Monografia - História Do Computador (PDF)

Texto

(1)

1 1

N

N

OVE DEOVE DE

JJ

ULHOULHO

U

U

NIVERSIDADENIVERSIDADE

H

H

ISTÓRIA DO

ISTÓRIA DO

C

C

OMPUTADOR

OMPUTADOR

LL

EANDRO DOSEANDRO DOS

S

S

 ANTOS ANTOS

M

M

 ARREIRA ARREIRA

- 308200148

- 308200148

M

M

 ARCUS ARCUS

V

V

INÍCIUSINÍCIUS

M

M

ONTANARIONTANARI

JJ

ERONYMOERONYMO

- 908205730

- 908205730

M

M

ONOGRAFIA DEONOGRAFIA DE

II

NVESTIGAÇÃONVESTIGAÇÃO

C

C

IENTÍFICA EMIENTÍFICA EM

C

C

OMPUTAÇÃOOMPUTAÇÃO

Ori!"#$%r& L'i( A)*r"% N+, i).%

Ori!"#$%r& L'i( A)*r"% N+, i).%

S/% #')% 07 $ #i% $ 2012 S/% #')% 07 $ #i% $ 2012

(2)
(3)

H

H

ISTÓRIA DO

ISTÓRIA DO

C

C

OMPUTADOROMPUTADOR

M%!%r#i# #6r,!"#$# %% 6#r" $#, M%!%r#i# #6r,!"#$# %% 6#r" $#, #"i+i$#$, 6#r# %*"!/% $ !%"# $# #"i+i$#$, 6#r# %*"!/% $ !%"# $# 6riir# #+#)i#/% $# $i,i6)i!# $ 6riir# #+#)i#/% $# $i,i6)i!# $

I!+,"i#/% Ci!"i#  C%6'"#/% I!+,"i#/% Ci!"i#  C%6'"#/% i!i,"r#$# 6)% 6r%,,%r L'i( A)*r"% i!i,"r#$# 6)% 6r%,,%r L'i( A)*r"% N+, i).% $% 'r,% $ Ci:!i# $# N+, i).% $% 'r,% $ Ci:!i# $# C%6'"#/% $# U!i+r,i$#$ N%+ $ C%6'"#/% $# U!i+r,i$#$ N%+ $ J').% ;C#6', M%ri#)< J').% ;C#6', M%ri#)<

r%,,%r Ori!"#$%r& L'i( A)*r"% N+, i).% r%,,%r Ori!"#$%r& L'i( A)*r"% N+, i).%

S/% #')% 2012 S/% #')% 2012

(4)

Dedicamos esta monografia a todos os Dedicamos esta monografia a todos os amigos do curso de Ciência da amigos do curso de Ciência da Computação que durante estes quatro Computação que durante estes quatro anos passados, enfrentaram situações anos passados, enfrentaram situações adversas a fim de conquistar sabedoria e adversas a fim de conquistar sabedoria e um diploma que qualifica e atesta seus um diploma que qualifica e atesta seus conhecimentos adquiridos ao mercado de conhecimentos adquiridos ao mercado de trabalho e a quem duvidar de sua trabalho e a quem duvidar de sua capacidade intelectual. Sentimos por  capacidade intelectual. Sentimos por  aqueles que lutaram, mas que de alguma aqueles que lutaram, mas que de alguma forma não conseguirão concluir o curso, forma não conseguirão concluir o curso, mas torcemos e muito, para que estes mas torcemos e muito, para que estes estejam bem e que um dia possam estejam bem e que um dia possam conquistar tudo aquilo que sempre conquistar tudo aquilo que sempre sonharam. sonharam.

ue Deus esteja com todos e para todos ue Deus esteja com todos e para todos sempre. sempre.

(5)

 Ar#$i!"%,

 !gradecemos a todos que não nos ajudaram na elaboração desta monografia, pois com sua negativa, tivemos que buscar so"inhos a informação e aprendemos que neste mundo, confiar em n#s mesmos $ a solução para enfrentarmos na vida, o inesperado. %ossas almas se fortalecem da energia gerada por atitudes não muito humildes... !gora podemos di"er que estamos preparados& 

'a(imum inventum in mundi est non technolog) sed mortem& uia per veterem novo cedat semper.

Steve Jobs

*! maior invenção do mundo não $ a minha tecnologia e sim a morte& +ois atrav$s dela, o velho sempre dar lugar 

 para o novo.- 

(6)

R,'%

O C%6'"#$%r = '# #>'i!# #,i!#!" >' % 6%'%, %#!$%, ?'"#$%, ). 6ri" "r # $i,6%,i/% ' !%r )>' >' ,%)'@, 6#r# ,'#, "#r#, $% $i# # $i# S'# >'#)i$#$ = "##!.# >' #"= # "#$ $# $=#$# $ 190 %, %6'"#$%r, r# B>'i!#, #r,,i#,  r#)!" r# ',#$#, ,%!" 6#r# $"ri!#$%, %*"i+%,  r#!$, 6r,#,  i!,"i"'i@,

N% %% $# $=#$# $ 80 #i, 6ri,#!"  1092 # r+i,"# Ti $' 6)# 6riir# +( % ""')% $ O H% $% A!% # ' %6'"#$%r %r= "'$% i,,% >' "%, .% !/% ,'ri' 6r%!"% , #i, ! !%, T%$# # r# $# I!%rB"i# "+ >' 6#,,#r 6%r r#!$, +%)'@, #"= .#r #% C%6'"#$%r >' +%: ',# .%  #,# %' !% "r#*#).%

T'$% %%' % # 6riir# r#/% $ %6'"#$%r, >' +#ri# !"r %, #!%, $ 1942  1959 %!$ r# %!,"r'$%, % +B)+')#, )"rF!i#, $i?#!$% %6)"#!" +#% # >',"/% $ %!i#*i)i$#$ # >'#!"i$#$ $ !ri# %!,'i$#  % #)%r 6r%$'(i$% 6%r 20000 +B)+')#, E,,#, +B)+')#, !%r#)!" >'*r#+#  6%'#, .%r#, $ ',%  %!"i!.# #)'#, !"r#$#,  ,#$#, 6rii"i+#, #)')#+# % '# +)%i$#$ $ i)=,i%, $ ,'!$%,  r# 6r%r##$%,  )i!'# $ B>'i!#

C%% #, $ii')$#$, !# 6r%$'/% $%, %6'"#$%r, r# r#!$, ,%!"  1951 ,'rir# %, 6riir%, %6'"#$%r,  ,#)# %ri#) #6G, % ENIAC 6%$-, i!ii#r # 6riir# r#/% % % UNIVAC 1 $,"##!$% % EDVAC % .ir)i!$  % IM 50 %% %6'"#$%r, "6i%, $,,# r#/% JB !#, B>'i!#, $ ,'!$# r#/% # +B)+')# %i ,'*,"i"'$# 6%r "r#!,i,"%r "!%)%i# ',#$# !"r

1959  195

O "r#!,i,"%r %r# $,!+%)+i$% 6%r i))i# S.%K) J #r$!   r#""#i! !% )) L#*%r#"%ri, S'# "!%)%i# % 6ri"i# ,r 100 +(, ).%r >' # +B)+')#  !/% 6ri,#+# $ "6% 6#r# #>'i!"% %!,'i# !%, !ri# r# #i, rB6i$% %!iB+)  B #)')#+#  ir%,,'!$%, S' r6r,!"#!" )B,,i% %i % IM 1401  ,' ,',,%r % IM 7094 B "%"#)!" ',#!$% # "!%)%i# $%, "r#!,i,"%r, S' r!$i!"% %i "/% r#!$ >' !"r %, %$)%, 1401  7094 # IM +!$' #i, $ 10000 %6'"#$%r,

