O corpo falante: narrativas e inscrições num corpo imaginário na pintura acadêmica do século XIX

Texto

(1)

!"#$

$

%$&'()'$*+,+-./0$-+((+.12+3$/$1-3&(145/3$-67$&'()'$17+81-9(1'$-+$

)1-.6(+$+&+:;71&+$:'$3<&6,'$=>=$

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

@+,+2(+3A&B+2/A# '1//1(%21@# ID# ED/4D# %K1C%'T/%D# X# '.# &K# /&4/&@&'(1GHD# X# 4%'(./1#

1E1ILK%E1#@NE.FD#YMY#

CD3.(+&.0$ Z=&# [DFFD\%'C# 1/(%EF&# 1%K@# (D# 1'1F]R&# (=&# I%@E./@%2&# %'@E/%4(%D'# D'# (=&#

/&4/&@&'(1(%D'@#D[#(=&#'.I&#%'#\D/^@#1KD'C@(#?/1R%F%1'#1E1I&K%E#41%'(%'C#I./%'C#(=&# <&ED'I#_K4%/&-#1#4&/%DI#\=&'#\&#E1'#4&/E&%2&#1#(/1'@%(%D'#D'#(=&#4/DI.E(%D'@#%'#!%D# I&# Q1'&%/DA# [/DK# 1# 0DI]-# %'%(%1FF]# %I&1F%R&I# 1'I# &'(1'CF&I# \%(=%'# K](=DFDC%E1F# D/# F%(&/1/]# '1//1(%2&@#U(=&#'.I&V-#%'(D#1#/&1F#0DI]-#F10&F&I# `(=&#KDI&/'# '.I&a#U'1^&IV"# Z=&#@&2&/1F#/&4/&@&'(1(%D'@#D[#(=&#%K1C%'1/]#0DI]#4D%'(#(D#'&CD(%1(%D'@#(=1(#/&[&/#(D# (=&#I%@ED./@&#D[#(=&#0DI]-#D[#%(@#@DE%1F#/&F1(%D'@-#'D/K@#1'I#(=&#21F.&@#D[#1#@DE%&(]"##

E/FG'(:3A# '1//1(%2&@# D[# (=&# %K1C%'&I# 0DI]# X# '.I&# %'# /&4/&@&'(1(%D'# X# 1E1I&K%E#

41%'(%'C#%'#5b(=#E&'(./]"## # # `c.1'ID#'D@@D@#1/(%@(1@#'D@#IHD#.K1#dL'.@"""#&F&@#K&'(&K"#eID.1/I#f1'&(#4&/C.'(D.# 1#@%#K&@KD#4D/#P.&#K&'(%/-#4D/#P.&#'HD#ED'(1/#1#2&/I1I&g#_F&#%'(/DI.R#1#BFOK4%1-#.K1# '())$#ID#'D@@D#(&K4Da#UhBi+#14.I#?/DD^@-#5b9b-#4"#55V"#_@@1#4/&DE.41GHD#I&#eK%F&#hDF1# K1/E1#0&K#1#E/%@&#I1#/&4/&@&'(1GHD#ID#'.#'1#@&C.'I1#K&(1I&#ID#@NE.FD#YMY-#&K#,1/%@-# EDKD#.K#4/D0F&K1#'D#KDK&'(D#I&#'&CDE%1GHD#&'(/&#.K#ED/4D#41/(%E.F1/)@&j.1ID#&#.K#

5#f&@(/&# &K# k%@(S/%1# I&# +/(&# I1# l&@([mF%@E=&# l%F=&FK7n'%2&/@%(m(# fo'@(&/-# +F&K1'=1-# ,/D[&@@D/1# ID# >&41/(1K&'(D#I&#+/(&@#I1#n'%2&/@%I1I&#*&I&/1F#ID#,1/1'T-#>D.(D/1'I1#'D#,/DC/1K1#I1#,S@7p/1I.1GHD#I&# k%@(S/%1# I1# n'%2&/@%I1I&# *&I&/1F# ID# ,1/1'T"# B@# %'(&/&@@&@# I&# 4&@P.%@1# [DE1K# 1# /&4/&@&'(1GHD# ID# ED/4D# &# @.1@#(/1'@[D/K1GJ&@#'1#k%@(S/%1#I1#+/(&"#

(2)

!"H$

C&/1F)%I&1F%R1ID# P.&# 1(N# &'(HD# [.'E%D'1K# EDKD# .K# 4/&(&j(D# I1# '1//1(%21# EDK# /&[&/L'E%1@# EFT@@%E1@-# 4D/# &j&K4FD-# 1@# I&.@1@-# D.# /&[&/L'E%1@# &jS(%E1@-# 4D/# &j&K4FD-# 1@# DI1F%@E1@-# 1K0D@# ED'@(%(.OID@# '.K# I&@FDE1K&'(D# (&K4D/1F7&@41E%1F"# +CD/1-# EDKD# /&ED'E%F%1/# 1# /&4/&@&'(1GHD# ID# '.# '.K1# 4%'(./1# I1# 2%I1# KDI&/'1g# _@@1# 4/&DE.41GHD# 1'(&E&I&#D.(/1#P.&@(HD#P.&#N#1#/&F1GHD#ID#ED/4D#EDK#.K1#'1//1(%21#P.&-#4D/#@.1#2&R-#@&# %'@E/&2&#'D#ED/4D-#&#&@(&#%'@E/%(D#'1#'1//1(%21"#c.1%@#@HD#1@#I%[&/&'(&@#'1//1(%21@#I&#.K# '.-#P.&/#I%R&/-#.K#ED/4D#2&@(%ID#&K#1/(&g#

>./1'(&# (DID# @NE.FD# YMY# 1# /&4/&@&'(1GHD# ID# ED/4D# DE.4D.# .K# `F.C1/# D0@&@@%2Da# Uh_!q_!-#6;;9-#4"#5;8V#&'(/&#D@#1/(%@(1@#P.&#EDK&G121K#1#P.&@(%D'1/#1@#ED'E&4GJ&@#ID# ED/4D# (/1I%E%D'1F-# %@@D# (1'(D# '1# F%(&/1(./1# EDKD# '1@# 1/(&@# 4FT@(%E1@"# nK1# 2&R# P.&# 1# 4%'(./1# =%@(S/%E1# X# CL'&/D# 'D0/&# X# @&# [.'I1# 'D# 4/%K1ID# I1# [%C./1# =.K1'1-# 1# /&4/&@&'(1GHD# ID# ED/4D# C1'=D.# .K# F.C1/# 4/%2%F&C%1ID# I1# %K1C%'1GHD"# nK1# 4%'(./1# =%@(S/%E1-#14&@1/#I&#4/&(&'I&/#/&F1(1/#1ED'(&E%K&'(D@-#@&K4/&#14/&@&'(1#.K1#I%K&'@HD# [%E(OE%1#P.&#@%C'%[%E1#P.&#P.1FP.&/#(&'(1(%21#I&#I&@E/&2&/#D.#2%@.1F%R1/#.K#1ED'(&E%K&'(D# I&2&# F&21/# &K# ED'(1# I%[&/&'(&@# [D/K1@# I&# %K1C%'1GHD# Ur!+f_!-# 6;;5-# 4"# 5st75suV"# q&@(1@-# '1//1K7@&# D@# &2&'(D@# &# 1@# 4&/@D'1C&'@# I1# =%@(S/%1# [%C./1ID@# 4D/# ED/4D@# E1//&C1ID@#I&#C&@(D@-#4D@(./1@#&#/&F1GJ&@#@%K0SF%E1@"##

_'(HD-# 4&'@1'ID# D@# &F&K&'(D@# ED'@(%(.(%2D@# I&# .K1# '1//1(%21# '1# 0.@E1# I&# .K# (&j(D# [.'I1ID/# EDK# @&.@# K%(D@# &# =&/S%@# @D0/&# D# ?/1@%F-# P.&-# @&C.'ID# q1j1/1# U6;;t-# 4"# 8;V-# @%C'%[%E1K#D#&@41GD#&#D#(&K4D-#4&/C.'(17@&#EDKD-#1D#F1ID#I1#F%(&/1(./1#&#I1#=%@(S/%1-#1# 4/DI.GHD#I1@#1/(&@#2%@.1%@-#&@4&E%[%E1K&'(&#D#CL'&/D#ID#'.-#D/1#I&@FDE1ID#'D#&@41GD#&# (&K4D-#D/1#14/Dj%K1ID#1#.K1#@%(.1GHD#ID#ED(%I%1'D-#E/%1#@.1#'1//1(%21#&K#4/DF#I&#.K1# ED'@(/.GHD# I&# '1GHD# X# .K# /&(/1(D# ID# ?/1@%F# %'@E/%(D# 'D@# ED/4D@# I&# @.1@# 4&/@D'1C&'@# [%EE%D'1%@g#Z&'ID#4/&@&'(&#&@@1#4&/C.'(1-#&@(&#1/(%CD#4/DE./1#/&[F&(%/-#&K#(/L@#'D(1@-#D@# I%@E./@D@#%'@E/%(D@#'D#CL'&/D#ID#'.#&K#D0/1@#I1#4%'(./1#1E1ILK%E1#0/1@%F&%/1#I1#@&C.'I1# K&(1I&#ID#@NE.FD#YMY-#4&/ODID#'D#P.1F#@&#4&/E&0&#.K1#(/1'@%GHD#'1@#4/DI.GJ&@#ID#!%D# I&#Q1'&%/DA#I&#.K#ED/4D#1#4/%'EO4%D#%I&1F%R1ID#&#&'/&I1ID#&K#'1//1(%21@#K%(DFSC%E1@#D.# F%(&/T/%1@#41/1#.K#ED/4D#/&1F"#f1@#@&:1#&@(&#.K#'.#%I&1F%R1ID#D.#/&1F-#&@(&#ED/4D#:1K1%@#N# .K#ED/4D#'&.(/D-#2%@(D#P.&#@&K4/&#%'ED/4D/1#I%@E./@D@#'D/K1(%2D@#D.#(&S/%ED@"## # !I$%$,68+($:'$&'()'$17+81-9(1'$ $

B# ED/4D# '1# 1/(&-# @&:1# '1# F%(&/1(./1-# @&:1# '1@# 1/(&@# 2%@.1%@-# N# @&K4/&# .K# ED/4D7 /&4/&@&'(1GHD-# .K# ED/4D# %K1C%'T/%D# P.&# /&2&F1# '1//1(%21@# I1'ID# @&'(%ID# 1D@# ED/4D@"#

(3)

!"J$

_@@1@# '1//1(%21@# @HD# K.%(1@# &# C&/1K# @%'C.F1/%I1I&@# 4/D4%E%1ID/1@# I&# @%C'%[%E1ID@A# 2%I1-# KD/(&-#E%2%F%R1GHD-#D#ED/4D#I&#.K1#'1GHD-#1@#K1/C%'1F%I1I&@-#1#K.F=&/-#D#=DK&K-#1#E./1# /&F%C%D@1-#1#@1OI1#1F(&/'1(%21-#&'(/&#D.(/D@"#,D/NK-#@&K4/&#@&#(/1(1#I&#ED/4D@#ED'@(/.OID@# EDF&(%21K&'(&-#D.#@&:1-#ED/4D/&%I1I&@"##

+@# 2T/%1@#/&4/&@&'(1GJ&@#ID#ED/4D# %K1C%'T/%D#%'I%E1K#'&CDE%1GJ&@#P.&# I%R&K#/&@4&%(D# 1D# I%@E./@D# ID# ED/4D-# W@# /&F1GJ&@# @DE%1%@-# W@# 'D/K1@# &# 1D@# 21FD/&@# I&# .K1# @DE%&I1I&"# <&'ID#1@@%K-#&'(&'I&KD@#D#`ED/4D#EDKD#K1(&/%1F%I1I&#4DF%@@LK%E1a#U<B+!_<-#6;;5-#4"# 5V-#EDKD#.'%HD#I&#&F&K&'(D@#K1(&/%1%@#&#&@4%/%(.1%@#&#(1K0NK#EDKD#@O'(&@&#I&#@D'=D@-# I&@&:D# &# [/.@(/1GJ&@# I&# @DE%&I1I&@# %'(&%/1@-# 4D%@# D# KvF(%4FD# @&'(%ID# ID# ED/4D# 4&I&# KvF(%4FD@#DF=1/&@"#_@(&#D0:&(D#C1'=1#I./1'(&#D#@NE.FD#YMY#'D21@#1(&'GJ&@#I&#I%@E%4F%'1@# EDKD#1# K&I%E%'1-#1@#E%L'E%1@#0%DFSC%E1@-#D#I%@E./@D# =%C%L'%ED-# D# &.CL'%ED# &#1#&I.E1GHD# [O@%E1"# Z1%@# ED'=&E%K&'(D@# 2%@.1F%R1K7@&# I&# [D/K1# E1I1# 2&R# K1%@# 'O(%I1# &K# I&@&'=D@-# E1/%E1(./1@-#[D(DC/1[%1@-#'D#ED(%I%1'D#&#'1@#1/(&@#K1%D/&@-#EDKD#@&#1#1/(&#'1#@.1#(&j(./1# 4%E(S/%E1-#'D#(/1GD#ID#I&@&'=D-#[D/'&E&@@&#1#K1(N/%1#41/1#%K1C%'1/#1#/&1F%I1I&#ID#ED/4D"## _#/&C%@(/1/#D#ED/4D#=.K1'D-#P.&/#I&#[D/K1#1/(O@(%E1-#P.&/#&K#%K1C&K#%'I.@(/%1F-#&'2DF2&# D# &F&K&'(D# &/S(%ED-# '1# @.1# EDK4F&j%I1I&# [O@%E1-# 4@%EDFSC%E1-# 2%@.1F%R1'ID# &# 4/D:&(1'ID# 4/1R&/&@-# ID/&@# D.# I&@&:D@"# B# &/D(%@KD# N# ED'@%I&/1ID# EDKD# .K# ID@# K1%@# %K4D/(1'(&@# 4/D(1CD'%@(1@# I1# k%@(S/%1# I1# +/(&# DE%I&'(1F# &# [%D# ED'I.(D/# I1# '1//1GHD# @D0/&# 1# [%C./1# =.K1'1# Uf+kBq-# 6;;3-# 4"# 53V"# >&@I&# D# @NE.FD# YMY-# 1# 1/(&# &/S(%E1# I&@1[%1# &-# 4/%'E%41FK&'(&-# P.&@(%D'1# D@# F%K%(&@# KD/1%@# 1E&%(T2&%@# I1# /&4/&@&'(1GHD# ID# ED/4D# @&j.1ID-# P.&# @D[/&.-# '&@@&# KDK&'(D-# 'D21@# EDK4F%E1GJ&@# &'(/&# 1# @&j.1F%I1I&# &# D# %'I%2%I.1F%@KD-#I&#KDID#P.&#D#ED/4D#(D/'D.7@&#E1I1#2&R#K1%@#/&C.F1ID#&#D4/%K%ID#4D/# ED@(.K&@# @DE%1%@# &# F&C%@F1GJ&@# 4/DEF1K1I1@# 4&FD@# I%@E./@D@# KNI%ED@# &# =%C%L'%ED@6"# e#

