• Nenhum resultado encontrado

-1 -2 -1 -2

N/A
N/A
Protected

Academic year: 2022

Share "-1 -2 -1 -2"

Copied!
92
0
0

Texto

(1)

Restoration:

A theoretical framework in/for Brazil

Key 4 - 30/08/2012 16:10 – 16:50h

Dr. Sergius Gandolfi- sgandolf@usp.br

Laboratório de Ecologia e Restauração Florestal - Departamento de Ciências Biológicas Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz” / Universidade de São Paulo

UNICAMP - Campinas, SP, Brazil from 30 August to 4, 2012

Workshop

"Advances in ecological frameworks - towards process-

oriented conservation and

management "

(2)

Universidade de São Paulo Escola Superior de

Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz”

Departamento de Ciências

Biológicas Laboratório de Ecologia e

Restauração Florestal

www.lerf.esalq.usp.br

The theory and model that I will present summarizes

30 years of work with natural forests and more than 20 years of work

in forest restoration performed in our lab

(3)

High Diversity Forest Restoration in Degraded Areas: Methods and Projects in Brazil. Ed. Nova Publishers, USA. 2007.

partly published

in a book

(4)

and in two

recent papers

(5)

TO BE SUBMITTED IN OCTOBER Concepts and Questions

Frontiers in Ecology and Environment

A Theory to Improve Tropical Forest Restoration

Sergius Gandolfi 1* , Ricardo R Rodrigues 1 , André G Nave 1 , and Pedro H S Brancalion 1

MODEL THEORY

and now in a new paper

(6)

Ecological Succession

is the natural process of ecosystem self-repair

Restoration Methods

are active interventions to assist recovery of degraded ecosystems

a complex process that mix restoration actions and sucessional processes working together and/or sequentially in a same place

RESTORATION PROCESS

(7)

Successional process does not have an aim, schedule, cost-effectiveness limitations,

or a defined objective

(8)

And may presents progressive and retrogressive

trajectories and stationary stable states

(9)

Restoration, by contrast, must occur at a defined time, with reasonable costs, and

have to attain defined conservation objectives

So for us Restoration aims to increase the PREDICTABILITY

of community building process

favoring progressive trajectories and avoiding

stationary stable states, and regressive trajectories

(10)

Or in a simple way

To Remove the factor of degradation

To apply some restoration method

And wait for the enrichment

(11)

The theory here presented is only adequate to describe restoration

processes in:

Moist Seasonal Semideciduous Forests

AND IN

Tropical Moist or Rain Forests

(12)

We believe that restoration process

involves three distinct phases

(13)

Structuration

Consolidation

Maturation

RESTORATION OF TROPICAL FORESTS

Structuration

is the formation

of a forest habitat

(14)

Structuration

Consolidation

Maturation

RESTORATION OF TROPICAL FORESTS

Consolidation

is the creation of new canopy

and the maintenance of forest habitat to permit restoration process

continues

(15)

Structuration

Consolidation

Maturation

RESTORATION OF TROPICAL FORESTS

MATURATION

Is the gradual accumulation of species, materials, and

processes

making the restored forests

be similar to mature ones

(16)

We propose a Box-Arrow Model

to describe it

(17)

Time

X

Throughout the tropics, many sites are degraded (X)

like pasture

(18)

Time

X

or sugar-cane plantations in river banks (X)

(19)

Time

X

0

That can remain in degraded condition for decades, in special, in landscapes

where forest fragments are few, distant and degraded (Arrow 0)

(20)

FOREST TREE SPECIES

PIONEERS

light demanding fast growing

short-lived (5~20 years)

SECONDARY

shade tolerant

Intermediate growth rates intermediate life spans

(~40-60 years)

CLIMAX

shade tolerant slow growing

long-lived

(~80-150 years)

(21)

Time

X

0

RIFD

STRUCTURATION STRUCTURATION PHASE Begins with the

Removal and the isolation the area from degraded factors

(Arrow RIDF )

(22)