D'r#!" %, #!%, ,'i!", %, %6'"#$%r, %#r# # ,r '"i)i(#$%, 6#r# $"ri!#$#, '!@, %% 6r%,,#r 6$i$%, %!"r%)#r # 6r%$'/% !"r %'"r%, E  194 # Ari#! Air)i!, %%' # #(r r,r+#,  "6% r#) O 6riir% %6'"#$%r ,G .%' #% r#,i)  191 ' UNIVAC 1105 #i!$# % +B)+')#, 6#r# ,r ',#$% !% IE C% %, "r#!,i,"%r, >' r# !%r, >' #, +B)+')#, %#r# # ,r 6r%$'(i$%, %6'"#$%r, !%r, O $ #i%r  ,',,% %i % $# DEC  Dii"#) E>'i6#!" C%r6%r#"i%! '!$#$#  1957

O 6riir% i!i%6'"#$%r 6r%$'(i$% %ri#)!" %i % D-8 % 6riir% % ,',,% %ri#) A "rir# r#/% %# % # ,'*,"i"'i/% $%, "r#!,i,"%r, 6)%, ir'i"%, i!"r#$%, E), B #)')#+#  !#!% ,'!$%, ,' r6r,!"#!" %i % IM 30 A% )%!% $%, #!%, # +%)'/% !,,# Br# " *',#$%

(7)

6ri!i6#)!" # i!i#"'ri(#/%  % !#6,')#!"% $%, $i,6%,i"i+%, i!"r!%, $%, %6'"#$%r, E .% 6%$%, %!,"#"#r i,,% !% !%,,% $i# # $i# #"r#+=, $ "%$#, #, i!,')#, "!%)%i#, >' i# #% !%,,% i%

 A*,"r#"

T. C%6'"r i, # #,i!#"i! #.i! .i. i".  %#!$, ?'"$ #))%, %' "% .#+ #+#i)#*) # .' r#! ".#" ,%)'"i%!, "% ".ir +r$# "#,K, I", >'#)i" i, ,'. ".#" '!"i) ". i$-190, %6'"r, r ?6!,i+ #.i!, #!$ !r#)) ',$ %!) %r r"#i! %*"i+, i! )#r %6#!i, #!$ i!,"i"'"i%!,

I! ". #r) 80, %r 6ri,) i! 1092 Ti ##(i! #+ %r ". ir," "i ". "i") % PM#! % ". Y#rP "% # %6'"r '" #)) ".#"  .#+ "%$# $i$ !%" % r#$ %'" % !%.r E+r r# % IT .#$ "% '!$r% #%r .#!, '!"i) i" r#., ". %6'"r ".#" %' ', "%$# #" .% %r #" %rK

I" ,"#r"$ i". ". ir," !r#"i%! % %6'"r, r#!i! r% ". #r, 1942 #!$ 1959 .i. r *'i)" i". +#'' "'*, )#+i! >'i" +#' ". >',"i%! %  r)i#*i)i" ". #%'!" % !r %!,'$ #!$ .#" 6r%$'$ * 20000 "'*, T., +#)+, ','#)) *r%K i".i! #  .%'r, % ', #!$ %!"#i!$ ,% 6rii"i+ i!6'", #!$ %'"6'", #)')#"$ #" # ,6$ % i))i,%!$, #!$ r 6r%r#$ i! #.i! )#!'#

 A, ". $ii')"i, i! ". 6r%$'"i%! % %6'"r, r )#r %!) i! 1951 r ". ir," %6'"r, %! # %ri#) ,#) #"r ". ENIAC %! #! ,"#r" ". ir," !r#"i%! i". ". UNIVAC 1 .i.)i."i! ". EDVAC .ir)i!$ #!$ IM 50 %6'"r, #, "6i#) % ".i, !r#"i%! A)r#$ i! ". ,%!$ !r#"i%! #.i!, ". +#)+ #, r6)#$ * "r#!,i,"%r ".!%)% ',$ *"! 1959 #!$ 195

T. "r#!,i,"%r #, $+)%6$ * i))i# S.%K) J #r$! #!$  r#""#i! #" )) L#*%r#"%ri, I", ".!%)% #))%$ .i "% * 100 "i, *""r ".#! ". +#)+ #!$ $i$ !%" !$ "i "% #r '6 %!,' ),, !rQ i" #, #,"r r)i#*) #!$ #)r#$ #)')#"$ i! ir%,%!$, Hi, r6r,!"#"i+ #, ". )#,,i IM 1401 #!$ IM 7094 .i, ,',,%r #)r#$ ')) ',i! ". ".!%)% % "r#!,i,"%r, Hi, 6r%r#! #, ,% r#" ".#" *"! 1401 #!$ 7094 %$), IM .#, ,%)$ %r ".#! 10000 %6'"r,

D'ri! ". %))%i! #r, ". %6'"r, *#! "% * ',$ %r r"#i! '!"i%!, ,'. #, 6r%,,i! %r$r, %!"r%) ". 6r%$'"i%! #!$ %".r, A!$ i! 194  Ari#! Air)i!, *#! "% #K r,r+#"i%!, i! r#) "i T. ir," %6'"r ',"

#rri+$ i! r#(i) i! 191 ,"i)) i". # UNIVAC 1105 +#)+, "% * ',$ * ". IE i". ". "r#!,i,"%r, ".#" r ),, ".#! ". +#)+, *i! "% * 6r%$'$ ,#))r 

(8)

%6'"r, T. %," ,',,') #, ". DEC - Dii"#) E>'i6!" C%r6%r#"i%! %'!$$ i! 1957

T. ir," %ri#)) 6r%$'$ i!i%6'"r D-8 #, ". ir," %ri#)) ,',,') T. ".ir$ !r#"i%! *i!, i". ". ,'*,"i"'"i%! % ". "r#!,i,"%r, i!"r#"$ ir'i", T. .#+ #)r#$ #)')#"$ i! !#!%,%!$, i", r6r,!"#"i+ #, ". IM 30 O+r ". #r, ". +%)'"i%! i! ".i, #r# .#, ,%'." 6ri#ri) "% i!i#"'ri(#"i%! #!$ !#6,')#"i%! % ". $+i, i!"r!#) %6'"r, A!$ "%$#  #! , ".#" i! %'r $# "% $# ".r%'. #)) ". ".!%)%i, ".#" #r ,!,i"i+ "% %'r !+ir%!!"