:.@(1K&'(&#'1#@&C.'I1# K&(1I&#ID#@NE.FD# YMY#P.&-#@&C.'ID#<1/1@%'#U6;;5V-#@&#ED'@(/S%# 'D@#I&01(&@#&'(/&F1G1ID@#I1@#E%L'E%1@#1#[1F1#KDI&/'1#@D0/&#D#4/S4/%D#ED/4D#`_.#(&'=D# .K#ED/4Da-#&#EDK#%@@D#ED//D0D/17@&#@%C'%[%E1(%21K&'(&#41/1#1#@.1#ED'@(/.GHD"##

6#<&C.'ID#D@#&@(.ID@#I&#<1/1@%'#U6;;5V-#1#EDK4/&&'@HD#KDI&/'1#@D0/&#D#4/S4/%D#ED/4D#X#D#ED/4D#ID#@.:&%(D# X#EDK&GD.#EDK#D#I%@E./@D# =%C%L'%ED# ID#@NE.FD#YMY"#nK#I%@E./@D# P.&-# 4/%'E%41FK&'(&-#2%@D.#%K4F&K&'(1/#1# ED'&jHD#ID#@.:&%(D#EDK#@&.#ED/4D-#1#/&F1GHD#&'(/&#@1vI&#&#ID&'G1#'1#P.1F#%'I%E121#(1K0NK#1#4&/E&4GHD#&#D# ED'(/DF&#ID#@&jD"#B#=%@(D/%1ID/#I&KD'@(/1-#1D#FD'CD#I1#@.1#4&@P.%@1-#P.&#D#I%@E./@D#=%C%L'%ED#[.'I1K&'(D.# @.1#C&'&1FDC%1#&#@.1#01@&#(&S/%E1#I&@I&#D#[%K#ID#@NE.FD#YdMMM-#I&'(/D#ID#4/D:&(D#%F.K%'%@(1#P.&#@&#/&[&/%1#W# K&I%E%'1#I1#+'(%C.%I1I&#$FT@@%E1-#E1//&C1I1#EDK#D0:&(%2D@#4DFO(%ED@#&#KD/1%@#2DF(1ID@#1D#0&FD-#W#&@(N(%E1-#1D# 41I/HD# I&# 4&/[&%GHD"# _@@&# I%@E./@D# &'ED'(/1# @.1@# &@(/.(./1@-# ED'(&j(D@# &# K1(&/%1F%I1I&@# I./1'(&# D# @NE.FD# YMY-# 1K41/1'ID# .K# 1K4FD# 141/&F=D# I&# (&E'DFDC%1@# &# [&//1K&'(1@# 41/1# 1FE1'G1/# D# 4v0F%ED71F2D-# [1R&'ID# 41/(&#ID#1.K&'(D#I1#E.F(./1#I&#@10&/#'D#@NE.FD#YMY#&#ED'@(%(.%'ID#1#%'I%2%I.1F%R1GHD-#0&K#EDKD#1#@&K%S(%E1# ID#ED/4D#0./C.L@"#_@(1#/&[F&jHD#&'ED'(/17@&#ED'E/&(%R1I1#&K#1'TF%@&@#4/D[.'I1@#@D0/&#1#4&F&-#D@#Kv@E.FD@#&# D@#'&/2D@-#1@@%K#EDKD#ID#`@&jD#4&/%CD@Da#UD#[&K%'%'DV#I1@#*+,"(!%-.-$!-/0$(-1#

(4)

!"K$

,1/1F&F1K&'(&# '1@# 1/(&@-# D# ED/4D# %K1C%'T/%D-# 4D/# DE.41/# .K# `F.C1/# D0@&@@%2Da-# ED'[/D'(1-# '1@# /&4/&@&'(1GJ&@-# 1# (&D/%1# EFT@@%E1-# P.&# %'@%@(&# '.K1# I%@(w'E%1# &'(/&# 1# /&4/&@&'(1GHD#&#D#/&[&/&'(&x#&K#D.(/D@#(&/KD@-#.K#'.#KDI&/'D#4/&E%@121#&'ED'(/1/#.K# 1K0%&'(&# ED'(&K4D/w'&D"# +D# FD'CD# ID# @NE.FD# 1ED'(&E&# 1# 14/Dj%K1GHD# I&# %K1C&K# &# /&1F%I1I&#EDKD#/&[F&jD#ID@#%I&1%@#/DKw'(%ED@#P.&#4/&(&'I%1K#&F%K%'1/#D@#F%K%(&@#&'(/&#1# 1/(&#&#1#2%I1-#.'%'ID#1#1/(&#&#1#'1(./&R1#&K#(D/'D#ID#ED/4D"#_'(HD-#D#ED/4D#%K1C%'T/%D# /&(D/'1# 1D# /&1F-# @S# P.&# 1# &j4&/%L'E%1# ID# /&1F# %'[D/K1-# &K# @%-# 1# %K4D@@%0%F%I1I&# I&# 1# %K1C&K#/&1F#[%j1/7@&#@&'HD#4&F1#%'(&/K&I%1GHD#I1#%K1C%'1GHD#Uh_!q_!-#6;;9-#4"#559V"#B# ED/4D#/&4/&@&'(1ID#'.'E1#N#.K#ED/4D#/&1F-#1D#K&@KD#(&K4D-#1#/&4/&@&'(1GHD#@&#/&[&/&# W#'D@@1#&j4&/%L'E%1# 2%2%I1x#1I&K1%@-#&@@1# &j4&/%L'E%1#'HD#N#14&'1@# 2%@.1F-#:T#P.&#4DI&# DE.41/# (DID@# D@# @&'(%ID@"# B/1# 10DF%/# 1# I%@(w'E%1-# D/1# EDK.'%E1/# 1# 4F&'%(.I&# I1# &j4&/%L'E%1# I1# ED%@1-# N# 4/&DE.41GHD# P.&# @&# &'ED'(/1# 'D# !&1F%@KD-# (&/KD# 1K0OC.D# &# 4/D0F&KT(%ED"#B#4%'(D/#/&1F%@(1#p.@(12#$D./0&(#U595b759uuV-#4D/#&j&K4FD-#/&4/&@&'(1'(&# I&@@&#4&/ODID#I1#k%@(S/%1#I1#+/(&#ID#BE%I&'(&-#21FD/%R1#1#4%'(./1#EDKD#D#1(D#4/S4/%D#I&# 4%'(1/-#I&#I&4D@%(1/#K1(N/%1#4%E(S/%E1#@D0/&#.K#@.4D/(&#I&#KDID#P.&#D#ED/4D#I1#4%'(./1# [D@@&#/&4/&@&'(1(%2D#I1#K1(&/%1F%I1I&#ID#ED/4D#[%C./1ID#U*%C"5V"#$D./0&(#ED'(/14J&#&@@1# K1(&/%1F%I1I&# T@4&/1# ID# ED/4D# `/&1Fa# 1D@# ED/4D@# F%@D@-# @&F1ID@# I&# Q&1'7+.C.@(&# >DK%'%P.&#M'C/&@#U5u9;759utV-#P.&#E/%D.-#'D@#'.@#[&K%'%'D@-#.K#&K0F&K1#I&#0&F&R1#&# %'@E/%GHD#ID#I&@&:D#41/1#D#@NE.FD#YMY#U*%C"6V"#i.C1/&@#I%2&/@D@#&#4D@%GJ&@#ED'(/1I%(S/%1@-# K1@#1K0D@#4/D:&(1K#.K#ED/4D#%K1C%'1ID"# # # # U*%C"5V#p.@(12&#$D./0&(-#2.34$)($5-#SF&D#@D0/&#(&F1# 5933-#6789:;<=.>"-?$.#@25-%A=.B%5(-1. # #

(5)

!"L$ # # U*%C"6V#Q&1'#+.C.@(&#>DK%'%P.&#M'C/&@-#2.C%!DE. 4"5FE-#UZD'IDV-#59t6-#SF&D#@D0/&#(&F1-#5;9#EK-# f.@N&#I.#iD.2/&-#,1/%@"# ################### # #

_@(1# 4/&@&'(&# (&'(1(%21# I&# 4&'@1/# @D0/&# D# F.C1/# ID# ED/4D# %K1C%'T/%D# @&# %'@4%/1# '1# ED'(/%0.%GHD#ID#ED'E&%(D#`(!-(GD4-# D/%C%'T/%D@a#Ur/1K&/-#6;;5-# 4"#5stV-#ED'@%I&/1'ID#1@# /&4/&@&'(1GJ&@#@D0/&#D#ED/4D#'1@#1/(&@#2%@.1%@#41/1#&'(&'I&/#D#F&P.&#I&#4D@@%0%F%I1I&@# '1//1(%21@#&#%'@E/%GJ&@#@.(%@-#K1@#4DI&/D@1@-#I1@#%K1C&'@#4/D:&(1I1@#'1@#4%'(./1@#ID@#&# 41/1#D@#ED/4D@# =.K1'D@-#P.&#[D/K.F1K#I%@E./@D@# P.&#10/1'C&K#I&@I&#'D/K1@#@DE%1%@# 1(N#(&D/%1@#I&#1/(&"##

# #

"I$M(+$67+$2/N$67$-6IIII$

#

_/1# .K1# 2&R# .K# '.-# P.&# ED'(1# 1# =%@(S/%1# I&# .K# ED/4D# 2&@(%ID# &K# 1/(&-# 4D$. !"#$1# B# CL'&/D#ID#'.#N#ED'@%I&/1ID#EDKD#[D/K1#%I&1F#I&#1/(&#U$i+!r-#5bu5V-#0.@E1'ID#@&K4/&#1#

*(*$-(-#ID#0&FD-#EDK#%@@D#&F&#N#.K#%'I%E1ID/#I1#%IN%1#IDK%'1'(&#I1#1/(&#&#@&.#414&F#'1#

@DE%&I1I&#Uf+kBq-#6;;3-#4"#6bV-#D.#1(N#D@#CE"!#%5($-#I&F1#Uq_+>-#6;;s-#4"#uV-#4D/P.&#N# 1#/&4/&@&'(1GHD#ID#ED/4D#4D@@O2&F#I&#@&/#KD@(/1I1#I&'(/D#I1#KD/1F#/&C&'(&#&#I&#E1I1# @DE%&I1I&"# >%1'(&# I&@@&# F.C1/# E&'(/1F# ID# '.-# P.&# /&2&F1# .K1# '1//1(%21# &@4&EO[%E1# &# %'@E/%(1#'D#ED/4D#=.K1'D-#&'(&'I&KD@#1@#%K1C&'@#I1#K1@E.F%'%I1I&#&#I1#[&K%'%F%I1I&# EDKD#F.C1/&@#I&#'&CDE%1GHD"#q&F1@#D#1/(%@(1#1@@.K&#D#414&F#I&#K&I%1ID/#&'(/&#D#%I&1F-#D# /&1F#&#D#'1(./1F-#&K#.K#@%@(&K1# I&#4DF1/%I1I&#'D# P.1F#D#'.#[&K%'%'D#&@(T# 2%'E.F1ID#1# %I&%1@# I1# @&'@.1F%I1I&-# ID# @&F21C&K-# I1# [F.%I&R-# I1# 41@@%2%I1I&-# &'(/&# D.(/1@-# &# D# '.# K1@E.F%'D-#W@#I1#FSC%E1-#I1#F%'&1/%I1I&-#I1#/1E%D'1F%I1I&#&#ID#&P.%FO0/%D"##

(6)

!OP$

B@#'.@#1E1ILK%ED@#ID#@NE.FD#YMY-#ED'(.ID-#4/DE./1/1K#10DF%/#D#&/D(%@KD-#@.0@(%(.%'ID7D# 4&FD# E%&'(%[%E%@KD# 'D# I&@&'=D-# &-# '1# 4%'(./1-# 4&FD# 1/(%[%E%1F%@KD# D.# 4&F1# I%@(w'E%1# &@41E%1F7(&K4D/1F# ID# (&K1# &@EDF=%ID"# _'(/&(1'(D-# 1# %K1C&K# ID# '.# (/1'@C/&I%.# [1E%FK&'(&# D@# E1K4D@# I1# @&'@.1F%I1I&-# ID# &/S(%ED# &# ID# I&@&:D# &-# E1I1# 2&R# K1%@-# EDK# K&'D@#4/&(&j(D@#1#I&@4&%(D#I1@#%'(&'GJ&@#ID@#1E1ILK%ED@"#>%K%'.%'ID#D#I&@FDE1K&'(D# &@41GD7(&K4D/1F#&#14/Dj%K1'ID7@&#I&#/&4/&@&'(1GJ&@#ED'(&K4D/w'&1@-#'&@(&#E1@D#4D$.