Time 1

X

0

RIFD

STRUCTURATION AND WITH NATURAL OR ASSISTED INTRODUCTION OF FAST-GROWING

TREE SPECIES (Arrow 1)

(23)

Time P

P P _P_

1

_P_

P S

X

0

B

A

RIFD

F D

E

H C

G

P

P

STRUCTURATION THAT CAN CREATE DIFFERENT

INITIAL FOREST COMMUNITIES

DOMINATED BY PIONEERS (A-H)

(24)

Time P

s c o

P c o

P s o _P_

p s o

1 2

_P_

p o

P S s c o

X

0

B

A

RIFD

F D

E

H C

G

P

P

STRUCTURATION after canopy creation shade tolerant

species may be Natural or Asssited

introduced in the understory (Arrow 2)

(25)

MOIST SEASONAL SEMIDECIDUOUS FOREST IN RESTORATION ISOLATED FROM FRAGMENTS ( Santa Bárbara do Oeste , SP)

THE STRUCTURE OF THESE FORESTS DEVELOPS,

BUT IN FRAGMENTED LANDSCAPES THEY CAN REMAIN YEARS WITHOUT SPECIES IN ITS UNDERSTORY

10 YEARS

(26)

MOIST SEASONAL SEMIDECIDUOUS FOREST IN RESTORATION NEXT TO FOREST FRAGMENTS ( JACIARA, MT)

BUT, IN FAVORABLE LANDSCAPES FOREST STRUCTURE AND UNDERSTORY MAY DEVELOP VERY FAST

10 YEARS

(27)

Time P

s c o

P c o

P s o _P_

p s o

1 2

_P_

p o

P S s c o

X

0

B

A

RIFD

F D

E

H C

G

P

P

STRUCTURATION

But in some cases

STRUCTURATION MAY FAIL

AFTER SOME YEARS IF CANOPY FAST-GROWING

TREE SPECIES DO NOT ADAPT TO LOCAL

CONDITIONS ( Arrow 3)

3

(28)

So to prevent the causes of early mortality and to increase predictability it is

crucial :

TO USE THE ORIGINAL LOCAL FOREST SPECIES

( THE REFERENCE ECOSYSTEM )

because they are pre-

adapted to the local climate, soils, natural disturbance regime, and to negative and

positive interactions with

other local species

(29)

Time P

s c o

P c o

P s o _P_

p s o

1 2

_P_

p o

P S s c o

X

0

B

A

RIFD

F D

E

H C

G

P

P

STRUCTURATION

4 4

In some situations initial communities with open canopies (C-D) can maintain themselves for long time by

favoring pioneers self- regeneration (arrow 4)

3

(30)

P s c o

P c o

P s o _P_

p s o

1 2

_P_

p o

P S s c o

X

0

B

A

RIFD

F D

E

H C

G

P

P

STRUCTURATION

4 4

3

During Structuration natural or assisted understory

enrichment may convert one kind of forest community in to

another (Arrow 5)

Time 5

5

5

(31)

P s c o

P c o

P s o _P_

p s o

1 2

_P_

p o

P S s c o

X

0

B

A

RIFD

F D

E

H C

G

P

P

STRUCTURATION

4 4 6

3

BUT STRUCTURATION MAY ALSO FAIL

If canopy pioneers inhibit understory species and die after some years

(Arrow 6)

e g.: Maricá (Mimosa bimucronata)

Time 5

5

5

(32)

In summary: STRUCTURATION PHASE

normally results in the elimination of competing plants by the creation of a canopy and a forest habitat, and

MOIST SEASONAL SEMIDECIDUOUS FOREST IN RESTORATION (ORLÂNDIA, SP)

2,5 YEARS

(33)

MOIST SEASONAL SEMIDECIDUOUS FOREST IN RESTORATION NEXT TO A FOREST FRAGMENT (ORLÂNDIA , SP)

favors the gradual development of forest structure

3,5 YEARS

(34)

The end of Structuration and beginning of Consolidation occurs when canopy fast growing pioneers trees become

senescent and begin to die

(35)