(9)

Lista de Ilusta!"es#

$% &'a() %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $ *% R+,ua de (-l(ul) e. sua e/te0s1) %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% * 2% R+,ua de C-l(ul) %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% * 3% R+,ua de C-l(ul) 0) ta.a04) (i(ula %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 2 5% 6leise Pas(al %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 2 7% M-8ui0a de Pas(al %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 2 9% :)se;4 Maie :a,uad %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 3 <% Tea P),a.-=el %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 5 >% C4ales 6a''a,e %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 5 $?% M-8ui0a de Di@ee0!as %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 7 $$% M-8ui0a A0alti(a %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 7 $*% Ge),e 6))le %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 9 $2% He.a0 H)lleit4 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% < $3% Ta'ulad)a %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% > $5% Va00e=a 6us4 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $? $7% MaB I %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $? $9% V-l=ulas Elet0i(as%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $$ $<% ENIAC %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $* $>% EDVAC %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $2 *?% UNIVAC %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $3 *$% $ Ta0sist) %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $3 **% I6M 9?2? %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $5 *2% PDP  < %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $7 *3% PDP  < (). u. @u0(i)0-i) %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $7 *5% Pai0el d) I6M 27?>$ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $7 *7% R)l)s de @ita de a.ae0a.e0t) d) I6M 27?>$ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $9 *9% I0tel <?3<7 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $< *<% 6ill Gates e Paul Alle0 (iad)es da Mi()s)@t %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $> *>% A;;le I $>97 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $> 2?% A;;le II $>9> %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $> 2$% A;;le Lisa $><2 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% *? 2*% P)(essad)es da I0tel %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% *$

(10)

Su.-i)#

$% I0t)du!1) %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $ *% A HistJia d) C).;utad) %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $ *%$% O &'a() %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $ *%*% R+,ua de C-l(ul) %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% * *%2% M-8ui0a de Pas(al %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 2 *%3% O su,i.e0t) da ;),a.a!1) @u0(i)0al %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 3 *%5% 6a''a,e KO Re=)lu(i)0-i) %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 5 O E!!.% A!#)"i% ;MB>'i!# A!#)"i#<   *%7% A lJ,i(a .)de0a Te)ia de 6))le %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 7

21 O Si,"# i!Bri%  7 *%9% M-8ui0a de H)lleit4 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% < *%<% Os C).;utad)es P+M)de0)s %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% > *%>% C).;uta!1) M)de0a%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $$ *%>%$ Pi.eia Gea!1) $>37  $>5> %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $$ *%>%$%$ ENIAC %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $$ *%>%*% Se,u0da Gea!1) $>5>  $>73%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $* *%>%*%$ I6M 9?2? )u Ste(4 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $2 *%>%*%*% PDP  <%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $3 *%>%2% Te(eia Gea!1) $>73  $>9?%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $3 *%>%3% uata Gea!1) $>9? at+ 4)e%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $7 *%>%3%$% Altai <<?? %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $7 *%>%3%*% A;;le Lisa e Ma(i0t)s4 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $9 *%>%3%2% Mi()s)@t e )s P)(essad)es I0tel %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $> *%>%3%3 MultiC)e %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% *$ *%>%5 ui0ta Gea!1) %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% ** 2% C)0(lus1) %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% *2 3% Re@eQ0(ia %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% *3

(11)

$%I0t)du!1)#

 A"'#)!" %, %6'"#$%r, ,"/% 6r,!",  !%,,#, +i$#, $ '# %r# !'!# +i,"# #!", O %6'"#$%r ,"B 6r,!"  !%,,% %"i$i#!% ,#  #,# !# ,%)# !% "r#*#).%  #"= !%, )'#r, >' r>'!"#%,

 A %6'"#/% !/% ,'ri' !#, )"i#, $=#$#, %' !%, )"i%, #!%, %% "%$%, 6!,#%, #% %!"rBri% ,'ri' # i).#r, $ #!%,  6#r# ,r ' 6%'% #i, 6ri,% .B 7 i) #!%, #"rB,

#r# %#r +#%, #)#r $ '# %r# 'i"% ,i6), $ #)')#r  >' %i 'i"% "i) !#, #!"i#, ')"'r#, >' %i % B*#%

*%A HistJia d) C).;utad)%

*%$ O -'a()%

O B*#% %i  6riir# #)')#$%r# $# .i,"Gri# $# .'#!i$#$ %!$ 6%+%, 'i"% #!"i%, r#)i(#+# B)')%, $% $i#-#-$i# 6ri!i6#)!" !#, Br#, $ %ri% $ r#$%ri#  $,!+%)+i!"% $ %!,"r'@, i+i,

O B*#% 6%$ ,r %!,i$r#$% %% # 6riir# B>'i!# $,!+%)+i$# 6#r# B)')% 6%i, ," , '"i)i(#+# $ ' ,i,"# * ,i6),  ii!" !# r,%)'/% $ 6r%*)#, #"B"i%, S'# %r# %!,i," *#,i#!" $ ' %!'!"% $ +#r"#, $ %r# 6#r#))# %!$ %!"= 6>'!#, *%)#, >' r#)i(# # %!"#

(12)

O, 6riir%, ri,"r%, $ '"i)i(#/% $% B*#% ,/% $#"#$%, !% #!% $ 5500 # 6)%, 6%+%, >' %!,"i"'# # M,%6%"i#  6%,"ri%r!" ',#$% 6)#, ')"'r#, r#, 6i#, .i!,# i!$i#!# #6%!,,  *#*i)F!i%, %!$ # !,,i$#$ $# r6r,!"#/% #"B"i# ( % >' %, ,i,"#, $ %!"# %,, i6)!"#$%, $ '# #!ir# #i, 6rB"i# C#$# '# $,,#, ')"'r#, 6%,,'# '# +r,/% ,6i# $# B>'i!# #, 6r,r+#!$% ,'# ,,:!i# %rii!#) E R%# 6%r ?6)% ,' !% r# C#)')', "r% $ %!$ %i $ri+#$# # 6#)#+r# B)')%

 A, %6r#@, #"B"i#, $% B*#% r# *#,"#!" "i, 6#r# ,%#  ,'*"r#/% 6%r= 6#r# # ')"i6)i#/%  # $i+i,/% !/% r# 'i"% * r%!$#$%, #, 6#r# #)'#, +r,@, $%"#$#, $ #i, %6)?i$#$ >' % 6#$r/% ," "i6% $ B)')% 6%$ri# ,r r#)i(#$% !%r#)!"

*%* R+,ua de C-l(ul)%

)%, #!%, $ B)')%, 6#,,#$%, % % B*#% >' %i # rr#!"# $ B)')% '"i)i(#$% 6%r 'i"%, #!%, #)'!, i!")"'#i, $# =6%# $% r!#,i!"% !,,i"#+# $,%*rir #!ir#, #i, ii!", $ "'#r B)')%, %!$  138 $ ' 6#$r .##$% i))i# O'."r$ ri%' '# "#*)# 'i"% i!"r,,#!" , *#,#!$% !#, 6,>'i,#, $ )%#ri"%, i"#, 6)% ,%:, J%.! N#6ir 6#r# # r#)i(#/% $ ')"i6)i#@, 'i"% r#!$

;2< R='# $ CB)')%  ,'# ?"!,/% ;3< R='# $ CB)')%

N,"# =6%# # ')"i6)i#/% $,"#, !%r, >'#!"i$#$, $ !r%, r# #)% 'i"% "r#*#).%,%  $%r#$%  N#6ir $,%*ri' +Bri#, 6r%6ri$#$, #"B"i#,  #, $' % !% $ )%#ri"%, >' "%r!%' ,' B)')% '# "#r# * ,i6),

(13)

;4< R='# $ CB)')% !% %r#" % ir')#r 

 A rr#!"# $ i))i# , %!,"i"'# $ '# r='# >' B 6%,,'# +#)%r, 6r=-#)')#$%,  %r#!i(#$%, $ %r# >' %, r,')"#$%, %,, #,,#$%, #'"%#"i#!"  ' 6%!"ir% i!$i#+# % r,')"#$% $% +#)%r $,#$%