!%&$#-# 1# '1//1(%21# ID# &/S(%ED# 4&/K1'&E&"# +# '1//1(%21# ID# '.# 14/D4/%17@&# I&# .K1#

%ED'DC/1[%1# &/S(%E1-# P.&# N# .K1# '1//1(%21# K%(DFSC%E1-# /&F%C%D@1# D.# 1%'I1# =%@(S/%E1# D.# I1# 2%I1#KDI&/'1"#+#'.I&R#1C&#&K#'DK&#I&#.K1#=%@(S/%1#&@4&EO[%E1#&#.K1#2&/I1I&#K1%D/-# 1(N#P.&#1#/&4/&@&'(1GHD#@&#1F%&#EDK#D#ED(%I%1'D"#qHD#N#14&'1@#1#P.&@(HD#I&#DF=1/#41/1#1# &j4D@%GHD# I1# E1/'&# 4&/[&%(1-# K1@# &@(1# N# &'/&I1I1# '.K1# /&(S/%E1# 1/(O@(%E1# ID@# (%4D@# ID# ED/4D# %I&1F"# _# 1'(&@# I&# /&[F&(%/# @D0/&# 1@# (&'@J&@# P.&# 1# KDI&/'%I1I&# 4/D2DE1-# N# '&E&@@T/%D# 1'1F%@1/# /14%I1K&'(&# 1@# 4D@@O2&%@# '1//1(%21@# ID# '.# '1# k%@(S/%1# I1# +/(&# BE%I&'(1F"## +#41/(%/#ID#MF.K%'%@KD#D#'.#EFT@@%ED-#!"#$-#&'E1K%'=17@&#41/1#D#KDI&/'%@KD#EDKD#@%'1F# I1#2%I1#./01'1#'D#ED'(&j(D#I1@#(/1'@[D/K1GJ&@#ID#@NE.FD#YMY-#2%@.1F%R1'ID#1@#1'@%&I1I&@# @DE%1%@#&#1K0%GJ&@#4DFO(%E1@-#I&#[D/K1#E%[/1I1#&#EDI%[%E1I1#Uf+kBq-#6;;3-#4"#86V"#q&@@&# (&K4D#&#F.C1/-#E1I1#2&R#K1%@#D#'.#@&#EDFDE1#&K#E%K1#ID#K./D#ID#ED'[F%(D#&'(/&#D#EFT@@%ED# &#D#ED'(&K4D/w'&D"#+#'HD#/&4/&@&'(1(%2%I1I&#ID#@&jD#C&/1#(DI1#1#I%'wK%E1#I1#'1//1(%21# I&@@&#'D2D#4&/ODID-#&#N#D#4DI&/#DE.F(D-#D#4/1R&/#ID#4/D%0%ID-#P.&#&@ED'I%1#1#[D'(&#I&# &'&/C%1-#P.&#@S#N#EDK4/&&'@O2&F#4D/#@&.@#&[&%(D@#&#'HD#4&FD#4/%'EO4%D#C&/1ID/#D.#1#@.1# =%@(S/%1# &@ED'I%I1"# U?!BBr<-# 5b9b-# 4"# 6bV"# B# )$(4*E4(0. I&# E1I1# /&4/&@&'(1GHD# ID# '.# ED'@%@(&# '1# &j4/&@@HD# &/S(%E1# 2&F1I1# 4D/# K&%D# I1# :.@(%[%E1(%21# I&# (&K1@# K%(DFSC%ED@-# /&F%C%D@D@# D.# F%(&/T/%D@#/&1F%R1ID@# 'D# &@(1'I1/(&#1E1ILK%ED-#4D/# &j&K4FDA#1#%K1C&K#I1# dL'.@# I&# M'C/&@-# ?D.C.&/&1.# &# $101'&F# U*%C@"s-8-3V"# ZDI1@# &@(1@# (/L@# [%C./1@# [&K%'%'1@# ED//&@4D'I&K# W# '1//1(%21# EFT@@%E1# I1# 4%'(./1# [1R&'ID# 1F.@HD# 1D# 2N.# I&F%E1I1K&'(&# F&21'(1ID#4&FD#E10&FD-#&F&K&'(D#%ED'DC/T[%ED#(/1I%E%D'1F#P.&#4&/(&'E&#1D#'1@E%K&'(D#I1# dL'.@-# &#@&K4/&#I&@FDE1ID#'D#(&K4D#I&'(/D#ID# K%(D#EFT@@%ED"#B.(/1#4D@@O2&F#/&(S/%E1-# 01@(1'(&# 4/1(%E1I1# 4D/# M'C/&@-# N# D# 2%N@# ID# D/%&'(1F%@KD# P.&# @&# 01@&%1# '1# 1F(&/%I1I&# &jS(%E1"#+#2#%)(-F%.$.$-F5%0%#U5986V#U*%C"tV#D.#D#H%!DE.4"5FE#U59t6V-#U*%C"#6V-#KD@(/1K#D# I&@FDE1K&'(D# 41/1# .K# FDE1F# &jS(%ED# '1# %K1C%'1GHD# ID# 1/(%@(1# &# [D/1# ID# /&1FA# 1@# ED'E.0%'1@# '.K# =1/NK# I%2&/(&K7@&# FD'C&# I1# KD/1F%I1I&# DE%I&'(1F"# +P.%-# %'&/&'(&# W# /&4/&@&'(1GHD# ID# B/%&'(&-# &# 1# 4&/@D'1F%R1GHD# I&@(1# '.K1# [%C./1# [&K%'%'1-# C&/17@&# %'EF.@%2&# .K1# I%@E.@@HD# @D0/&# 1# /&F1GHD# BE%I&'(&7B/%&'(&-# &-# ED'@&P.&'(&K&'(&-# I1@# I%ED(DK%1@A#[1K%F%1/#&#'HD#[1K%F%1/-#%I&'(%I1I&#&#I%[&/&'G1-#-$)'#&#D#D.(/D"#

(7)

!O!$ # # # # U*%C"sV#>DK%'%P.&# M'C/&@-#I?!"-. %!%#AE*$!-#5989"#yF&D# @D0/&#(&F1#-#f.@@N&# $D'IN-#$=1'(%FF]"# ################### # # # # # # U*%C"8V#l%FF%1K7#+IDF4=&# ?D.C.&/&1.-#IJ!"--#SF&D#@D0/&# (&F1-#59ub-#s;;#z#65u#EK-# f.@N&#I{B/@1]-#,1/%@"# # # #

(8)

!O"$ # # # # # # U*%C"3V#+F&j1'I/&#$101'&F-#K%.L%(--%!F$.#$.I?!"--#59ts# SF&D#@D0/&#(&F1-#5s;#j#663#EK-#f.@N&#I|B/@1]-#,1/%@"# # # # # # U*%C"tV#Q&1'#+.C.@(&#>DK%'%P.&#M'C/&@-#2#%)(-,"$.$.$-F5%0%# 5986-#SF&D#@D0/&#(&F1-#l1F(&/@#+/(#p1FF&/]-#?1F(%KD/&"# #

(9)

!OO$

,D/(1'(D-#P.1'ID#D#I&@FDE1K&'(D#%K1C%'T/%D#21%#41/1#&@41GD@#&#4&/@D'1C&'@#P.&#[1R&K# 41/(&#I&#.K.5$M$54E(5$#@%K0SF%ED#I&#.K1#%I&'(%I1I&#'1E%D'1F#D.#.K1#E.F(./1#&@4&EO[%E1-# '&@(&#'.#%'@E/&2&7@&#D#I%@E./@D#'1E%D'1F-#EDKD#@&/T#&j1K%'1ID#&K#@&C.%I1#'1#'D(1#(/L@"# >%2&/@1K&'(&-# D@# 4D.ED@# ED'=&E%ID@# '.@# K1@E.F%'D@-# 4/&@D@# 1D# ED'E&%(D# I1# K1@E.F%'%I1I&# @DE%1FK&'(&# ED'@(/.OID-# C1'=1K# 'D@# (&K4D@# I1# &j41'@HD# %K4&/%1F-# 'D# @NE.FD#YMY-#[D/(&@#(D'@#KD/1%@-#41(/%S(%ED@-#I&#&j4D@%GHD#I&#2%/(.I&@#&#I&#[1(D@#=&/S%ED@# E.:1#'1//1(%21#N#1#ID#E121F=&%/D#&#D#I&@&:D#I&ED//&'(&#I1#2%/(.I&#I&#.K1#2&/I1I&#KD/1F"# B#'.#K1@E.F%'D#'HD#(%'=1#K.%(D#&@41GD#'D#%K1C%'T/%D#@DE%1F#&#C1FC121#EDK#I%[%E.FI1I&# &@@1# ED'P.%@(1"# i.E%&7<K%(=# 4&/E&0&# `.K# /%(D# I&# (/1'@%GHDa# U5bbb-# 4"# 585V# P.1'ID# D# 1/(%@(171F.'D# @1O1# [D/K1ID# I1# +E1I&K%1# D'I&# &/1# D0/%C1ID# 1# I&@&'=1/# D# '.# EDK# KDI&FD@# K1@E.F%'D@# &j4/&@@%2D@# &# &@EDF=%ID@# 4D/# &F&# K&@KD# '1# /.1-# &-# K1%@# (1/I&-# I&I%E1/7@&#&jEF.@%21K&'(&#1D@#'.@#[&K%'%'D@#@&'@.1%@#P.&#1(&'I%1K#1D#CD@(D#0./C.L@#I1# 4%'(./1#ID#@1FHD#'1#K&(1I&#ID#@NE.FD#YMY#&K#,1/%@"## >&#KDID#C&/1F-#D#'.#'.'E1#[D%#(HD#E.F(%21ID#EDKD#'D#@NE.FD#YMY"#_-#'1#2%I1#ED(%I%1'1-#D# ED/4D#'.'E1#[D%#(HD#R&FD@1K&'(&#DE.F(1ID-#@D0/&(.ID#D#ED/4D#I1#K.F=&/"## # # # U*%C"uV#eID.1/I#f1'&(-#2)A*M(%-#59ts-#SF&D#@D0/&#(&F1-#5s;-3#z#5b;#EK-#f.@N&#I|B/@1]-#,1/%@"# # _'(/&#%I&1F%@KD#&#/&1F%@KD-#1#1/(&#KDI&/'1#%K4.(1#@&2&/1@#(&'@J&@#W#/&4/&@&'(1GHD#ID# '.# .K1# 2&R# P.&# .K# 1/(%@(1# KDI&/'D# (&K# P.&# (/1(1/# I&# (&K1@# KDI&/'D@# I&'(/D# I1# ED(%I%1'1# /&1F%I1I&"# $=1/F&@# ?1.I&F1%/&# E&F&0/1# '1@# @.1@# &@E/%(1@-# &@4&E%[%E1K&'(&# 'D# `,%'(D/#I1#2%I1#KDI&/'1a#U593b7t;-#4.0F%E1ID#&K#59tsV-#I.1@#[%C./1@#I1#KDI&/'%I1I&-# .K1#D#1/(%@(1#EDKD##%!#A#&#D.(/1-#@&.#D0:&(D#I&#D0@&/21GHD-#1#4/D@(%(.(1-#E.:D#ED/4D#@&# (D/'1# D# ESI%CD# I1# KDI&/'%I1I&"# !&ED'E%F%1/# 1# I%[&/&'G1# &'(/&# D# '.# 1E1ILK%ED# &# D# '.#

(10)

!OQ$

KDI&/'D#@%C'%[%E1#I&@2&F1/#1#'.I&R#&#/&@4D'I&/#W#4&/C.'(1#E/.E%1FA#P.1F#@&/%1#D#4/DE&@@D# 1/C.K&'(1(%2D#'1#'1//1GHD#1D#EDFDE1/#.K#'.#'.K1#4%'(./1#/&1FO@(%E1g#U?!BBr<-#5b9b-#4"# 6uV"# _@(1# (/1'@%GHD# ID# !"#$# 41/1# D# !%&$## C&/D.# .K1# E/%@&# I&# /&4/&@&'(1GHD"# }ID.1/I# f1'&(#U59s67599sV#1[%/K1#P.&-#`D#'.-#1D#P.&#41/&E&-#N#1#4/%K&%/1#&#1#vF(%K1#41F12/1#I1# 1/(&a#Uf+q_Z#14.I#h_!q_!-#6;;9-#4"#5;8V"#>1O#&F&#(&/#I&@1[%1ID#EDK#1#%'@&/GHD#I&#.K# '.#KDI&/'D-#14/&@&'(1'ID#.K#ED/4D#0/1'ED-#./01'D-#4/D2%ID#1%'I1#I&#.K#2&/I1I&%/D# /D@(D-#2)/*M(%#U59tsV#U*%C"uVx#D.@D.#F&21'(1/#D#2N.#ID#@&jD#[&K%'%'D#U14&@1/#I&#1#KHD#I1# $D./(%@1'&#d%E(D/%'&#f&./&'(#&@ED'I&/#1#2%@HD#ID#S/CHD#[&K%'%'D#DE.F(1ID#'D#I&(1F=&V"# f1@#D#C&@(D#&2%I&'E%1#1#@%(.1GHD#I&#D[&/(1#I1#'.I&R-#&#&K1'1#I&@@&#@&C/&ID#%'I%E1ID#D# [1(D#I&#P.&#D#@&jD#'HD#4DI&#@&/#I%/&(1K&'(&#/&2&F1ID-#=1:1#2%@(1# (DI1#1#I%'wK%E1# &#1# (&'@HD#'1//1(%21#P.&#E1.@D.#(1F#1(D-#.K#&@Ew'I1FD#'D#4v0F%ED#41/%@%&'@&-#P.&#ED'@%I&/D.# 1#2)/*M(%.U*%C"uV#I&#f1'&(#[1F@1#&#1#dL'.@#I&#$101'&F#U*%C"3V-#2&/I1I&%/1#Uh_!q_!-#6;;9-# 4"#5s;V"#Z1F#2DE10.FT/%D#(D(1F%R1'(&#EDKD#`[1F@Da#&#`2&/I1I&%/Da#&/1#EDK.K#'1#121F%1GHD# KD/1F%R1'(&#ID@#'.@#I1P.&F&#4&/ODID"#####

+# K&@K1# E/%@&# I&# /&4/&@&'(1GHD-# E1.@1'ID# .K1# 2&R# P.&0/17E10&G1@# 41/1# D@# 1/(%@(1@# KDI&/'D@#&#(&'ID#EDKD#KD(%2D#4F1.@O2&F#D#I&@2&F1/#I1#'.I&R#&#D.(/1#2&R#D@#&@Ew'I1FD@# 'D# 4v0F%ED-# 1ED'(&E&# %C.1FK&'(&# '1# F%(&/1(./1"# q1# !E0$))$# `q1'1a# U599;V# eK%F&# hDF1# U598;75b;6V# ED'@(/S%# 1# (&'@HD# '1//1(%21# 1# 41/(%/# I1# 'HD# /&4/&@&'(1(%2%I1I&# ID# @&jD# I1# $D./(%@1'&"##

