦r ❞❡❧✐♠✐t❛r ❛ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠át✐❝❛ tr❛t❛❞❛ ♥❡st❛ t❡s❡ ❞❡ ❞♦✉t♦r❛❞♦ ❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛ s❡❣✉✐r✳

✶✳✸ Pr♦❜❧❡♠át✐❝❛

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