*%2 M-8ui0a de Pas(al%

 A r='# $ B)')%, $ i))i#! r# "i) #i!$# >' 6r=-$i!i$%, %, +#)%r, #, !/% '!i%!#+# 6#r# #)')#r !r%, >' !/% ,"i+,, 6r,!", !# "B*'# %i #i >' 6%'% "6% $6%i,  142 % #"B"i% r#!:, )i, #,#) $,!+%)+' % >' 6%$ ,r .##$% $ 6riir# #)')#$%r# !i# $# .i,"Gri#

.##$# $ MB>'i!# $ #,#)

;5< )i, #,#)

(14)

 A MB>'i!# $ #,#) "i!.# %% 6ri!6i% '!i%!#) % ',% $ r%$#, i!"r)i#$#, >' ir#+# !# r#)i(#/% $%, B)')%, A 6ri!6i% # B>'i!# r#)i(#ri# >'#"r% %6r#@, #"B"i#, *B,i#, % >' !/% #%!"' 6%i, #,,i %% % B*#% )# r# #6#( ,%!" $ ,%#r  ,'*"r#ir 6%r ,, %"i+% )# !/% %i * #%).i$# !# =6%#

D6%i, $ #)'!, #!%,  172 % #)/% %""ri$ Li*!i"( %!,'i' % >' #,#) !/% .#+i# %!,'i$% >' r# ri#r '# #)')#$%r# >' "'#+# # ,%#  # $i+i,/% #)= $# r#i( >'#$r#$#

*%3

O su,i.e0t) da ;),a.a!1) @u0(i)0al

%

N%, 6r,ri"%, #!"ri%r, +i%, >' #, %6r#@, B ,"#+# 6r+i#!" 6r%r##$#, % >' !/% r# 6%,,+) i!,rir !%+#, '!@, M#,  1801 % %,"'rir% J%,6. M#ri J#'#r$ $,!+%)+' ' ,i,"# r#)!" 6r%r#B+)  >' %6r#+# $ %r# #'"%B"i# ;7< J%,6. M#ri J#'#r$ J#'#r$ r# $%!% $ '# i!$,"ri# $ $,!.%,  "i$%, >' %'6#+# 'i"% "6% $ "r#*#).% #!'#) % >' ( % >' ) , 6!.#,,  $,!+%)+r "#) #!i,% >' +!"'#)!" +i% # , .##r T#r  r%r#B+) >' #i"#+# #r"@, 6r'r#$%, %% !"r#$# $% ,i,"#  !)# % % $,!.% $,#$% >' # 6#r"ir $# # B>'i!# r6r%$'(i,, %, "i$%,

(15)

;8< T#r r%r#B+)

*%5 6a''a,e KO Re=)lu(i)0-i)%

E 1822 ' #r"i% i!"i% 6'*)i%' >' #)% )"rF!i% $ B)')% r+%)'i%!#ri# "'$% % >' #"= !"/% ?i,"i# A B>'i!# r# #6#( $ #)')#r  '!@, $ $i+r,#, !#"'r(#, $,$ ,i6), B)')%, #"B"i%, # "ri%!%"ri# )%#ri"%,  $ '# %r# 'i"% ,i6), ,' !% r# MB>'i!# $ Dir!#,  ,' 6r%"%r r# C.#r), #**#

;9< C.#r), #**#

 A MB>'i!# $ Dir!#, #',%' !# =6%# ' +r$#$ir% 'r%r 6%r  #6r,!"#r B)')%,  i$i#, 'i"%  r!" $ ,' "6% >' ,G 6%$ri# ,r  i6)!"#$#, 'i"%, #!%, $6%i, 6%r 6r%*)#, $ )ii"#@, "=!i#,  i!#!ir#,

(16)

;10< MB>'i!# $ Dir!#,

*%5%$ O E0,e04) A0alti() M-8ui0a A0alti(a%

 A6r%+i"#!$% "%$%, %, %!i"%, $% T#r r%r#B+) #**#  1837 ri%' % E!!.% A!#)"i% >' i!,"r'# ,', %#!$%, #"r#+=, $%, #r"@, 6r'r#$%,  ,'# 6ri,/% r# "##!.# >' .#+# # 50 #,#, $i#i, #, #,,i %% # MB>'i!# $ Dir!#, % E!!.% A!#)"i% !/% 6F$ ,r i6)!"#$% 6)#, )ii"#@, "=!i#,  i!#!ir#, $# =6%# #, %!"'$% ,'# %!"ri*'i/% "Gri# %i "/% r#!$ >' ,'#, i$i#, ,/% ',#$#, #"= .%

;11< MB>'i!# A!#)"i#

*%7 A lJ,i(a .)de0a Te)ia de 6))le%

(17)

+!$$%r $ ,#6#"%, %r %%) !/% "i!.# 'i"#, %6@, $+i$% # ,'# %r#/% 6rBri# !# 6>'!# ,%)# 6riBri# $ Li!%)! % >' $i?#+# ,'#, .#!, $ i!r,,%  '!i+r,i$#$ i6%,,+) % >' % ( $i$ir , "%r!#r 6#$r

;12< %r %%)

M#, *%r# !/% "!.# , %r#$% %% r)ii%,% %, >'#"r% #!%, $ 6r6#r#/% ),iB,"i# #*rir# #, 6%r"#, 6#r# %%) ,%#$#, # #"B"i# !,i!#$# 6%r ,' 6#i >' ) !%!"r%' ,'# +r$#$ir# +%#/%

 A'"%$i$#"# %%) 6#,,%' # ,"'$#r #, %6r#@, #"B"i#, $ %r# $ir!" ,6#r#!$% ,*%)%, $#, %i,#, ,%*r #, >'#i, ), %6r#+# % % i!"'i"% $ ri#r ' ,i,"# ,i6),  "%"#)!" ,i*G)i% ,'r #,,i  )Gi# #"B"i#

*%7%$ O siste.a 'i0-i)%

O ,i,"# $ !'r#/% *i!Bri# = %6%,"% $ #6!#, $%i, !r%, % (r% ;0<  % ' ;1< >' = # )i!'# '"i)i(#$# #"= .% !%, %6'"#$%r,

E "%ri# % !r% ;1< " ,i!ii#$%, %%& #"i+% )i#$% ?i,"!" +r$#$ir%  6%r %'"r% )#$% % !r% ;0< r6r,!"# % i!+r,%& !/% #"i+% $,)i#$% !/% ?i,"!" #),%  6#r# r6r,!"#r +#)%r, i!"r$iBri%, %%& #i, %' !%, #"i+% = 6%,,+) ',#r $%i, %' #i, #)#ri,%, ;*i",< 6#r# r6r,!"#/%

(18)

?6)%& • 00  $,)i#$% • 01  #r# *#i?# • 10  #r# %$r#$# • 11  #r# #)"# S +%: 6'$,, #*rir ' 6r%,,#$%r  +r %% ) "r#*#).# ,ri# (r%,  '!, 6#r# "%$%, %, )#$%, '# +r$#$ir# M#"ri? *i!Bri#

*%9 M-8ui0a de H)lleit4%

N#,i$%  '#)% # 29 $ +rir% $ 180 Hr#! H%))ri". % i ' 6r,Bri% i6'),i%!#$%r $% )i"%r $ #r"@, 6r'r#$%, $,!+%)+i$% 6%r J#'#r$ i!,"r'!"% ,,!i#) 6#r# # !"r#$# $ i!%r#@, 6#r# % %6'"#$%r

;13< Hr#! H%))ri".