,&(&/#?/DD^@#E=&C1#W#ED'EF.@HD#I&#P.&#1#ED'E&4GHD#I&#.K#!"#$#*E#$5!E#ED'@%@(&#&K# .K# ENA*E5E!. U5b9b-# 4"# 5tV-# D.# K&F=D/# 1%'I1-#FE!45%#(F4(E. (!. %#($F4E-# P.&/# I%R&/-# .K1# [%C./1# /&(S/%E1# I&# .K1# [D/K.F1GHD# ED'(/1I%(S/%1"# +P.%# =T# 1# ED'(/1I%GHD# ID# 1I:&(%2D# `KDI&/'Da#P.&#2%'E.F1#1@#1@@DE%1GJ&@#/&1F-#ED'(&K4D/w'&D-#D/I%'T/%D-#%'I%2%I.1F-#0/&2&-# 1#.K1#[D/K1#41/(%E.F1/#ED'(/1#D#@%C'%[%E1ID#ID#@.0@(1'(%2D#!"#$-#.K1#/&4/&@&'(1GHD#I&# [D/K1#%I&1F-#0&F1#&#EFT@@%E1"#e#&@(1#(&'@HD#'1#(/1'@%GHD#P.&#D#!"#$#(/1'@C/%I&#&K#T/&1@#I&# (10.#&#I&%j1#I&#@&/#.K1#/&4/&@&'(1GHD#%I&1F#'1#P.1F#N#&j%C%I1#4&F1#I&[%'%GHD#ID#ED'E&%(D"# B# ED'E&%(D# ID# !%&$#-# D.# @&:1-# D# '.# I&@4%ID# I&# 1/(&-# P.&/# I%R&/# 1.@&'(&# I&# [D/K1@# %I&1F%R1I1@-#N#4/D21#I1#(/1'@C/&@@HD#41/1#.K1#'D21#'1//1(%21#[D/K1F#&#ED'E&%(.1F#I&'(/D# ID# 4/D:&(D# I1# KDI&/'%I1I&# ID# @NE.FD# YMY-# &# ED'@DF%I1# .K# I&@FDE1K&'(D# X# &2%I&'(&K&'(&#'HD#ID#'.#P.&#/&(D/'D.#1D#/&1F-#K1@#@%K-#I1@#CE"!#%5($-#I1#1/(&"##

M@@D# @%C'%[%E1# P.&# D# )$(4*E4(0# I1# '1//1GHD-# D# &/D(%@KD-# 4&/K1'&E&# &# @&# 14/&@&'(1# '1# 2%/1I1#ID#@NE.FD-#EDK#D#1I2&'(D#I1@#21'C.1/I1@-#E1I1#2&R#K1%@#I&@2&F1IDx#D@#&F&K&'(D@# ED'@(%(.%'(&@#I&#.K#(&j(D#[.'I1ID/#@HD#D#&@41GD#ED'(&K4D/w'&D#&#D#(&K4D#@%K.F(w'&D# I&'(/D# ID# ED(%I%1'D# I1# 2%I1# KDI&/'1# EDK# (DI1@# @.1@# %'P.%&(1GJ&@-# 1@@%K&(/%1@s#&#

(11)

!O#$

ED'(/1I%GJ&@"# _%@# .K1# '1//1(%21# %'@E/%(1# '.K# ED/4D# KDI&/'D# P.&# (&K# EDKD# &FD# .K1# ED'(/D2N/@%1# %I&DFSC%E1# @D0/&# D# (/1I%E%D'1F# &# D# 'D2D# P.&# KD2&# (DID# E1K4D# I&# 1/(&-# &# 1FNK#I&@(&-#D.(/D@#0&'@#@%K0SF%ED@#I1#@DE%&I1I&"## _%@#1CD/1#.K#'.#P.&#ED'(1#.K1#&@(S/%1#KDI&/'1"""# # OI$R'()'3$*1&&1'-+13$-'$17+81-9(1'$:6(+-./$'$S/86-:'$>7)<(1'$D(+31,/1('$ # U*%C"9V#d%E(D/#f&%/&FF&@-#>E$*%-#59tt-#SF&D#@D0/&# (&F1-#56b#j#5b;#EK-#f.@&.#I&#+/(&#I&#<HD#,1.FD-# +@@%@#$=1(&1.0/%1'I-#<HD#,1.FD"# # #

B@# '.@# I1# 4%'(./1# 1E1ILK%E1# 0/1@%F&%/1# &@(HD# 4F&'D@# I&# .K1# 1(KD@[&/1# %K1C%'T/%1-# 2%@.1F%R1'ID# .K# %I&1F-# 4&'@1'ID# &K# i&@@%'C-# 41/1# P.&K# D# %I&1F# I1# 1/(&# N# 1# /&4/&@&'(1GHD#I&#.K#ED/4D#EDKD#KDI&FD#I&#.K#P.1I/D#%'1E&@@O2&F#&#1(N#=%4D(N(%ED"#e# 4D@@O2&F# D0@&/21/-# @&C.'ID# h&/'&/# U6;;9-# 4"5;3V-# '1# &'D/K&# 4D4.F1/%I1I&# ID# '.# [&K%'%'D#ID#@NE.FD#YMY-# &K# C&/1F-#.K#/&@@./C%K&'(D#ID#%I&1F#I&#i&@@%'C"#B# ED/4D#%I&1F# =%4D(N(%ED# '1# 4%'(./1# 0/1@%F&%/1# 4/D4J&# .K1# '1//1(%21# K.%(D# &@4&EO[%E1-# 'HD# I&# .K1# '1//1GHD# K%(DFSC%E1# I&@FDE1I1# 'D# (&K4D# &# 'D# &@41GD# %'I&[%'%ID@-# K1@# @%K# '.K1# FDE1F%R1GHD#&#'.K1#(&//1#(/D4%E1F#&#'.K#(&K4D#&@4&EO[%ED#I1#EDFD'%R1GHD#D.#/&K&(&'ID#1# E&/(1@#D/%C&'@#EDK#@.1@#4&/@D'1C&'@#&#4/D(1CD'%@(1@"#B@#'.@#0/1@%F&%/D@#ED'(1K#D@#K%(D@# I&#@&.@#=&/S%@#D.#1'(%7=&/S%@#I1#F%(&/1(./1#/DKw'(%E1#%'I%1'%@(1#D.-#4D@(&/%D/K&'(&-#'D@# 1'D@#9;#ID#@NE.FD# YMY-# (/1R&K#[%C./1@# `(O4%E1@a# ID#ED(%I%1'D#ID# %'(&/%D/# ID#41O@"#+# &@@&# /&@4&%(D-#D@#P.1(/D#'.@# &@EDF=%ID@#X# >E$*%#U59tt-# *%C"9V-#I&#d%E(D/# f&%/&FF&@#I&#i%K1# U59s675b;sVx#>%5%C+#U599s-#*%C"bV-#I&#!DIDF[D#+KDLID#U593u75b85Vx#B#O-4"#E.#$.*")D$5.

P>")D$5. FE*. I$!4%5E)%=. 5998-# *%C"5;V-# I&# !DIDF[D# +KDLID-# &# Q$55"C%#E5. C5%-()$(5E#

U59ub-# *%C"55V-# I&# +FK&%I1# Qv'%D/# U593;759bbV# X# 2%@.1F%R1K# D@# I%@E./@D@# @D0/&# D# ED/4D#

##

(12)

!OH$ %K1C%'T/%D#'&@@&#KDK&'(D#=%@(S/%ED-#D#ID#<&C.'ID#MK4N/%D#&#1@@.K&K#.K#F.C1/#E&'(/1F# %'ED/4D/1'ID#.(D4%1@-#1(/%(D@#&#ED'[F%(D@#I&#.K1#:D2&K#'1GHD"# # U*%C"bV#!DIDF[D#+KD&ID-#>%5%C+-#5996-#SF&D# @D0/&#(&F1-#56;#j#5u5#EK#fq?+-#!%D#I&#Q1'&%/D"# ###### # U*%C"5;V#!DIDF[D#+KD&ID-#O-4"#E.#$.>")D$5=. L".FE*.0$!4%5E)%-#5998-#SF&D#@D0/&#(&F1-#E"%"I"-# 53;-3#j#6;;#EK-#fq?+-!%D#I&#Q1'&%/D"# # # U*%C"55#V"#+FK&%I1#Qv'%D/-#2.Q$55"C%#E5. H5%-()$(5E-#59ub-#SF&D#@D0/&#(&F1-#66u#j#596#EK#-# fq?+-#!%D#I&#Q1'&%/D". #

(13)

!OJ$ #

#

q&@@&#4&/ODID-#D#I&@(1P.&#W#ED'@(/.GHD# I&# .K# ED/4D# %I&1F%R1ID-# @&j.1ID# &# &/D(%R1ID# D.# /&1FO@(%ED# ID@# 1'D@# t;# 1D@# 9;#ID#@NE.FD#YMY# ED'[%C./1#1@#'1//1GJ&@# %'@E/%(1@# 'D# ED/4D# '1# P.1F# D# ED/4D# %K1C%'T/%D# @&# %'@E/&2&# EDK# I%[&/&'(&@# D0:&(%2D@# '1# @DE%&I1I&# 0/1@%F&%/1-# %'EF.@%2&-#1F%1ID#1D#I&@&:D#I&#ED'@(/.GHD# I&# .K1# E.F(./1# '1E%D'1F# C&'.O'1"# B# ED':.'(D# I1@# %K1C&'@# @&F&E%D'1I1@-# 4D/# @.1# 2&R-# %'I%E1# .K1# K.I1'G1# I1# /&4/&@&'(1GHD# ID# ED/4D# '&@(&# /&ED/(&# (&K4D/1F#U59tt7599bV#41/1#1#P.1F#E=1KD# 1# 1(&'GHDA# 'D# %'OE%D# ID# 4&/ODID# I&@(1E1ID-# &/1K# ED/4D@# %I&1F%R1ID@-# @D0/&(.ID# D# P.&# :T# &j4.@&KD@# @D0/&# D# ED/4D# '.# [&K%'%'D# &# D# '.# K1@E.F%'D# '1# 'D(1# 1'(&/%D/-# 1(N# 141/&E&/# D# 4/%K&%/D# '.# `KDI&/'Da# I&# +KDLID-# &K# 5998-# F&21ID# 1# 4v0F%ED"# _'(/&(1'(D-# D# @./C%K&'(D# I1# D0/1# 3# R%5(EF%# I&# ,&I/D# +KN/%ED# U59t8-# *%C"# 56V# E1.@D.# [./D/# &# 1# /&:&%GHD# ID# MK4&/1ID/# >"# ,&I/D# MM# 4D/# `@&/# I&K1%@#F%E&'E%D@1a#U<$kl+!$h-#6;;8-#6"#2DF"-#E1I&/'D#ED/V#41/1#1P.&F&@#1'D@#I&#59t8#'D# !%D#I&#Q1'&%/D"#$D'(.ID-#6;#1'D@#14S@#D#DED//%ID-#.K#'.#I&#!DIDF[D#+KDLID-#P.&#&/1# `E1/'&# 4./1# E1/'&a# UpD'R1C17>.P.&-# 5b99-# 4"5t675tsV-# 4~I&# @&/# &j4D@(D# 'D# !%D# I&# Q1'&%/D-#K&@KD#E1.@1'ID#E&/(1@#%'P.%&(1GJ&@"#,DI&7@&#I%R&/#P.&#D#[DED#I1#'1//1(%21#'1# 4%'(./1# ID# '.# 0/1@%F&%/D# '&@@&# I&(&/K%'1ID# 4&/ODID# 10/%.7@&# 41/1# D.(/1@# /&(S/%E1@# '1# P.1F#D#I&@&:D#&/S(%ED#2&F1ID#ED'(%'.1#4/&@&'(&-#EDKD#[D%#I&KD'@(/1ID#'1#'D(1#1'(&/%D/-# ED'[%C./1'ID# 1O# .K1# 4D@@%0%F%I1I&# I&# /&@4D@(1"# ,&/E&0&/&KD@# P.&# D@# '.@# 0/1@%F&%/D@# D4&/1K# EDK# K&E1'%@KD@# @%K%F1/&@# '1# /&(S/%E1# @D0/&# 1# '.I&R# ID# ED/4D# =.K1'D-# I&KD'@(/1K-#4D/NK-#&@4&E%[%E%I1I&@#I1#E.F(./1#0/1@%F&%/1#1#@&/&K#1'1F%@1ID@"##

+I14(1'ID# D# @%@(&K1# [/1'EL@# EDK# @.1@# 'D/K1@# &# =%&/1/P.%1@-# D@# 4/D[&@@D/&@# '1# +E1I&K%1# MK4&/%1F# I&# ?&F1@# +/(&@# 'D# !%D# I&# Q1'&%/D# E.F(%21/1K# D@# %I&1%@# I&# 0&F&R1# I1#

#

U*%C"56#V#+KN/%ED-#,&I/DA#3.R%5(EF%-#5996-#SF&D#@D0/&# (&F1-#6;3#j#5s3#EK-##f.@&.#q1E%D'1F#I&#?&F1@#+/(&@-#!%D# I&#Q1'&%/D#U@&C.'I1#2&/@HDV"#

(14)

!OK$

+'(%C.%I1I&# C/&ED7/DK1'1# &# D@# 4/&E&%(D@# EFT@@%ED@# I1# [%C./1# =.K1'1# '1# [D/K1GHD# I&# @&.@# 1/(%@(1@71F.'D@"# +# I%@E%4F%'1# ID# I&@&'=D# I1# [%C./1# =.K1'1# [D%# E/%1I1# 1# 41/(%/# ID# &@(1(.(D# I1# +E1I&K%1# &K# 596;# &# /&E&0&.# 1# K&@K1# %K4D/(w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`21/%&I1I&#I1# &@4NE%&#=.K1'1a#U_@(1(.D#I1# +E1I&K%1-# 58"3"5933-# +/("# 58-# Z%(.FD# dV"# B@# KDI&FD@# I%@4D'O2&%@# 2%'=1K# I1@# E1K1I1@# 4D4.F1E%D'1%@# K1%@#01%j1@-# K1/%'=&%/D@#&# K&@KD# &@E/12D@-#D[&/&E&'ID# ED/4D@#(/1G1ID@# 4&FD# (/101F=D# I./D"3#qHD# @S# 41/1# D@# 1F.'D@-# K1@# (1K0NK# 41/1# D@# 1/(%@(1@74/D[&@@D/&@#