CONSOLIDATION PHASE

is a critical step because secondary species having longer life spans than pioneers, may form a new canopy that will survive for decades, maintaining the forest habitat until the climax species slowly reach the canopy

CANOPY FORMED BY

SECONDARY SPECIES

(36)

5

5 5

Time P

s c o

P c o

P s o _P_

p s o

1 2

_P_

p o

P S s c o

X

0

B

A

RIFD

F D

E

H C

G

P

P

STRUCTURATION

4 4

6 6

6 3

CONSOLIDATION

But Restoration process may also fail during Consolidation

if secondary species are absent in the

understory to grow until the canopy

(Arrow 6)

(37)

CONSOLIDATION FAILURE

(38)

CONSOLIDATION FAILURE

Or

if a single or a few fast growing tree species tend to dominate the Structuration Canopy

favoring massive

synchronous death of pioneers

AND

(39)

5

5 5

Time P

s c o

P c o

P s o _P_

p s o

1 2

_P_

p o

P S s c o

X

0

B

A

RIFD

F D

E

H C

G

P

P

STRUCTURATION

4 4 6

6

6 3

CONSOLIDATION

If secondary species are present,

- but in low density,

– or are poorly scattered in space,

– or are in young age, causuing the loss of canopy, biomass,

structure, species and

interactions accumulated

during the initial years

(Arrow 6)

(40)

CONSOLIDATION FAILURE

MOIST SEASONAL SEMIDECIDUOUS FOREST IN RESTORATION ISOLATED FROM FRAGMENTS ( Santa Bárbara do Oeste , SP)

The Canopy in Structuration Phase

The Canopy in Consolidation Phase

13 YEARS

SECONDARY SPECIES ARE PRESENT,

BUT IN LOW DENSITY AND IN AN INADEQUATE AGE, AND

SPACE ARRANGEMENT

(41)

Time P

s c o

P c o

P s o _P_

p s o

1 2

_P_

p o

P S s c o

X

0

B

A

RIFD

F D

E

H C

G

P

P

STRUCTURATION

4 4

5

5 5 6

6

6 3

BUT IF SECONDARY CANOPY SPECIES ARE PRESENT IN THE UNDERSTORY WITH ADEQUATE AGE, DENSITY AND

SPACE ARRANGEMENT

(42)

Time P

s c o

P c o

P s o _P_

p s o

1 2

_P_

p o

P S s c o

X

0

B

A

RIFD

F D

E

H C

G

P

P

STRUCTURATION

4 4

J

S

I S 5

5 5 6

6

6 3

CONSOLIDATION

7

7

THEN A NEW CANOPY DOMINATED BY

SECONDARY SPECIES WILL

BE CREATED

(ARROW 7)

(43)

Time P

s c o

P c o

P s o _P_

p s o

1 2

_P_

p o

P S s c o

X

0

B

A

RIFD

F D

E

H C

G

P

P

STRUCTURATION

4 4

J

S s c o

S

I s o 5

5 5 6

6

6 3

CONSOLIDATION

7

8 8

7

with time more species may be Natural or Asssited introduced in

the understory

(Arrow 8)

(44)

Time P

s c o

P c o

P s o _P_

p s o

1 2

_P_

p o

P S s c o

X

0

B

A

RIFD

F D

E

H C

G

P

P

STRUCTURATION

4 4

J

S s c o

S

I s o 5

5 5 6

6

6 3

CONSOLIDATION

7

8 8

7

8

Changing forest

communities

(Arrow 8)

(45)

We believe that canopy

composition and richness are

fundamental to forest

development

(46)

500 100 150200 250300 350400 450500 550600 650 700750 800850 900 1000950 1050 11001150 12001250 13001350 14001450 15001550 16001650 1700

930 948 1006 1024 1042 1100 1118 1136 1154 1212 1230 1248 1306 1324 1342 1400 1418 1436 1454 1512 1530 1548 1606 1624 1642 1700

HORA PPFD (µmol.m-2.s-1)

07/07/94 06/10/94

FIGURA 44:Andamento diário da PPFD (µmol.m-2.s-1) numa área de sub-bosque sob dossel perenifólio (sensor A3) no dia 07/07/1994, quando não existiam árvores decíduas no dossel da área A e no dia 06/10/1994, quando algumas árvores do dossel estavam decíduas.