S'# %!"# r# ,6ii#$# 6r'r#!$% %, #r"@, $ #%r$% % #, i!%r#@, .#$#, $% r!,#!"% %!$ #6G, "%$# # i!%r#/% %*"i$# %, #r"@, r# )i$%, !'# "#*')#$%r# >' $i,6'!.# $ '# ,"#/% $ )i"'r# >'i6#$# % '# ,6=i $ 6!" "B)i%  >' #$# $!" ,"#+# %!"#$% # ' ir'i"% )="ri%

(19)

;14< T#*')#$%r#

T'$% i,,% r# 6#r# ,i6),!" ,'*,"i"'ir # )B,,i# #!"# 6#r# #r#r   ,i  !/% 6#r# 6r'!"#, %% ,?% i$#$ %, #!", $% !,% 6r'r#+# ,"#, %6@, !%, #r"@, %!$ '# +( %, $#$%, %)"#$%, % 6r%,,% $ %6'"#/% $# i!%r#/% $%r#+# #6r%?i#$#!" 1W3 $% %'

C% "%$# ,,# i!%r#/% %)"#$# #$# #r"/% r# %)%#$% ,%*r '# "## >' %!"i!.# rri%  >' ,"#+# %!"#$# "#*= #% ,% ir'i"% )="ri% $% 6!" X'#!$% % 6!" r# %)%#$% ,%*r % #r"/% %, $!", >' #"r#+,,#+# #, 6r'r#@, .#+# % ir'i"% )="ri% >' #i%!#+# %, %!"#$%r, r,6"i+%, O %!"#$%r +i,'#)i(#+# % r,')"#$% $# #'')#/% 6)% $,)%#!"% $ ' 6%!"ir% ,%*r ' %,"r#$%r

O ,',,% %i i!+i"B+)  % i,,% H%))ri". '!$%' ,'# 6rG6ri# 6r,# # T#*')#"i%! M#.i! C%6#! !% #!% $ 189 A6G, #)'#, ',@, % %'"r#, 6r,#,  #!%, !% %#!$% $% 6r!$i!"% H%))ri". +i% # #)r   ,' )'#r ' ,'*,"i"'"%  191 #)"r%' % !% $# 6r,# 6#r# I!"r!#i%!#) ',i!,, M#.i! %' '!$i#)!" %!.i$# %% IM

*%< Os ().;utad)es ;+.)de0)s%

E #$%, $# "#$ $% ,=')%  +Bri%, %6'"#$%r, %r# $,!+%)+i$%,  % % 6#,,#r $%, #!%, ,', %6%!!", )"rF!i%, %r# ,

(20)

%$r!i(#!$% E 1931 V#!!+#r ',. i6)!"%' ' %6'"#$%r % '# #r>'i""'r# *i!Bri# ;'"i)i(#!$% 0  1< S'# *#, $i#) ?ii# >' # )"rii$#$ #,,'i,, 10 +%)"#!, $ir!", % >' r# 'i"% $ii) $ ,r %!"r%)#$%  ( % >' ',. '"i)i(#,, $# )Gi# $ %%) %!$ ,%!" $%i, !+i, $ +%)"#!, r# ,'ii!",

;15< V#!!+#r ',.

JB $'r#!" # ,'!$# 'rr# '!$i#) >' %i ' r#!$ i!!"i+#$%r !% $,!+%)+i!"% $ %6'"#$%r, 6#r# # r#)i(#/% $ "#r#, 6#r# $,!ri6"#/% $ !,#!, i!ii#,  ri#/% $ !%+#, #r#, i!")i!", E!"r ,", 6r%"%, $,!+%)+i$%, % >' #i, , $,"#%' %i % M#rK I  1944 ri#$% 6)# '!i+r,i$#$ $ H#r+#r$ ;EUA<  % C%)%,,',  194 $ A))#! T'ri!

;1< M#rK I # 6#r"ir $) %%' % $,!+%)+i!"% $ %6'"#$%r,

 A))#! T'ri! %%' ,'# 6,>'i,# !# $,%*r"# $ 6r%*)#, %r#i,  6rB"i%, >' 6%$ri# ,r $,!+%)+i$%, #"r#+=, $ %6'"#$%r, N,"# =6%# T'ri! $,!+%)+' # MB>'i!# $ T'ri! >' #"r#+=, $ !r%, i!i"% $

(21)

%6r#@, , r,%)+i# 6r%*)#, %6'"#i%!#i, $ $i+r,#, %r$!, $ir!", ;Gri# ,"#$%,  "r#!,i@,< A MB>'i!# $ T'ri! %i %)%#$#  6rB"i# #"r#+=, $% %6'"#$%r C%)%,,',

*%> C).;uta!1) M)de0a

 A %6'"#/% %$r!# 6%$ ,r $i!i$# 6)% ',% $ %6'"#$%r, $ii"#i, %' %, >' !/% '"i)i(#+# %6%!!", #!#)Gi%, %% *#, $ ,' '!i%!#!"% E,"#, $i!i@, %6'"#i%!#i, ( % >' %,, $i+i$i$# ,'# %$r!i(#/%  +Bri#, r#@,

*%>%$%

Pi.eia Gea!1) $>37  $>5>

 A 6riir# r#/% $ %6'"#$%r, %$r!%, "i!.# %% 6ri!i6#) #r#"r,"i# # '"i)i(#/% $ +B)+')#, )"rF!i#,  ,' ,i,"#  >' 6%,,'# !%r, $i!,@, U"i)i(#+#-, "#*= >'i)F"r%, $ i%, .#!$% # #"i!ir  "6r#"'r#, 'i"% )+#$#, >' #',#+# r>'!"!" 6r%*)#, $ '!i%!#!"%

;17< VB)+')#, E)"rF!i#,

*%>%$%$%

ENIAC

(22)

$% %6'"#$%r ENIAC ;E)"ri#) N'ri#) I!"r#"%r #!$ C#)')#"%r< $,!+%)+i$% 6)%, i!"i,"#, #ri#!%, J%.! EKr"  J%.! M#'.) %!$ # B>'i!# 6r%,,#+# ,'#, i!%r#@, 1000 +(, #i, rB6i$% >' >'#)>'r %'"r# B>'i!# $# =6%#

;18< ENIAC ;194<

S'# %6'"#/% $ii"#) r# ,'# 6ri!i6#) i!%+#/%  ,'6ri%r #%, 6r%,,%, !i%,-#!#)Gi%, #"= !"/% $,!+%)+i$%, O ENIAC !/% !,,i"#+# $ %+i!"#r 6#, $ %r# #!'#) #, ,i 6)# !"r#$# $ $#$%, !% 6#i!) $ %!"r%) #"r#+=, $ %!i'r#@, 6#$r@, $ .#+,  ,i".,

M#, %% !/% 6%$ , $i?#r $ #)#r % ENIAC "i!.# ' r#!$ 6r%*)# % ,'#, $i!,@, >' r# !%r, % #6r%?i#$#!" 25 "r%, $ %6ri!"% 6%r 550 $ #)"'r#  ,' 6,% "%"#) r# $ 30 "%!)#$#, % >' !,,i"#+# $ ' #!$#r i!"ir% $ ' 6r=$i% 6#r# # i!,"#)#/% $% ,%

*%>%$%*%

O su(ess) d) ENIAC

$>3>

O EDVAC ;E)"r%!i Di,r" V#ri#*) C%6'"r< #6,#r $ ,r #i, %$r!% !/% $ii!'i' $ "##!.%  %'6#+# 100 $% ,6#% >' % ENIAC %'6#+# T%$#+i# ) r# $%"#$% $  +(, #i, Gri# i!"r!# >' % ENIAC

(23)