&@@1#E1/L'E%1#I&#KDI&FD@#I%[%E.F(D.#D#(/101F=Dx#4D/#&j&K4FD-#'D#ED'(&j(D#I1#&j4D@%GHD# I1#`?1(1F=1#I&#p.1/1/14&@a#I&#d%(D/#f&%/&FF&@-#&K#59ub-#D#QD/'1F#I&#$DKN/E%D#E/%(%E1#1# [1F(1#I&#4/D[%@@%D'1F%@KD#ID@#KDI&FD@#&#D@#E=1K1#I&#`?%E=D@#$1/4%'(&%/D@a"#<&'ID#1@@%K-# 4DI&7@&#%K1C%'1/#D#&@[D/GD#(1'(D#ID#1F.'D#EDKD#D#ID#1/(%@(1#[D/K1ID#&K#1IP.%/%/#.K1# 1I14(1GHD#%I&1F%R1I1#'D#E.F(D#I1#2%/%F%I1I&#EFT@@%E1-#EDKD#[D%#K&'E%D'1ID#1E%K1-#I%1'(&# I&# .K# KDI&FD# /&1F# K.%(1@# 2&R&@# %ID@D-# K1C/D-# '&C/D-# [D/1# ID@# 41I/J&@# %I&1F%R1ID@# &# I&@&:1ID@"# ,DI&7@&# I%R&/-# 1%'I1-# P.&# D# ED/4D# 'HD# [D%# 14&'1@# %I&1F%R1ID-# K1@# @%K# 10@(/1OID•# B# KDI&FD# &/1# 14&'1@# .K1# /&[&/L'E%1# &@(/.(./1F# '1# P.1F# @&# @D0/&4J&K# 1# %K1C%'1GHD# &#1@#4/D4D/GJ&@# %I&1F%R1I1@# &@(.I1I1@#4D/#K&%D# I1#ES4%1#I&#I&@&'=D@#ID@# C/1'I&@#K&@(/&@#&#I&#[%C./1@#I&#C&@@D"#<D0#1#/&[D/K1#/&4.0F%E1'1#I&#59b;#K.ID.7@&-#'1# _@EDF1#q1E%D'1F#I&#?&F1@#+/(&@-#D#ED'E&%(D#ID#&@(.ID#I1#[%C./1-#41@@1'ID#I&#.K1#[D/K1# K1%@#EFT@@%E17%I&1F%@(1#41/1#.K1#10D/I1C&K#E%&'(O[%E1#I&#E.'=D#'1(./1F%@(17/&1F%@(1"##

8#+#@.4&/21FD/%R1GHD#I1#[%C./1#=.K1'1#I&'(/D#ID@#KN(DID@#EFT@@%ED@#E1//1EE%1'D@#ED'(/1@(121#EDK#1#E1/L'E%1# I&# KDI&FD@# P.&# 1(%'C%.# &[&(%21K&'(&# D# [.'E%D'1K&'(D# I1# I%@E%4F%'1"# +# [1F(1# I&# KDI&FD@# &/1# P.1@&# .K# 1@@.'(D#I&#_@(1ID#U$B_ikB-#6;;8-#4"#833V"#

3#,/D0F&K1#@N/%D#[D%#1#[1F(1#I&#KDI&FD@#4D/#E1.@1#I1#KT#/&4.(1GHD#I&@@1#1(%2%I1I&"#,/%K&%/D#&#v'%ED#KDI&FD# [&K%'%'D# N#I&#5939-# I&4D%@#D@#KDI&FD@# @S#/&141/&E&K#'1#_q?+#'1# 4/%K&%/1#INE1I1# ID#@NE"#YY#U$B_ikB-# 6;;8-#4"#8t5V"#

(15)

!OL$

QT# D@# '.@# [&K%'%'D@# I1# 4%'(./1# 0/1@%F&%/1# 1E1ILK%E1# I1# @&C.'I1# K&(1I&# ID# @NE.FD# YMY# [D/1K#[&%(D@#'D@#1(&F%L@#41/(%E.F1/&@#&K#,1/%@"t#_@(&#1@4&E(D#N#/&F&21'(&#'&@(1#I%@E.@@HD#

4D/P.&# D0/%C121# D# 1/(%@(1# 1# %K1C%'1/# .K# ED/4D# 0/1@%F&%/D# EDK# .K# KDI&FD# [/1'EL@-# %(1F%1'D# D.# I&# D.(/D# 41O@x# %K4D'ID7@&# 1D# 1/(%@(1# 1# '&E&@@%I1I&# I&# F&K0/1/# &# ED'@(/.%/# .K1#`[%EGHD#/&1F#ID#ED/4D#'1E%D'1Fa#1#41/(%/#I1#K&KS/%1"#+#/&4/&@&'(1GHD#ID#[&K%'%'D# (&K#.K1#[.'GHD#%K4D/(1'(&#'1@#/&4/&@&'(1GJ&@#2%@.1%@#I1#q1GHDx#4D%@-#41/1#1#`%K1C%'&I# EDKK.'%(]a# U$+!d+ikB-# 5bb;V-# 1# /&4/&@&'(1GHD# 2%@.1F# ID# [&K%'%'D# @&/2&# EDKD# .K1# @&C./1'G1# I&# %I&'(%I1I&-# 4&/(&'G1# &# &FD@# EDK.'@-# [D/K1'ID# .K1# EDK.'%I1I&# %K1C%'T/%1#&#4/DK&(&'ID#@.4&/1/#%'(&/&@@&@#I%2&/C&'(&@"##

q&@@&# ED'(&j(D-# [.'E%D'1# 1# 4%'(./1# =%@(S/%E1# ID# '.# &K# >E$*%# U59tt-# *%C"9V# I&# d%E(D/# f&%/&FF&@#I&#i%K1#U59s675b;sV-#P.&#.'&#D#%'I%1'%@KD#(1'(D#1D#/DK1'(%@KD#@&'(%K&'(1F# P.1'(D#1D#&/D(%@KD#I&'(/D#I&#.K1#41%@1C&K#(/D4%E1F"#B#E1IT2&/#KD'.K&'(1F#'.K#%IOF%D# (/TC%ED# ED'E&'(/1# 'D# 4/S4/%D# ED/4D# [&K%'%'D# 1# 0.@E1# I&# .K1# ED'@(/.GHD# %I&'(%(T/%1# Uf%CF%1EE%D-# 6;;;-# 4"# 86V"# k%@(S/%1# &# K%(D# E1K%'=1K# F1ID# 1# F1ID-# 'DK&%1K# 1# %'IOC&'1# K%(%[%E1I1# EDKD#`0DK#@&F21C&Ka-#EDK#P.1F#1#:D2&K# q1GHD#P.&/#[1R&/#1@#41R&@#ID#@&.# 41@@1ID# U<E=\1/ER-# 5bb9-# 4"# 589V-# .K1# K1P.%1C&K# I1# &/1# EDFD'%1F# &# 'D2D# @OK0DFD# ID# %K4N/%D#0/1@%F&%/D"##

+# O'I%1# &K0/1'P.&E%I1-# I&%(1I1# '1# 0&%/1# ID# K1/# EDK# @&.@# E10&FD@# E.%I1ID@1K&'(&# 1:&%(1ID@# &# &@41F=1ID@# 4&F1@# D'I1@# '&@(&# 4~/7ID7@DF# &@E./&E&'ID# &# 12&/K&F=1ID-# [1R# /&[&/L'E%1# I%/&(1# W# 1(KD@[&/1# ID# 4D&K1# `i1# $=&2&F./&a# I&# $=1/F&@# ?1.I&F1%/&# '1# @.1# EDF&(w'&1#`*F&./#I.#K1Fa#U593uV"## # YYMMM#7#i1#$=&2&F./&## €#(D%@D'-#KD.(D''1'(#:.@P.&#@./#F|&'EDF./&•# €#0D.EF&@•#€#41/[.K#E=1/CN#I&#'D'E=1FD%/•# _j(1@&•#,D./#4&.4F&/#E&#@D%/#F|1FE~2&#D0@E./&# >&@#@D.2&'%/@#ID/K1'(#I1'@#E&((&#E=&2&F./&-# Q&#F1#2&.j#1C%(&/#I1'@#F|1%/#EDKK&#.'#KD.E=D%/•# # i1#F1'CD./&.@&#+@%&#&(#F1#0/•F1'(&#+[/%P.&-# ZD.(#.'#KD'I&#FD%'(1%'-#10@&'(-#4/&@P.&#IN[.'(-# d%(#I1'@#(&@#4/D[D'I&./@-#[D/L(#1/DK1(%P.&•# $DKK&#I|1.(/&@#&@4/%(@#2DC.&'(#@./#F1#K.@%P.&-# i&#K%&'-#~#KD'#1KD./•#'1C&#@./#(D'#41/[.K"# U‚V#

t#,"&j"# d%E(D/#f&%/&FF&@A#H%F%!4$#U593u739Vx#!DIDF[D# +KDLIDA#>%5%C+. U5996Vx#+FK&%I1#Q.'%D/A#Q$-F%!-E.#E.

(16)

!QP$ $=&2&.j#0F&.@-#412%FFD'#I&#(N'ƒ0/&@#(&'I.&@# dD.@#K&#/&'I&R#F|1R./#I.#E%&F#%KK&'@&#&(#/D'Ix# <./#F&@#0D/I@#I.2&(N@#I&#2D@#KƒE=&@#(D/I.&@# Q&#K|&'%2/&#1/I&KK&'(#I&@#@&'(&./@#ED'[D'I.&@# >&#F|=.%F&#I&#EDED-#I.#K.@E#&(#I.#CD.I/D'"# # iD'C(&K4@•#(D.:D./@•#K1#K1%'#I1'@#(1#E/%'%ƒ/&#FD./I&# <ƒK&/1#F&#/.0%@-#F1#4&/F&#&(#F&#@14=%/-# +[%'#P.|W#KD'#IN@%/#(.#'&#@D%@#:1K1%@#@D./I&•# q|&@7(.#41@#F|D1@%@#D„#:&#/L2&-#&(#F1#CD./I&# B„#:&#=.K&#W#FD'C@#(/1%(@#F&#2%'#I.#@D.2&'%/g# #

B# EF%K1# @DK0/%D-# D# @%FL'E%D# I1# '1(./&R1-# D@# @10D/&@# I&# D.(/1@# [FD/&@(1@# &K# D.(/D@# ED'(%'&'(&@-#1@#ED/&@#I1@#4N/DF1@#&#4&I/1@#4/&E%D@1@#U<14=%/#&#!.0%'V-#f&%/&FF&@#(/1I.R#D# 4D&K1#41/1#.K1#F%'C.1C&K#2%@.1F#EDK#K1(N/%1#4%E(S/%E1#P.&#ED'@&C.&#41@@1/-#1FNK#I1# E1/'&# I/1K1(%E1K&'(&# %F.K%'1I1-# (1K0NK# 1# &j4&/%L'E%1# ID@# D.(/D@# @&'(%ID@# UDID/-# 4&@DV# &j4FD/1ID@# 'D@# 2&/@D@# I&# ?1.I&F1%/&"# +# D0/1# >E$*%# 1%'I1# 4&/K%(&# D.(/1# EDK41/1GHD# EDK# 1# 4%'(./1# K%. '$**$. %". M$55E,"$4# U59tt-# *%C"5sV# ID# K&@KD# 1'D# I&# p.@(12&# $D./0&("# +# 4D@%GHD# ID# ED/4D-# 0/1GD# &-# @D0/&(.ID-# D# E10&FD# E/%1K# .K1# [D/(&# /&F1GHD#I&#EDK4D@%GHD"#+@@%K-#(&KD@#ID%@#2O'E.FD@#%'(&/&@@1'(&@#P.&#FDE1F%R1K#1#D0/1#I&# f&%/&FF&@A#I&#.K#F1ID-#&K#ED'(1(D#EDK#1#/&[F&jHD#I1#E/O(%E1#I1#1/(&#KDI&/'1-#'1#[%C./1# I&# ?1.I&F1%/&-#ID#4D&(1#P.&#@D'=1#EDK#1P.%FD#P.&# &F&# 2L-#1@@%K#@&#I%[&/&'E%1'ID#ID@# /DKw'(%ED@#&#ID@#@&.@#@.E&@@D/&@-#D@#@%K0DF%@(1@x#&-#I&#D.(/D#F1ID-#EDK#D#4/D(1CD'%@(1# ID#/&1F%@KD-#$D./0&(-#E.:1#4%'(./1#2%@121#/&4/&@&'(1/#1#K1(&/%1F%I1I&#ID#ED/4D#[%C./1ID# &# P.&# E/%1# (D4D@# I1@# [1'(1@%1@# K1@E.F%'1@# '1@# 1/(&@# &/S(%E1@# &K# (D/'D# I&# ED/4D@# [&K%'%'D@#Uh_!q_!-#6;;9-#4"#56;V"## # # # U*%C"5s#V#p.@(12&#$D./0&(-#K%.'$**%.%".M$55E,"$4-#59tt-#DF&D#@D0/&#(&F1-#56b-3#j#5b3-t#EK-#f&(/D4DF%(D'# f.@&.K#D[#+/(-#q&\#…D/^"#

(17)

