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CLIMATE POLICY INITIATIVE/ PUC-RIO works to improve the most important energy and land use

policies around the world. This infographic is part of a project that analyzes property rights in rural areas of Brazil and maps out public policy pathways in order to guarantee them for the benefit of all.

Read more at climatepolicyinitiative.org/brazil/

in Brazil than anywhere else

in the world.

More environmental and land rights activists are assassinated

?

Reduced

Conflict More Developed

Land Rental Markets

Stronger Forest Protection

Improved Land Use

Why are land rights

IMPORTANT TO BRAZIL?

1 2 3

USE CONTROL TRANSFER

Property rights enable people to:

But in certain parts of rural Brazil it is often unclear who holds these rights.

Brazil ranks low in the world for providing secure physical property rights for its citizens.

Source: International Property Rights Index, Property Rights Alliance, 2015

in the Amazon is occupied illegally.

of federal land

24%

This equals the combined area of Spain and France.

ILLEGALLY OCCUPIED LAND

76

th

AMONG 129 COUNTRIES

PROPERTY RIGHTS RANKING

Insecure land rights create problems in rural areas throughout Brazil

homicides

Land disputes among different interest groups, particularly in remote areas, often result in violence.

Conflicts and Violence

Source: Comissão Pastoral da Terra, 2016

770

OVER LAND CONFLICTS BETWEEN 1994 AND 2015

Increased

Deforestation

Poor titling makes it difficult for environmental agencies to identify land owners responsible for deforestation, impeding efforts to curb it.

Good Agricultural Land Goes to Waste

At constant risk of losing their land, many farmers reduce investments in farming or plant less suitable crops. Moreover rental markets, which would otherwise capture investment in agriculture and create economic growth, do not exist in most areas in Brazil. The result is that land is less likely to be developed, leased, or used to its fullest potential.

Europe 38%

Brazil3%

33% USA

LAND LEASED OR SHARECROPPED

Source: World Census of Agriculture, 2010

FALSE

FRAUDULENT OWNERSHIP

of land in the

23%

state of Pará

Source: Ipam, 2006

Complex

Institutional System

The system for managing land rights involves many institutions, resulting in complexity and inefficiency. At the federal level alone, 11 executive bodies are accountable for governing different aspects of land property rights.

Why are Brazil’s land rights so insecure?

Source: World Bank, 2014

Fewer than 50%

of farms in the states of Pará and Piauí

are registered.

Poor Recordkeeping

Many people do not register their

properties with the real estate registry, even though it is mandatory. Only properties registered after 2004 are georeferenced.

Little to No Institutional Integration

Agencies involved in land rights do not integrate their records. For example, Brazil does not have a universal database that includes both public and private properties.

Poor Oversight

Lack of resources and capacity together with the remote location of some areas prevent effective governmental oversight.

Secure rural land rights would benefit the whole country

Challenge of

Managing Public Lands

Vacant lands are large public areas that the government has not formally

identified and used and that often end up being illegally occupied by individuals.

20%

vacant lands make up over

of Brazil’s total area.

AM

THEIR LAND

Source: Global Witness, 2016

Source: Climate Policy Initiative, 2016

is suspected of land grabbing through the falsification of land ownership documents (grilagem).

Source: Terra Legal, 2015

It is estimated that

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