- ' r#!$ ,#)"% 6#r# # =6%# A, i!,"r'@, B !/% r# 6#,,#$#, #% %6'"#$%r 6%r i%, $ i%, %' +B)+')#,& )#, i#+#  ' $i,6%,i"i+% )"rF!i% $!%i!#$% )i!.# $ r"#r$%

;19< EDVAC ;1949<

E,, $i,6%,i"i+% r# ' "'*% %!"!$% +Bri%, ri,"#i, >' r)"i# 6'),%, )"rF!i%, 6#r# r!"  6#r# "rB, 'i"% )!"#!" O'"r% r#!$ #+#!% $% EDVAC %i % #*#!$%!% $% %$)% $i#)  # '"i)i(#/% $%, G$i%, *i!Bri%, r$'(i!$% $r#,"i#!" % !r% $ +B)+')#, S', ri#$%r, M#'.)  EKr" %#r# # "r#*#).#r !," %$)% )%% #6G, % )#!#!"% $% ENIAC

*%>%$%2%

UNIVAC I

$>5$

#,#$% !# r+%)'i%!Bri# "%ri# $ V%! N'#!! ;6!,#$# 6%r ) # 6#r"ir  $% '!i%!#!"% $% EDVAC< % UNIVAC I ;U!i+r,#) A'"%#"i C%6'"r< r# * !%r >' ,', 6r$,,%r, Ti!.# P#6!#,P +i!" "r%, >'#$r#$%,  ' #,,#

(24)

$ r# $ i!% "%!)#$#, O %6'"#$%r r*i# #, i!,"r'@, $ #r"@, #!="i%,  !/% #i, $ #r"@, 6r'r#$%, %r# %!,"r'$#, !%, #!%, ,'i!", B>'i!#, 'i"% ,).#!", %% % MANIAC-I ;M#".#"i#) A!#),r  N'r#"%r I!"r#"%r #!$ C%6'"r< MANIAC-II  % UNICAC-II %r# 6r%$'(i$#, >'i!( '!i$#$, $% UNIVAC I  ) %i % 6riir% %6'"#$%r %ri#) $# .i,"Gri#

;20< UNIVAC I ;1951<

*%>%*

Se,u0da Gea!1) $>5>  $>73

N# ,'!$# r#/% % %6%!!", #i, %$r!%, $,!+%)+i$%, .%'+ # ,'*,"i"'i/% $#, +B)+')#, )"rF!i#, 6%r "r#!,i,"%r, % >' $ii!'i'  'i"% % "##!.% $% .#r$#r

(21) 1º transistor

C% # "!%)%i# "#*= ri#$# r!"!" $ ir'i"%, i6r,,%, +i"#+#-, >' i%,  #*%, )="ri%, i#,, ,6#).#$%, 6%r "%$% )'#r % >' 6%,,i+)!" $i+i$i'  $'#, ,"# r#/%  $'#, r#!$, #"%ri#,& ,'6r%6'"#$%r,  i!i%6'"#$%r,

(25)

*%>%*%$

I6M 9?2? )u Ste(4

O IM 7030 %i ' ,'6r%6'"#$%r $,!+%)+i$% 6)# IM  % "##!.%, * r$'(i$%, %6#r#$% % B>'i!#, %% % ENIAC  %'6#+# ,%!" '# ,#)# %'

;22< IM 7030 % 6riir% %6'"#$%r %!,"r'$% % "##!.% r$'(i$%

O 7030 r# '"i)i(#$% 6%r r#!$, %6#!.i#,  ',"#+# #)%  "%r!% $ 13 i).@, $ $G)#r, !# =6%# E,"# B>'i!# ?'"#+# B)')%, !# #,# $%, ir%,,'!$%, % >' 6ri"i# #"= ' i)./% $ %6r#@, 6%r ,'!$%

N,"# =6%# +Bri#, )i!'#!, $ 6r%r##/% %r# ri#$#, 6#r# %, %6'"#$%r, $ ,'!$# r#/% !"r )#, ,"# %r"r#! COOL  ALOL C% ,"#, )i!'#!, $,!+%)+i$#, 'i"%, ,%"#r, %r# $,!+%)+i$%, 6#r# ,", #i!r#, ;%% r# .##$%, ,", >'i6#!"%, !# =6%#<  >' #i!$# ,"/%  '!i%!#!"%  +Bri#, 6r,#, !%, $i#, $ .% %% !# 6rG6ri# IM

*%>%*%*

PDP  <

(26)

r#/% >' r# '# +r,/% *B,i# $%, ,'6r%6'"#$%r, >' r# #i, #"r#"i+% $% 6%!"% $ +i,"# i!#!ir% ;!"!#, $ i).@, $ $G)#r,< # !%, Er# !%r, >' %, ,'6r%6'"#$%r, 6%r= #i!$# #,,i %'6#+# ' *% ,6#% !% F%$%

;23< D  8 ;24< D  8 % ' '!i%!Bri%%% i"% %6#r#"i+% $ ,' "##!.%

*%>%2

Te(eia Gea!1) $>73  $>9?

O, %6'"#$%r, $# "rir# r#/% ,/% %!.i$%, 6)%, ir'i"%, i!"r#$%, >' 6ri"ir# >' '# ,# 6)## #r#(!#,, +Bri%, ir'i"%, >' , %'!i#+# % .#r$#r, $i,"i!"%, #% ,% "6% #,,i %, "%r!#!$% +)%(,  % #i, '!i%!#)i$#$,  #'$%' !# >'$# $ ,' 6r%

;25< #i!) $% IM 30W91

(27)

+!$# # B>'i!# B "r#*#).#+# $i,6%,i"i+%, $ !"r#$#  ,#$#  % $i,%,  i"#, $ #r#(!#!"% 6ri"i# 6r%r##/% $# CU 6%r ir%G$i% % >' 6ri"i# # r#+#/% #"r#+=, $ ,%"#r , "r >' 6r%"#r % ir'i"% $ %r# #!'#) #)= $# 6%,,i*i)i$#$ $ i6riir %, r,')"#$%,  6#6)

;2< O, r%)%, $ i"# $ #r#(!#!"% $% IM 30W91

 A 6#r"ir $,"# r#/% # 6r%'6#/% % # #)"# $ ,%"#r, $ >'#)i$#$ 6#,,%' # ,r +i,"% %% ' r#!$ 6r%*)# 6)#, 6r,#, >' 6r%'r#+# #$# +( #i, %r#, $ #r#!"ir % *% $,6!.% $ ,', ,%"#r, B >' ), , %#+# ,%!" !% $,!+%)+i!"% $ .#r$#r,

*%>%3

uata Gea!1) $>9? a $><$

N# >'#r"# r#/% $ %6'"#$%r, ;1971-1981< # I!") i!#''r# '# !%+# #, 6r%"# % ir%6r%,,#$%r S'r %, ir%%6'"#$%r, #i, rB6i$%, 6%,,i*i)i"# # ?'/% $ +Bri#, "#r#, #% ,% "6% E," "#*= .##$% $ ir%6r%,,#$%r #!.%' % !% $ 8048 "r#*#).# % '# r>':!i# $  # 8 MH( 6%,"ri%r!" .#!$% # 20 MH( A >'#r"# r#/% "#*= %i #r#$# 6)# i!+!/% $# ")i!%rB"i# "r#!,i,,/% $ $#$%, !"r %6'"#$%r, 6%r  i% $ '# r$

(28)

;27< I!") 8048

C% # r$'/% $rB,"i# $% "##!.% % +#)%r $#, B>'i!#, #i' % >' #i)i"%' $% ','Bri% %' %6r#r ,' 6riir% %6'"#$%r 6,,%#) O, ir'i"%, i!"r#$%, ##*#r# , i#!$% !%r,  %, ,%"#r,  ,i,"#, , "%r!%' #i, i6%r"#!" >'#!"% % .#r$#r

*%>%3%$

Altai <<??