!Q!$ #

#`fD&K1a#N#.K1#4&/@D'1C&K#ID#4D&K1#%'I%1'%@(1#0/1@%F&%/D#`B#$1/1K./.a-#&@E/%(D#'D# @NE.FD# YdMMM# 4&FD# [/&%# <1'(1# !%(1# >./HD# U4.0F%E1GHD# '1# _./D41# &K# 5u95V"# _@(1# O'I%1# K1F@.E&I%I1-#EDKD#1#M/1E&K1#I&#QD@N#I&#+F&'E1/-#@D[/&#.K#'1.[/TC%D#4D/#'HD#@&/#1E&%(1# 4&FD# 4D/(.C.L@# >%DCD# †F21/&@# &# :DC17@&# 1D# K1/"# f&%/&FF&@# [1R# .K1# F&%(./1# I1# 4D&@%1# '1(%2%@(1# &# %'(&/4/&(1# D# '.# [&K%'%'D# I&'(/D# I&@@1# 41%@1C&K# (/D4%E1F-# E1/D# W# (/1I%GHD# 41@(D/1F# I&# Z%E%1'D# U58b;753utV# &# p%D/C%D'&# U58uu7535;V-# 2%'E.F1ID# (&K1(%E1K&'(&# W# F%(&/1(./1#/DKw'(%E1#ID#%'I%1'%@KD#'1#K&(1I&#ID#@NE.FD#YMY"#+#E&'1#I&#.K#%IOF%D#(/TC%ED# 0.@E1# .K1# ED'E%F%1GHD# =1/KD'%D@1# &'(/&# 1# [D/K1# =.K1'1# &# 1# 41%@1C&K-# &'(/&# D# &/D(%@KD#&#1#ED'(&K4F1GHD#I1#'1(./&R1-#P.&#I&#[1(D#(/1'@[D/KD.7@&#@%F&'E%D@1K&'(&#&K# I&@(/.%GHD-#.K#ED'(/1@(&#I/1KT(%ED#&'(/&#@&'(%K&'(D#&#=%@(S/%1"#f%CF%1EE%D#%'(&/4/&(1#1# O'I%1# P.&# @&# 1[DCD.# 4D/# 1KD/# 1# .K# &./D4&.# EDKD# 2&/@HD# KDI&/'1# &# 1K&/%E1'1# I1# dL'.@# P.&# @S# 4DI&# @&/# [/.(D# I&# .K1# =%@(S/%1# (/TC%E1# U6;;;-# 4"# 88V-# .K1# =&/DO'1# P.&# &'E1/'1# D# &'ED'(/D# I&# E%2%F%R1GJ&@# %'EDK41(O2&%@"# +@@%K-# @&C.'ID# D# 1.(D/-# f&%/&FF&@# ED'@&C.&# ED'E&'(/1/# 'D# ED/4D# [&K%'%'D# 1# /&[F&jHD# =%@(S/%E1# 1E&/E1# ID# I&@(%'D# I&# .K# 4D2D# &# I&# .K1# E.F(./1# U%0%I&KV"# $DKD# &F&K&'(D@# ED'@(%(.%'(&@# I1# '1//1GHD# 41/1# .K# (&j(D# [.'I1ID/-# f&%/&FF&@# /&(DK1# `.K1# =&/DO'1# 1'E&@(/1Fa# P.&# C&/D.# .K# `K%(D# [.'I1ID/a#Uq1j1/1-#6;;t-#4"#88V"#$DKD#14D'(1ID#'1@#'D(1@#1'(&/%D/&@#@D0/&#1#/&(S/%E1#ID# I&@FDE1K&'(D#&@41GD7(&K4D/1F#4D/#K&%D#I1#K%(DFDC%1-#&'ED'(/1K7@&#'D@#'.@#0/1@%F&%/D@# [1KD@D@# 'HD# 1@# [%C./1@# K%(DFSC%E1@# I1# 1'(%C.%I1I&# K1@# @%K-# 4&/@D'1C&'@# I&# K%(D@# '1E%D'1%@# /&ENK7%'@(%(.OID@"# B# K%(D# I&[%'%ID# 4&FD# N4%ED# %'@E/&2&# 'D# ED/4D# I&# >E$*%# (DID#.K#I%@E./@D#I&#E.F(./1@#&#/1G1@-#1F%T@#N#D#4/S4/%D#ED/4D#I&F1-#EDKD#ED/4D#[1F1'(&-# P.&#/&@@.@E%(1#&@(&#K%(D"u#

_K# @&K&F=1'G1# 1D# '.# I&# d%(D/# f&%/&FF&@-# 1# D0/1# >%5%C+# U599s-# *%C"b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q.@# K1%@# O'(%KD@-# #%!#($--# D.# (%4D@# 4D4.F1/&@-# EDKD# D@# E1%4%/1@# I&# +FK&%I1#Qv'%D/-#@&#EDFDE1K#EDKD#1#1'(O(&@&#ED'(/1#D@#%I&1%@#EFT@@%ED@"#B#'.#I&#>%5%C+# 41/&E&# K.%(D# K1%@# /&1FO@(%ED-# D# /&ED/(&# K1%@# [DE1ID# 'D# ED/4D-# EDK# 4D.ED@# &F&K&'(D@#

u#fD&K1# N# 14&'1@# .K1# 4&/@D'1C&K# @&E.'IT/%1# 'D# 4D&K1# `$1/1K./.a# P.&# @D[/&.# D# '1.[/TC%D-# K1@# N# 1# [%C./1#I&F1#P.&#@&#(D/'D.#4/D(1CD'%@(1#I&@(&#K%(D"#e#I&#@&#4&'@1/#4D/#P.&#&F1#&#'HD#D@#0&K7@.E&I%ID@#EDKD# >%DCD#†F21/&@#D.#1#@.1#&@4D@1#%'IOC&'1#&@EDF=%I1-#K1@#%@@D#[DC&#ID#(&K1#1P.%#4/D4D@(D"##

(18)

!Q"$

'1//1(%2D@# ID# 1K0%&'(&# &K# (D/'D# I1# O'I%1-# 1D# ED'(/T/%D# I1# 4%'(./1# >E$*%"# +4&'1@# D# (O(.FD#C1/1'(&#D#I&@FDE1K&'(D#41/1#.K1#'1//1(%21#%'IOC&'1#01@&1I1#'D#4D&K1#`f1/10Ta# I&# pD'G1F2&@# >%1@-# P.&# @&# @%(.1# 'D# %'I%1'%@KD# /DKw'(%ED# '1# [D/K1# I&# .K1# &4D4&%1# '1E%D'1F"# f1/10T-# I&@ED'(&'(&# 4D/# 'HD# @&/# K1%@# O'I%1-# '&K# &./D4&%1-# 4&/@D'%[%E1# 1# @O'(&@&#I1#4&/I1#I&#%I&'(%I1I&-#KD(%2D#41/1#@&/#/&:&%(1I1#4&FD@#4D2D@"##

B@#'.@#[&K%'%'D@#1P.%#4D@(D@#&K#(&F1#X#>E$*%#&#>%5%C+#X-#%'I&4&'I&'(&#I1#0&F&R1#&# =1/KD'%1# [O@%E1-# /&4/&@&'(1K# 4&/@D'1C&'@# ID@# K%(D@# [.'I1ID/&@# &K# ED'[F%(D# D.# &K# (/1CNI%1-# &# KD@(/1K# .K1# &@EDF=1# (&KT(%E1# 4&FD@# 1/(%@(1@# I&# 4/&[&/L'E%1# I/1KT(%E1"# ,D/NK-# 1# /&4/&@&'(1GHD# ID# '.# I&# +KDLID# 'HD# /&K&(&# 1# .K1# E/%@&# ED'[F%(.D@1# I&# %I&'(%I1I&"# >%5%C+# [D%# &j4D@(1# 'D# <1FHD# 5996# &K# ,1/%@# &# /&E&0&.# FD.21GJ&@# I&# +F&j1'I/&# $101'&F# U596s7599bV-# @&.# 4/D[&@@D/"# q1@# 1(1@# I1# ED'[&/L'E%1# I1# +E1I&K%1# MK4&/%1F#&'ED'(/1K7@&#1@#121F%1GJ&@#ID@#,/D[&@@D/&@#h&[&/%'D#I1#$D@(1#&#QD@N#f1/%1#I&# f&I&%/D@A# `c.1'(D# W# f1/10T-# @&/# .K1# [%C./1# 0&K# EDK4D@(1-# F1/C1K&'(&# [&%(1# &# I&# EDFD/%ID# 1C/1IT2&F-# K1@# P.1'(D# 1D# I&@&'=D-# I&%j1# 1%'I1# 1FC.K1# ED%@1# 1# I&@&:1/-# 4D%@# @&'ID# &@(1#P.1F%I1I&# &@(.I1I1#EDK# E.%I1ID#I&@I&#1#E10&G1#1(N#1#/&C%HD#4&%(D/1F-#'HD# 1ED'(&E&# D# K&@KD# I&@@1# /&C%HD# 1(N# 1@# 4&/'1@-# P.&# N# .K# (1'(D# I&@E./1I1"a# U+/P.%2D@# f.@&.# >DK# QDHD# dM)# _?+)n*!Q-# +(1# I1# $D'C/&C1GHD# 53"6"599sV# B# E/O(%ED# I&# 1/(&# pD'R1C17>.P.&#FD.2D.-#'.K#4/%K&%/D#KDK&'(D-#1#%'(&/4/&(1GHD#ID#4%'(D/#'D#QD/'1F#ID# pFD0D#U5996V-#4D/NK-#41@@1ID@#1FC.'@#1'D@-# &K#599u-#1F&CD.#P.&#1#[D'(&# F%(&/T/%1#'HD# &/1#K.%(D#EF1/1#&#P.&#'HD#ED//&@4D'I%1#W#FO/%E1#ID#4D&K1#`f1/10Ta-#41/&E%1#K1%@#.K1# E&'1#&K#/&4/&@&'(1GHD"##

+#D0@&/21GHD#ID#pD'R1C17>.P.&#KD@(/1#EF1/1K&'(&#P.&#K&@KD#.K#ED'(&K4D/w'&D#:T# 4&/E&0%1# 1# I%@E/&4w'E%1# &'(/&# [D'(&# &# /&1F%R1GHD# 4%E(S/%E1"# _'P.1'(D# d%(D/# f&%/&FF&@# %'@E/&2&# 'D# ED/4D# I1. >E$*%# D# I%@E./@D# ID@# K%(D@# [.'I1ID/&@# I1# '1GHD# 0/1@%F&%/1-# !DIDF[D# +KDLID# @&/2%.7@&# ID# K%(D# %'IOC&'1# 41/1# C1/1'(%/# @.1# /&4/&@&'(1GHD# &/S(%E1# &# @&'@.1F#ID#ED/4D#[&K%'%'D#EDK#1#%'I%E1GHD#F%(&/T/%1"#>&#4&/[%F-#>%5%C+#DF=1#I&#K1'&%/1# ED'(&K4F1(%21-# D@# FT0%D@# K&%D# 10&/(D@# &# D# P.1I/%F# &@(&'I%ID# @&I.(D/&@# @HD# 1FC.'@# ID@# 1@4&E(D@#P.&#K1/E1K#1'(&@#1#EF1/1#%'(&'GHD#I&#.K1#'1//1(%21#&/S(%E1#ID#P.&#1#/&1F%R1GHD# [%&F# I1# [D'(&# F%(&/T/%1"# B# &@[D/GD# I&# @&/%&I1I&# &# :.@(%[%E1(%21# KD/1F# 4&FD# I&@FDE1K&'(D# F%(&/T/%D# ID# '.# &/S(%ED# 4DI&# @&/# EDK41/1ID# EDK# D# &@(.ID# &K# SF&D# I1# >%5%C+# U5996-# *%C"58V"# qD# &@(.ID# P.&# 'HD# @&/%1# &j4D@(D-# 1# %'IOC&'1# D.@1# :DC1/# .K# DF=1/# @&'@.1F# I%/&(1K&'(&#1D#D0@&/21ID/"#+GHD#P.&#&@(10&F&E&#I&#[D/K1#4/D2DE1(%21#.K1#/&F1GHD#EDK# D#D0@&/21ID/-#F&K0/1'ID#1P.%#1#D.@1I1#2)/*M(%#I&#_I.1/I#f1'&(-#&#P.&#&/1#ED'@%I&/1I1# EDKD#%KD/1F-#.K1#2&R#P.&#1#K.F=&/#@1%#I1#4D@(./1#41@@%21#I&#.K#D0:&(D#I&#D0@&/21GHD#&# &'(/1#&K#ED'(1(D#1(%2D#[D/1#I1#%K1C&K"#,1/1#1#D0/1#[%'1F-#+KDLID#'HD#4DI%1#K1'(&/#1# EDK4D@%GHD#4/D2DE1ID/1#ID#&@(.ID-#P.&#/&2&F1#@.1@#O'(%K1@#%'(&'GJ&@"#

(19)

!QO$ # # # U*%C"58V#+KD&ID-#!DIDF[DI#O-4"#E.M%5%. >%5%C+-#5996--#SF&D#@D0/&#(&F1-#t3-3#j#9b#EK-# f.@&.#q1E%D'1F#I&#?&F1@#+/(&@-#!%D##I&# Q1'&%/D"# ###### # <&'ID#1@@%K-#!DIDF[D#+KDLID#'D@#14/&@&'(1#.K#'.#[&K%'%'D#P.&#@&#01@&%1#'D#I%@E./@D# &@(10&F&E%ID# I1# F%(&/1(./1# /DKw'(%E1# EDKD# 4/DI.GHD# @%K0SF%E1# &# %I&'(%(T/%1# 41/1# 1@@&C./1/# KD/1FK&'(&# @&.# 4/S4/%D# %'(&/&@@&# @D0/&# .K# '.# &/S(%ED# /&1FO@(%ED"# _@(&# I&@2&F1K&'(D# I1# '.I&R# /&4/&@&'(1# D# C/1'I&# I&@1[%D# ID@# 4%'(D/&@# KDI&/'D@-# EDKD# 1'(&/%D/K&'(&# 1'1F%@1ID-# K1@# D# 1/(%@(1# 0/1@%F&%/D# D# &'[/&'(1# I%4FDK1(%E1K&'(&"# MC.1FK&'(&# &F&#ED'(%'.1#[%&F#'1#(/1I%GHD#I1#41@(D/1F-#K1@# &@@1#ED'(&K4F1GHD#ID#ED/4D# [&K%'%'D# &K# (D/'D# I1# '1(./&R1# 41@@1# 41/1# D# @&C.'ID# 4F1'D# (&'ID# .K# /&ED/(&# &j(/&K1K&'(&# [DE1ID# 'D# ED/4D"# $DK# %@@D-# +KDLID# 1%'I1# @&# 2%'E.F1# (&'.&K&'(&# W# (/1I%GHD#%ED'DC/T[%E1#&#F%(&/T/%1#41/1#'HD#@&/#E=1K1ID#I&#[1F@D-#121F%1GHD#KD/1F%@(1#P.&#