L#!#$%  1975 6%r E$ R%*r",  %rr," Mi, ;?-6r%"i,"#, $ %'", $# %r# #=r# #ri#!#< %!$ i!ii#)!" $i$ir# ',#r ,', %!.i!"%, )"rF!i%, 6#r# 6r%$'(ir 6>'!%, Ki", 6#r# %$)i,"#, $ %'",  # 6#r"ir $#i  '!"% $ S"#! C#)  R%*r" Z#))r ri%' # MITS ;Mir% I!,"r'!"#"i%! T)"r

S,",< !# #r# $ R%*r",  A)*'>'r>' N%+% M=?i%

I!ii#)!" % A)"#ir %i +!$i$% %% ' Ki" #"r#+=, $# r+i,"# !%r"-#ri#!# +opular lectronics %!$ 6r"!$i# +!$r #6!#, #)'#, !"!#,

$ '!i$#$, "!$% i#$% ,'r6r,%, >'#!$% +!$r# 10 +(, #i, >' % 6r+i,"% 6#r# % 6riir% :, H% % A)"#ir = r%!.i$% %% # #').# >' )+%'  r+%)'/% $% %6'"#$%r 6,,%#) !%, #!%, ,'i!",& %, *#rr#!"%, $ %6'"#$%r $,!.#$%, 6#r# % A)"#ir , "%r!#ri# ' 6#$r/% $ #"% !# %r# $ *#rr#!"% S-100  # 6riir# )i!'# $ 6r%r##/% 6#r# # B>'i!# %i % A)"#ir ASIC >' #"i+%' # 'ri%,i$#$ $ #') A))! 6)% #6#r).%  >' #i, "#r$ %!$'(i' i)) #",  '!$#/% $# Mir%,%"

(29)

;28< i)) #",  #') A))! ;ri#$%r, $# Mir%,%"<

*%>%3%*

A;;le Lisa e Ma(i0t)s4%

C% % ,',,% $% A)"#ir S"+ J%*, ;'!$#$%r $# A66)< ,!"i' >' #i!$# #)"#+# #)% # i!%r6%r#r #% 6r%"%  $i(i#& - A6,#r $ ,'#, '!i%!#)i$#$, ," %6'"#$%r !/% = Bi) $ ,r '"i)i(#$% 6%r 6,,%#, %'!,

S"+ % ,' )#$% #r","i% #6'r#$% ,6r ri"i%' % '!i%!#!"% $% %6'"#$%r % ,'#, )'(, >' #!$i#  #6##+# >' % $i?#+# irri"#$% %i #i >' S"+ "+ # i$i# $ >' ' *% '!i%!#!"% $6!$i# $ '# i!"r# rBi# >' $%!,"r#,, #% ','Bri% % >' , 6#,,#+# % % C

E 197 % A66) I = )#!#$%  %i %!,i$r#$% $ #"% %% % 6riir% %6'"#$%r 6,,%#)  #%6#!.#+# ' 6>'!% %!i"%r rBi% >' ?i*i# #, '!i%!#)i$#$, $% %6'"#$%r C%% % ,',,% $# B>'i!# %i 'i"% r#!$  1979 %i )#!#$% % A66) II >' ,'i# # ,# i$i#

(30)

S'i!$% !# ,# )i!.# % %, %6'"#$%r, Li,# ;1983<  M#i!"%,. ;1984< %r# %, 6riir%, # ',#r % M%',  6%,,'r # i!"r# rBi# %% !G, %!.%, .%  $i# % 6#,"#, !',  Br# $ "r#*#).% N/% = ' 6ri,% $i(r >' ,,, C "i+r# ' ,',,% ,"r%!$%,% +!$!$% ' !r% !%r $ B>'i!#,

;31< A66) Li,# ;1983< ,' !% r#  .%!# # ,'# i).# Li,#

*%>%3%2%

Mi()s)@t e )s P)(essad)es I0tel

#r#))#!" # A66) i)) #", '!$%' # Mir%,%" >' "#*= $,!+%)+i# %6'"#$%r, 6ri!i6i#i, N% %% $ ,'# ?i,":!i# !% i!#) $%, #!%, 70  #"= #$%, $%, #!%, 80 #", ',%' #, i$i#, %!"i$#, !#, %'"r#, B>'i!#, 6#r# %!,"r'ir # ,'#, 6rG6ri#, U"i)i(#!$% 6r%,,#$%r, 808 $# I!") % 6riir% ,i,"# %6r#i%!#) $# Mir%,%" MS-DOS ,"#+# 'i"% #)= $%, $,!+%)+i$%, 6%r S"+ J%*, %r ,, %"i+% i)) #", ##*%' ri#!$% '# 6#rri# % J%*,  #6G, #)' "6% %6i%' "%$# # "!%)%i# rBi# $% M#i!"%,. 6#r# % ,' !%+% ,i,"# %6r#i%!#) %  i!$%,

D,"# %r#  #$%, $%, #!%, 80 O M#i!"%,.  % i!$%, , "%r!#r# %r", %!%rr!", C% # $i,,/% $ S"+ J%*, $# A66) # 6r,# ##*%' 'i"% !r#>'i$# A,,i # Mir%,%" ##*%' , "%r!#!$% # )$r $% r#$% $

(31)

%6'"#$%r, 6,,%#i, D,"# #>')# =6%# +Bri%, 6r%,,#$%r, $# I!") %r# )#!#$%, #%6#!.#$%, $ +Bri#, +r,@, $ i!$%, E!"r %, %$)%, $# I!") 6%$ i"#r& 808 28 38 48 !"i' !"i' 2 !"i' 3 !"i' 4 !"i' D'#) C%r C%r 2 D'% C%r 2 X'#$ C%r 2 E?"r i3 i5  i7 A AMD !"r%' !% r#% $ 6r%,,#$%r,  1993 % % [5 )#!#!$% 6%,"ri%r!" K K7 A".)%! D'r%! S6r%! !"r %'"r%,

;32< U# i# % # #i%ri# $%, 6r%,,#$%r, >' I!") B $,!+%)+' #"= %, "6%, $ .%

T%$%, %, %6'"#$%r, 6,,%#i, !%+%, >' ,/% )#!#$%, #"'#)!" ,/% *#,"#!" $ri+#$%, $#, i$i#, ri#$#, 6)# A66)  6)# Mir%,%"

*%>%3%3%

Multi()e

U# $#, 6ri!i6#i, "!$:!i#, $%, )"i%, #!%, $% r#$% $ $,K"%6, = % .##$% ')"i-%r >' %!,i,"  +Bri%, 6r%,,#$%r, "r#*#).#!$% 6#r#))#!" A,,i #, "#r#, 6%$ ,r $i+i$i$#,  ?'"#$#, $ #!ir# #i, ii!" N% i!i% $# $=#$# $ 2000 %, "r#!,,"%r, ',#$%, !% 6r%,,#$%r B ,"#+# 'i"% 6>'!%, #',#!$% ' #>'i!"% #i%r >' % !%r#) D,"# #!ir# %i !,,Bri% $i+i$ir # CU  +Bri%, !)%,