2)/*M(%#/&E&0&.#ID@#@&.@#E/O(%ED@9"#!&(DK1'ID#1#P.&@(HD#%'%E%1F#I&#eK%F&#hDF1-#4D/#P.&#D@#

1/(%@(1@#K&'(&K#P.1'ID#'D@#14/&@&'(1K#.K1#dL'.@#&#'HD#ED'(1K#1#2&/I1I&-#4DI&KD@# I%R&/#'D#E1@D#I&#!DIDF[D#+KDLID#P.&#&F&#'D@#ED'(1#.K1#K&%172&/I1I&"##

B#[/1'ED#%'(&/&@@&#4&FD#'.#KDI&/'D#@&K#4/&(&j(D#I&#(O(.FD#F%(&/T/%D#I&@(1E17@&#'1#D0/1# ID# K&@KD# 1/(%@(1# !DIDF[D# +KDLID# &K# 2. O-4"#E. #$. *")D$5# Uf.F=&/# EDK# d&'(1/DF1-# 5998x#*%C"5;V#P.&#N-#I&#[1(D-#ED'@%I&/1ID#`D#4/%K&%/D#'.#KDI&/'D#I1#1/(&#0/1@%F&%/1ab#&#

P.&# [D%# X# 4/D212&FK&'(&# X# 1E.@1ID# I&# %KD/1F%I1I&# UpBqh+p+7>ncn_-# 5999-# 4"# 5t67 5tsV"#<&C.'ID#D#E/O(%ED#I&#1/(&#pD'R1C17>.P.&-#&@(1#D0/1#I&@E/&2&#&K#K%'vE%1@#1#0&F&R1# ID./1I1-#41/&E%I1#EDK#1#dL'.@-#`<&'(&7@&#1(/12N@#I&@(1#E1/'&-#E1/'&#P.&#N#E1/'&-#E1/'&#

9#$["#1E%K1"#

(20)

!QQ$

P.&# (&K# @1'C.&-# I%@4D@%GHD# ID@# Kv@E.FD@a# UpBqh+p+7>ncn_-# M0%IV"# pD'R1C17>.P.&# 14D'(1# EF1/1K&'(&# 41/1# 1# 4/&@&'G1# K1(&/%1F# ID# ED/4DA# `D# &j.0&/D# ED'(D/'D# I&@@1@# [D/K1@-# D# FTE(&D# K1E%D# I&# &4%I&/K&-# P.&# @1'C.&# [1R# (/&K&/# &# F=&# I1/# D# E1FD/# I&# .K# I&@&:D# &K# /&4D.@Da# UpBqh+p+7>ncn_-# 5b6b-# 4"# 5sV"# +# 4&F&# N# (HD# 0/1'E1# &# (/1'@41/&'(&-#F&K0/1'ID#1@#4&F&@#F%@1@#@&'@.1%@#ID@#'.@#I&#M'C/&@#U*%C"#67sV#X#&K0F&K1# I&# 0&F&R1# &# %'@E/%GHD# ID# I&@&:D# X# P.&# 41/&E&# &@(1/# [F.(.1'ID# &K# 2DF(1# ID@# (&E%ID@# I&# E&(%K# 1//1':1ID@# '1# E1K1"# MC.1FK&'(&# 1# E&'1# F&K0/1# 1# 2DFv4%1# ID@# '.@# 'D@# (&E%ID@# I&ED/1(%2D@# I&# */1'GD%@# ?D.E=&/# U*%C"53V-# @S# P.&# +KDLID# E&/(1K&'(&# 'HD# %'(/DI.R# D# E1/T(&/# [/O2DFD# ID# !DEDES-# K1@# @%K# 1# 1(KD@[&/1# @&'@.1F# I&# .K1# 4%'(./1# I&# @1FHD# I1# @&C.'I1#K&(1I&#ID#@NE.FD#YMY"#+#@&'@.1F%I1I&#1P.%#14/&@&'(1I1#2&K#4D/#K&%D#I1#ED/#&# I&#@&.#(/1(1K&'(D-#I&KD'@(/1'ID#(DI1#1#EDK4&(L'E%1#I1#4%'(./1#'&@(1#T/&1"#pD'R1C17 >.P.&#I&@E/&2&#1#'.I&R#4/D%0%I1#&#&j4/&@@1#D#I&@&:D"#qHD#@S#eK%F&#hDF1#[1F1#I&#2&/I1I&# D.#K&'(%/1-#D#4/S4/%D#E/O(%ED#I&#1/(&#0/1@%F&%/D#EDK&'(1#@D0/&#D#'.#EDKD#`&j(/1D/I%'T/%1# 41F4%(1GHD#I1#2&/I1I&a#UpBqh+p+7>ncn_-#5b6b-#4"#58V"#

Z.ID# %'I%E1# 41/1# .K# '.# KDI&/'DA# D# [&K%'%'D# @&'@.1F-# I&%(1I1# I&# ED@(1@# 41/1# D# D0@&/21ID/# @&K# [D'(&# F%(&/T/%1-# '.K# (!4$5($"5# W# KDI1# D/%&'(1F"# nK# F&P.&-# D# 414&F# I&# 41/&I&# &# 1# D/'1K&'(1GHD# ID# (/12&@@&%/D# /&K&(&K# 1# .K1# I&ED/1GHD# D/%&'(1F# P.&# 4/D2DE1# F&2&K&'(&# .K# CD@(D# &jS(%ED-# K1@# 1P.%# EDK4/&&'@O2&F# EDKD# 1(/%0.(D# 4/DEF1K1'ID#D#KDI&/'D5;"#

+%'I1# &K# 2. O-4"#E. #$. >")D$5-# &'ED'(/1KD@# .K1# 4/%K&%/1# (&'(1(%21-# P.&# 4/&E%@1# @&/# F&21I1# 1# @N/%D-# I&# .K# FE!45%#(F4(E. (!. %#($F4E# '1# E/%@&# I1# /&4/&@&'(1GHD# ID# '.-# .K# KDK&'(D# ED'[F%(.D@D#I&#I%@E./@D@# (&S/%ED@#14D'(1'ID-#EDKD#1'(&/%D/K&'(&#&j4F%E1ID-# 1@#(&'@J&@#&'(/&#1/(%@(1@#1E1ILK%ED@#&#KDI&/'D@"#f&@KD#P.&#D#ED/4D#%K1C%'T/%D#'&@(&# 1K0%&'(&#ED'(&K4D/w'&D#I&#+KDLID#1%'I1#@&:1#01@(1'(&#%I&1F%R1ID-#:T#(&'I&#1#DE.41/#D# 'D2D#F.C1/#'&@(1#E/%@&#I&#/&4/&@&'(1GHD#ID# '.#I&#[%'@#I1#INE1I1#I&#9;#ID#@NE.FD# YMY"# ,/D212&FK&'(&# D# 1/(%@(1# 1EDK41'=D.# &K# ,1/%@# D@# I&01(&@# %I&DFSC%ED@# @D0/&# .K# !"#$# KDI&/'D# P.&# D.@121# I&@/&@4&%(1/# D@# F%K%(&@# I1# 1/(&# EFT@@%E1# &# .'%1# 1# /&4/&@&'(1GHD# 1/(O@(%E1#W#2%I1#ED(%I%1'1"#Z&'ID#4/DI.R%ID#1#4%'(./1#'1#E14%(1F#[/1'E&@1-#1D#14/&@&'(T7F1# '1#_j4D@%GHD#I1#+E1I&K%1#MK4&/%1F#I&#?&F1@#+/(&@#'D#!%D#I&#Q1'&%/D#&K#599t-#D#1/(%@(1# (/1R#&@@1#(&'@HD# &'(/&#1#1/(&#EFT@@%E1#&#1#/&1F%@(1-#1'(%C1#D.# KDI&/'1-#41/1#D#1K0%&'(&#

5;#B#E&'T/%D#'1#4%'(./1#F&K0/1#1#.K1#1P.1/&F1#I&#@&.#1(&F%&/#I&KD'@(/1'ID#D#F&P.&-#.K#E1/4&(&#D/%&'(1F#&(E"# U$["#+KDLID-#!DIDF[D-#+(&F%L# ID# +/(%@(1#&K#,1/%@-#599s-#1P.1/&F1#@D0/&#E1/(HD-#E"%"I"-#3t-9#j#uu#EK-#f.@&.# q1E%D'1F#I&#?&F1@#+/(&@#U!%D#I&#Q1'&%/D-#!QV"##

(21)

!Q#$ E.F(./1F#I1#E14%(1F#0/1@%F&%/1#&#4/D2DE1-#1FNK#ID#I&01(&#@D0/&#.K1#E.F(./1#C&'.%'1K&'(&# 0/1@%F&%/1-#.K1#ED'(/D2N/@%1#@D0/&#1#1/(&#KDI&/'1#'D#41O@"55# # # # U*%C"53V#*/1'GD%@#?D.E=&/-#L".#$(4%#E.P>*$.2S>"5MDAT=#SF&D#@D0/&# (&F1-#3b#j#us#EK-#5u35-#+F(&#,%'1^D(=&^-#fo'E=&'"# #

B# vF(%KD# &j&K4FD# '1//1(%2D# ID# ED/4D# %K1C%'T/%D# 1# @&/# 1P.%# EDK&'(1ID# N# D# I&# .K# '.# K1@E.F%'D"# +#D0/1# Q$55"C%#E5. C5%-()$(5E#U59ub-#*%C"55V-#I&#+FK&%I1# Q.'%D/#U593;759bbV-# [D%#/&1F%R1I1# &K#,1/%@# EDK#.K# KDI&FD# %(1F%1'D# &# KD@(/1#.K#ED/4D# K1@E.F%'D-#@&'(1ID# &K#/&4D.@D-#I%1'(&#I&#.K1#4&I/1#EDK#2%@(1#41/1#1#K1(1"#B#KDI&FD#%(1F%1'D-#EDK#0.@(D# I&@4%ID-#@&C./1#&K#@.1#KHD#.K1#&'j1I1"#$DKD#:T#[D%#EDK&'(1ID#1'(&/%D/K&'(&#UE["#4C"# uV-#1#K1@E.F%'%I1I&#'D#CL'&/D#ID#'.#'D#@NE.FD#YMY#14/&@&'(17@&#&K#'1//1(%21@#=&/S%E1@-# KD/1%@#&#41(/%S(%E1@-#&#1P.%#'HD#[.C%.#K.%(D#W#/&C/1A#.K#'.#K1@E.F%'D#I&KD'@(/1'ID#@.1# 4&/[&%GHD#EFT@@%E1-#.K#=&/DO@KD#&K#@.1#KDIN@(%1#@&j.1F#&#ED'(/DF&#I1#2D'(1I&"#$D'(.ID-# D#E1%4%/1#I&KD'@(/1#.K#F1(&'(&#&/D(%@KD#&#.K1#@.(%F#1C/&@@%2%I1I&"##

<&C.'ID# $DF%-# &@(1# D0/1# I&# +FK&%I1# Q.'%D/# /&2&F1# 1# I&@ED0&/(1# I&# .K# &jD(%@KD# @DE%1F# 4/Sj%KD# ID# [%K# ID# @NE.FD# YMY-# &K# P.&# @&# I/1K1(%R121# 1# 0/.(1F%I1I&# 4D4.F1/# 0/1@%F&%/1# U6;;3-#4"#55;V"#,&/E&0&7@&#P.&#(DI1#4/DI.GHD#1/(O@(%E1-#@&:1#&F1#I&#'1(./&R1#4FT@(%E1#D.# F%(&/T/%1-# P.&# [1R# 41/(&# I1# I%@E.@@HD# @D0/&# 1# 1/(&# 0/1@%F&%/1# &# KDI&/'1-# 0.@ED.# @&.@# 4/D(1CD'%@(1@#'D#%'(&/%D/# ID#41O@#UEDKD-#4D/# &j&K4FD-#_.EF%I&@#I1# $.'=1-# &'(/&#D.(/D@# F%(&/1(D@V"# >&# .K# F1ID-# .K# C&@(D# '1# 0.@E1# ID# 1.(L'(%ED-# ID# '1E%D'1F-# .K1# 2&R# P.&# D#

55#i&K0/1'ID#P.&#!DIDF[D#+KDLID#K1'ID.#`f.F=&/#EDK#2&'(1/DF1a#:.'(D#EDK#D.(/1@#4%'(./1@-#`B#.F(%KD# Z1KD%Da# U599sV# &# `+# 41/(%I1# I&# QDHDa-# 0&K# EDKD# .K# I&@&'=D# I&# EDK4D@%GHD# I&# `Q&@.@# $/%@(D# &K# $1[1/'1.Ka#U5998V#'.K#&'2%D#41/1#1#4/D//DC1GHD#I1#0DF@1#4&F1#$D'C/&C1GHD#'1#+M?+"###

(22)

!QH$

KD2%K&'(D#&./D4&.#14/&@&'(1217@&# %'2&/(%ID-# FT#(.ID#D#P.&# &/1#KDI&/'D#1F%1217@&#1D# KDID#I&#@&/#./01'D"#>&#D.(/D#F1ID-#&'ED'(/1KD@#K1%@#.K1#2&R#1#'1//1(%21#ID#&jS(%ED-# 'HD#'D#2%N@#N('%ED-#EDKD#4&/E&0&KD@#'1@#/&4/&@&'(1GJ&@#ID@#%'IOC&'1@-#4"&j"#>E$*%-# K1@#@%K#.K#&jD(%@KD#'D#2%N@#C&DC/T[%ED"#+#/&4/&@&'(1GHD#ID#&jS(%ED-#I&@ED'=&E%ID#'D# %'(&/%D/-#&#D#4D2D#I1#/DG1#(/1R&K#.K1#%'(&/4/&(1GHD#I1#/&1F%I1I&#4&FD@#1/(%@(1@#&#D.(/D@# 1C&'(&@#ID#E1K4D#I1#E.F(./1#P.&#@&#01@&%1#'D#4/%'EO4%D#I.1FO@(%ED#ID#&.#&#ID#D.(/D-#4D/# &j&K4FD-# D# K&E1'%@KD# ED'=&E%ID# 1(/12N@# ID@# DF=1/&@# ID# BE%I&'(&# @D0/&# D# B/%&'(&-# EDKD#:T#[D%#1'1F%@1ID#&K#/&F1GHD#W#2#%)(-F%#I&#M'C/&@#U*%C"tV"##