(32)

*%>%5%

ui0ta Gea!1) $><$  4)e

#,i#!" ,/% %, %6'"#$%r, %$r!%, A6)i%'-, $r#,"i#!" # #6#i$#$ $ 6r%,,#!"% $ $#$%, #r#(!#!"%  "#?#, $ "r#!,r:!i# T#*= = !,,# =6%# >' %, 6r%,,%, $ i!i#"'ri(#/% ,/% i!ii#$%, $ii!'i!$% % "##!.%  #'!"#!$% # +)%i$#$ $%, #%r# P6%6')#r,P C\,

O %!i"% $ 6r%,,#!"% ,"B 6#r"i!$% 6#r# %, 6r%,,#$%r, 6#r#))%, %' ,# # ?'/% $ 'i"#, %6r#@, ,i')"#!#!" 6)#, B>'i!#, S'r % 6riir% 6r%,,#$%r !"i'  1993 $%"#$% $ Gri#, $ 108 6i!%, %' DIMM D6%i, + % !"i' II % !"i' III  #i, r!"!" % !"i' 4 ;, %!"#r %, %$)%, ,ii)#r, $# %!%rr!" AMD< N,, i% "6% i# ,'ri!$% % ,)%" A $ 4 *i", Gri#, % #i, 6i!%,  #i%r  +)%i$#$ HD\, #$# +( #i, rB6i$%,  % #i%r #6#i$#$ "

N# r#)i$#$ #, #i%r, !%+i$#$, $,,# =6%# ,/% %, !%+%, 6r%,,#$%r, #$# +( #i, +)%(, E!i # i!%rB"i# +%)'i #$# +( #i, r#6i$#!"  #, +)%i$#$, $ 6r%,,#!"% $%*r#  6r%$%, #$# +( #i, 'r"%,

#r# , "r '# !%/% $i,,% *#,"# %*,r+#r >' !"r %, %$)%, $ %6'"#$%r #i, #!"i%, %, ,6##!"%, !"r '# !%+i$#$  %'"r# r# $ $(!#, $ #!%, ,!$% >' .% !/% .# # $'r#r ! ' :, I,,% !%, )+# # %!)'ir >' % #+#!% i!"i%  $% 6%$r $ B)')% #+#!# $ #!ir# >' !/% , !%!"r# 6#r#))% $# .i,"Gri# .'#!# *#r#"#!$% %, ',"%,  "%r!#!$% #,,+i, %, %6'"#$%r, , 6,,%#, $ *#i?# r!$#

X' ,#* '# !%+# r#/% $ %6'"#$%r, !/% ,"B 6%r +ir] A)'!, #)#  6r%,,#$%r, >'!"i%, >'#!$% %, )ii", $# i!i#"'ri(#/% $% ,i)i% %r# #"i!i$%, !>'#!"% %'"r%, #)#  %)=')#, $ B'# #r#(!#!$% i!%r#@, #, % #"% = >' %i,#, !%+#, +/% ,'rir  !%+#, r#@, $i?#r/% # #"'#) "/% )%!  ')"r#6#,,#$# %% ,"B # ,'!$# 6#r# !G, M,% r%6!$% r!"!" #*#rrir# $%, "r#*", # +%)'/% $%, %6'"#$%r, #i!$# ,"B )%! $ "ri!#r

(33)

2% C)0(lus1)#

O, %6'"#$%r, ,"/%  6)!# ?6#!,/% # "!%)%i# *#r#$#  ,' ,i,"# !/% 6#r# $ ,r #"'#)i(#$%,  'i"#, +(, ,/% #"= ri#$%, !%+%, %6%!!", 6#r# i!"r#r !%+#, '!i%!#)i$#$,  $#r #i%r ?6ri:!i# i!"r#/%  +i+#i$#$ #% ','Bri%  "#*= 6#r# #, 6r,#,

 A "!%)%i# #$# +( #i, $ii!'"# #( % >' #)'!, %6'"#$%r, ## 6#r" $ ,'# +i$# , >' +%: 6r*# #, ) ,"B #)i ,6r 6r,!"  ,' %"i$i#!%

#r# #, 6r,#, % i!+,"i!"% #)"% i!"#$%  6r%"%, 6#r# % #6ri%r#!"% $ !%+%, >'i6#!"%, " %% r"% ' r"%r!% #)"% 6%i, # #'"%#/% ,"%ri#) "rB, *!i%, %% !%r /% $ %*r# #!'#) #i, >'#)i$#$ !%, #,"%,  #i%r 6r%$'"i+i$#$

#r# % ','Bri% # ?6ri:!i# % #, !%+#, "!%)%i#, +/% #)= $ '# ,i6), %!,')"# $ -#i) .% # "!%)%i# #r# $,$ '# ).%r i!"r# rBi# >' $i?# % ,i,"# i!"'i"i+% %% "%, "#*= #, "!%)%i#, $ "r#!,r:!i#, $ $#$%, ;#r>'i+%, %"%,  +$%,< 'i"% #i, rB6i$%,  Bi,

%r )"i% "%, # i!"r#/% "%'. >' + ,i6)i i#r % !%,,% %"i$i#!% #i!$# #i, "%, %% #i%r ?6)% $,"# "!%)%i# % i#$  %, !%+% S#r"6.%!, >' " '# "!%)%i# #+#!#$#  $ii!'"# >' = % %% $ '# !%+# +ir#$# "!%)Gi#

(34)

3% Re@eQ0(ia#

iBi;+dia# O C).;utad) 

. ""6 &WW6 "iKi6$ i#% rWiK iWC% 6' "# $% r 

HistJia de Tud)# A HistJia d) C).;utad)  . ""6 &WW . i,"% ri#$ "'$% % W% 6' "#$% r. " ) S4=))0, # A HistJia d) C).;utad) 

. ""6 &WW6 ",. +%%! % W*%% K,W14 12 81 0 -. i,"C33 ri# -%6 '"# $% r-#6% ,"i)#$% W N)ta P)siti=a# HistJia d)s C).;utad)es

. ""6 &WW    !% "#6% ,i"i + #  %  W" r # *^ , "' $ #! " , W" r# * ^  ," ' $# ! " ,W" i W"i ^ "r# *# ).% , W. i," % ri #$% ,  %  6' "#$% r , . "

Te(4Clu'e# ENIAC O ;i.ei) C).;utad)  . ""6 &WW " . )'* % *rW*)% W]6 _21 8

SlideS4ae# A E=)lu!1) d) C).;utad) 

. ""6 &WW ,)i$ ,.# r! "W ?i?6 "% W# -. i,"ri# - -+% )'% -$% -% 6' "#$% r-6 r,! "# "i%! G)),le Sites# Hist)ia d) Pi.ei) C).;utad) 

. ""6 , &WW ,i"  , % %  )  %  W,i"  W. i," % r i# , % * r % , , i"  , $  *' , # WHi, "% r i# $ # -"  !% )%  i# W. i," % r i# - $ % - 6 r i ir % -  % 6 ' "# $ % r

Te(Mu0d)# A HistJia d)s C).;utad)es e da C).;uta!1)

. ""6 &WW    "  ' ! $%  % * rW  #  % , ? W19 7 # . i," % r i# $% ,  %  6 ' "# $% r ,  $# - % 6 ' "# - #% . "

Museu d) C).;utad)# Hist)ia d) C).;utad)  . ""6 &WW     ' ,  ' $%  % 6 ' "# $ % r %  * r W. i," % r i# . " )

Imagem

Referências