$D'(.ID-# 1# 141/L'E%1# 41EO[%E1# I1# D0/1#

Q$55"C%#E5.C5%-()$(5E#&@(T#1EDK41'=1I1#

I&# .K1# 2%DFL'E%1# ED'(%I1# 'D@# 1(/%0.(D@# ID#(/101F=D#&#I1#1(%2%I1I&#E1%4%/1#U$BiM-# 6;;6-# 4"s;V"# +# (&'@HD# %'&/&'(&# 'HD# @&# K1'%[&@(1# '1# &j&E.GHD# 1(%21# I&# .K1# 1GHD# I&@(/.(%21# UI&@K1(1K&'(DV-# .K1# 2&R#P.&#+FK&%I1#Q.'%D/#'HD#/&4/&@&'(1#D# T4%E&# '&K# D# /&@.F(1ID# ID# 1(D# 2%DF&'(D"# $DF%# E=1K1# &@@&# &@(1ID# I&# `EDK&I%K&'(D# '&.(/Da# U$BiM-# 6;;6-# 4"# 6bV-# &K0D/1# 'HD# @&# (/1(&# I&# .K1# '&.(/1F%I1I&# 'D# @&'(%ID# F%(&/1F-# K1@# @%K# I&# .K1# %'2%@%0%F%I1I&# I1# 2%DFL'E%1-# D.# K&F=D/-# @%(.1GHD# E1//&C1I1# I&# (&'@J&@# %'2%@O2&%@# K1@# 4&/E&4(O2&%@A# +# @%(.1GHD# /&4/&@&'(1I1# &@(T# &K# 10&/(D# &# E/%1# .K#

&@41GD# =%4D(N(%ED# I1# 4D@@%0%F%I1I&-# I1# 4/D2T2&F# &@E1F1GHD# I1# 2%DFL'E%1# D.# 'HD"# e# &j1(1K&'(&#&@(1#'HD#/&4/&@&'(1GHD#I&#.K#1(D#2%DF&'(D#P.&#C&/1#1#[D/G1#(&'@1#'1#4%'(./1#

Q$55"C%#E5.C5%-()$(5E"#

+FNK#I%@@D-#4DI&KD@#1'1F%@1/#D#Q$55"C%#E5.C5%-()$(5E#I&'(/D#I&#.K1#2&/(&'(&#I1@#'D21@# /&4/&@&'(1GJ&@# I1# K1@E.F%'%I1I&# I&@I&# D# @NE.FD# YdMM-# EDKD# &F1# [D%# %'1.C./1I1# EDK# D#

U?5F")$-#ID#&@E.F(D/#[/1'EL@#,%&//&#,.C&(#U5t6;75tb8-#*%C"#5tV-#@&C.'ID#k&/I%'C#U6;;8V"#

$1'@1ID# &# &j1.@(D# ID# (/101F=D# T/I.D-# kN/E.F&@# /&4D.@1-# 4D@(./1# P.&# N# %'(&/4/&(1I1# EDKD#1[1@(1K&'(D#ID#%I&1F#=&/S%ED"#nK1#(/1'@4D@%GHD#I1#2%/(.I&#I&#.K1#1GHD#=&/S%E17 (/TC%E1#&K#.K#E1//&C1K&'(D#@&'@.1F#ID#ED/4D#K1@E.F%'D#4&FD#'HD#[1R&/"#+#4D@&#41@@%21# I&#/&4D.@D#ID#I&//.01ID/#&'E1/'1#.K#&/D(%@KD#F1@E%2D#P.&#N#/&[D/G1ID#4&F1#2&@(%K&'(1"# B#ED/4D#ID#=DK&K#K&%D#2&@(%ID#/&1FG1-#1(/12N@#I1#E1FG1-#'D2D@#ED'(D/'D@#P.&#F1'G1K# # U*%C"#5tV#,%&//&#,.C&(-#U?5F")$--#5tt67ts-#fT/KD/&# $1//1/1-#53t#j#95#j#58t#EK-#f.@N&#I.#iD.2/&-#,1/%@"# #

(23)

!QJ$

1(&'GHD# 1# @&.# @&jD# DE.F(1ID"# e# 4D/# E1.@1# ID# 2&@(.T/%D# P.&# D# '.# K1@E.F%'D# C1'=1# &K# &j4&/%L'E%1#I1#E1/'&#&#141/&E&#K1%@#2%2D-#FD'C&#I&#.K1#%I&1F%R1GHD#EFT@@%E1"#,D/(1'(D-#D#

Q$55"C%#E5.C5%-()$(5E#DE.41#D#F.C1/#I&#.K#ED/4D#KDI&/'D#&#/&C%D'1F#(/1R&'ID#ED'@%CD#

'1//1(%21@# ID# %'(&/%D/# EDKD# &jS(%ED# &# E1//&C1I1@# @&'@.1FK&'(&-# &K# ED'(/14D@%GHD# W# 2%/(.I&#(/1I%E%D'1F#=&/S%E1"##

+@# /&[F&jJ&@# &K# (D/'D# ID# ED/4D# %K1C%'T/%D# '1@# 1/(&@-# &# &@4&E%[%E1K&'(&# '1# 4%'(./1# 0/1@%F&%/1-# KD@(/1K# 1@# 2T/%1@# %'@E/%GJ&@# I%@E./@%21@# 'D# ED/4D# &# 14/&@&'(1K# 21FD/&@-# 'D/K1@#&#.(D4%1@#ED@(./1ID@#'1#E1/'&#=.K1'1"#B@#'.@#0/1@%F&%/D@#@HD#ED/4D@#%I&1F%R1ID@-# K1@# (/TC%ED@-# I&# K%(D@# /&ENK7%'@(%(.OID@-# EDKD# D# I1# >E$*%# &# >%5%C+"# +@@%K-# &@@&@# ED/4D@# (/1R&K# W# (D'1# T/&1@# I&# ED'[F%(D-# 1(/%(D# &# 1K0%C.%I1I&@-# '1@# P.1%@# D# ED/4D# EDK4F&jD# N# E141R# I&# /&4/&@&'(1/# 1# @%# 4/S4/%D# &-# 1D# K&@KD# (&K4D-# 14/D2&%(1/# D# F.C1/# 4/%2%F&C%1ID#P.&#DE.41#'D#%K1C%'T/%D#@DE%1F"#_@@&@#I%@E./@D@-#4D/#@.1#2&R-#@HD#%K0/%E1ID@# EDK#4D@%GJ&@#(&S/%E1@#I&#1/(&-#D#EFT@@%ED#0$5-"-#D#KDI&/'D#'D#@&'(%ID#(1'(D#[D/K1F#EDKD# (&KT(%ED"# B# KDI&/'D# @%C'%[%E1# 41/1# D@# '.@# 0/1@%F&%/D@# 1P.%# 1'1F%@1ID@# D# I&@2&F1K&'(D# &/S(%ED# EDKD# I&@1[%D# I1# 4%'(./1# KDI&/'1# D.# .K1# 10D/I1C&K# 4D4.F1/# &jS(%E1-# K1@# 1@@%K%F1ID#EDKD#(&K1#C&'.%'1K&'(&#0/1@%F&%/D"##

B#&@4&E(/D#I&#ED/4D@#%I&1F%R1ID@-#KDI&/'D@-#/&C%D'1%@#D.#/&1FO@(%ED@#4DI&K#@&#@D0/&4D/-# @&#/&[&/%/#.K#1D#D.(/D#D.#1(N#&jEF.%/7@&"#>&@@1#K1'&%/1-#D@#KvF(%4FD@#I%@E./@D@#%'@E/%(D@# 'D#ED/4D#[D/K1K#.K#E1K4D#I&#(&'@J&@#(1'(D#I&#1[%/K1GJ&@#EDKD#I&#1K0%C.%I1I&@#I1# :D2&K#'1GHD#0/1@%F&%/1#P.&#I&@&:1#[D/K.F1/#@.1#=%@(S/%1#&#%I&'(%I1I&-#41/1#1#P.1F#D#ED/4D# %K1C%'T/%D# D[&/&E&# .K# &@41GD# =%4D(N(%ED#@D0/&# 1# E.F(./1# 0/1@%F&%/1# KDI&/'1# EDK# @.1@# 2T/%1@#[1E&@"##

#

?/*/(;-&1+3$D1D,1'8(9*1&+30$

#

?!BBr<# ,"# V4E5($#. HE#($-=. E5. L%!%. %4. K%-4. W!0$()$#"# $/%(%E1F# M'P.%/]-# Z=&# n'%2&/@%(]# D[# $=%E1CD#,/&@@-#dDF"#5t-#qD"#+.(.K'-#5b9b-#4"#57s6"#

$+!d+ikB-# Q"# f"# I&"# 3. XE5*%YZE. #%-. 3)*%-A# D# %K1C%'T/%D# I1# !&4v0F%E1# 'D# ?/1@%F"# <HD# ,1.FDA#$DK41'=%1-#5bb;"##

$i+!r-#r"#Z=&#'.I&A#3.V4"#A.(!.(#$%).XE5*"#,/%'E&(D'#,/&@@-#5bu5#U5b3sV"##

$B_ikB-# M"# I&# <T"# 3F%#$*(%-. #$. *E#$)E. 0(0E. $. C%-4(#E5$-. #%. M(!4"5%. %F%#J*(F%.

(24)

!QK$

&K# k%@(S/%1# &# Z&D/%1#I&# +/(&#7# _@(.ID@#I1#k%@(S/%1# &# $/O(%E1#I1#+/(&#'1#_@EDF1#I&# ?&F1@# +/(&@"#n*!Q-#!%D#I&#Q1'&%/D-#6;;8"#

$BiM-#Q"#+#2%DFL'E%1#&#D#E1%4%/1"#O-4"#E-.D(-4[5(FE--#!%D#I&#Q1'&%/D-#q/"#s;-#6;;6-#4"#6s7s6"# ‡‡‡‡‡"#RE*E.$-4"#%5.%.%54$.C5%-()$(5%.#E.-?F")E.\]\^#<HD#,1.FDA#_I%(D/1#<&'1E-#6;;3"# *_!q+q>_<-#$"#d%I1F#q&(D"#2-.F%*(!DE-.#%.%54$1#B#&'@%'D#1/(O@(%ED#'1#+E1I&K%1#MK4&/%1F# I&# ?&F1@# +/(&@# X# 593;# X59b;"# Z&@&# I&# >D.(D/1ID# 'D# M'@(%(.(D# I&# *%FD@D[%1# &# $%L'E%1@# <DE%1%@"#n*!Q-#!%D#I&#Q1'&%/D-#6;;5"##

k_!>Mqp-# # r"# <E=\%'I&'I&/# k&/D%@K.@# X# C&@(&%C&/(&# <%''F%E=^&%("# ,.C&(@# f%FD'# 2D'# r/D(D'#1F@#+.@I/.E^#&%'&/#r/%@&#I&/#fm''F%E=^&%(#%K#10@DF.(%@(%@E=&'#h&%(1F(&/"#M'A#*_q>-# f"#UB/CV"#>_!!)(FD&$(4.(*.H)(F&'$)#A#d%@.&FF&#M'@R&'%&/.'C&'#%'#I&/#r.'@(#@&%(#I&/#[/o=&'# q&.R&%("#rˆF'A#?ˆ=F1.-#6;;8"#

r!+f_!-# i"<"# i%(&/1(./1-# $/O(%E1# &# %K1C%'1GHD# =%@(S/%E1A# D# I&@1[%D# F%(&/T/%D# I&# k1]I&'# l=%(&# &# >DK%'%E^# i1E14/1"# M'A# knqZ-# i"# 3. !E0%. D(-4[5(%. F")4"5%)-# <HD# ,1.FDA# f1/(%'@# *D'(&@-#6;;5"#

in$M_7<fMZk-# _"# 3#%*. `. 4D$. *%)$. '(G"5$. (!. %54"# _1@(# <.@@&jA# l&%I&'[&FI# ‰# q%EDF@D'-# 5bb9"##

f+kBq-#+"#O5E4(F(-*.a.%54"#q&\#…D/^A#Bj[D/I#,/&@@-#6;;3"#

fMpiM+$$MB-#i"#>E-45%.#E.b$#$-FEC5(*$!4EA#+/(&#ID#@NE.FD#YMY#7#5b(=7$&'(./]#+/(-#5"#&I"# <HD#,1.FDA#*.'I1GHD#?%&'1F#I&#<HD#,1.FD-#6;;;"#

q+Y+!+-# f"!"$"# k%@(D/%1ID/&@# &# (&j(D# F%(&/T/%DA# +FC.'@# 14D'(1K&'(D@"# M'A# U(-4[5(%=.

c"$-4d$-.$.Q$C%4$--#+'D#6s-#'Š#88-#:1'&%/D7:.'=D#I&#6;;t"#

q_+>-#i"#eD$.'$*%).!"#$"#+/(-#B0@E&'%(]#1'I#@&j.1F%(]"#6Š#&I"#iD'ID'A#?.(F&/#‰#Z1''&/-# 6;;5"#

<+!+<Mq-# ,"# !&%R01/&# f1@E=%'&'"# O(!$. f$-FD(FD4$. #$-. gh5M$5-. 8i7:. `. 8;8j"# */1'^[./(A# <.=/^1K4-#6;;5"#

<$kl+!$h-#i"#fD/%(R"#3-.C%5C%-.#E.]*M$5%#E5"#<HD#,1.FDA#$%1#I1@#i&(/1@-#6;;8"## <B+!_<-#$"#RE5ME.$.U(-4[5(%"#$1K4%'1@A#+.(D/&@#+@@DE%1ID@-#6;;5"#

h_!q_!-# k&'/%"# B# DF=1/# ID@# 1/(%@(1@"# M'A# $Bn!?Mq-# +"x# $Bn!ZMq_-# Q"x# dMp+!_iiB-# p".

U(-4[5(%.#E.FE5MEA#>1#!&2DF.GHD#W#p/1'I&#p.&//1"#,&(/S4DF%@A#_I%(D/1#dDR&@-#6;;9"$ $

Imagem

Referências

temas relacionados : Pintura do século XIX