0 600 1200 1800

930 1300 1630

Time of Day (Hours) PPFD (μmol.m-2.s-1)

Because if different Canopy Species are present

Different Light Regimes

will exist

(47)

Vochysia ferrea

Soil Æ pH = 5.4 Phosphorus content = 7.1 Hyeronima alchorneoides

Soil Æ pH = 5.1 Phosphorus content = 1.5

litter deposition and

decomposition stemflow and

throughfall deposition

Surface soil modification

and

DIFFERENT SOIL CONDITIONS WILL

BE CREATED BENEATH EACH

CANOPY TREE

(48)

litter

deposition and decomposition

Allelochemicals stemflow and

throughfall

deposition light intensity

and spectrum interception and

extinction

Surface soil

N fixers mycorrhizae

So as Canopy Tree Species are good Ecosystem Engineers they can create different abiotic

conditions under the projection of its crowns

(49)

Then we can think about the forest not using the

traditional dichotomous way - Canopy / Gaps

(50)

GAP

But thinking that inside the forests another level of

heterogeneity exist created mainly by canopy species

(51)

But as the sunlight passing by the leafless crown of a deciduous tree touch the ground and spread in all directions changing the

light regimes under the neighboring evergreen trees

(52)

and the leaf litter of a tree canopy not only falls under its

crown, but also under the crowns of neighboring trees

(53)

the heterogeneity created by canopy trees can be much more complex and high

GAP

So using a great number of species in the canopy is possible to

create great availability of safe sites to incoming plant species

(54)

So Canopy Species may act as Filters of Biodiversity

(GANDOLFI et al, 2007)

(55)

And more

MORE TREE SPECIES IN CANOPY:

More food, and more diversity of food More food throughout the year

More food, more pollinators,

More pollinators, more seed production,

More seed production, more local species regeneration, More seeds, more attraction to seed dispersers,

And more chances to increase the arrival of new plant

species

(56)

GAP

in the available of safe sites

(57)

Consequently, more species a forest has in the present,

more species it may have in the

future

(58)

AND MORE

PREDICTABILITY

(59)

SO BY THE INITIAL INTRODUCTION OF GREAT RICHNESS OF

PIONEER,

SECONDARY AND CLIMAX TREE

SPECIES IS POSSIBLE PREVENTS THE

STRUCTURATION AND CONSOLIDATION

FAILURE

IN LANDSCAPES WHERE FOREST FRAGMENTS ARE FEW, DISTANT AND

DEGRADED

(60)

after secondary canopy is formed

CONSOLIDATION PHASE ends

and the

MATURATION PHASE

begins

(61)

Time P

s c o

P c o

P s o _P_

p s o

1 2

_P_

p o

P S s c o

X

0

B

A

RIFD

F D

E

H C

G

P

P

STRUCTURATION

4 4

J

S s c o

S

I s o 5

5 5 6

6

6 3

CSP 8 K

CONSOLIDATION

MATURATION

7

8 8

7

9

In this phase slowly the canopy will be

dominated by Climax Species

(ARROW 9)

(62)

MATURATION PHASE

MORE ENRICHMENT WITH NATURAL SPECIES

MORE SPECIES

INTERACTIONS

(63)

ACUMULAÇÃO BIOMASSA SERAPILHEIRA MATÉRIA ORGÂNICA

NUTRIENTES

MORE ACCUMULATION BIOMASS

LITTER

ORGANIC MATTER

NUTRIENTS

(64)

MORE COMPLEXITY

(65)

MORE

STRATIFICATION

MORE VERTICAL HETEROGENEITY

MORE VERTICAL MICROHBITATS

60 years

(66)

Time P

s c o

P c o

P s o _P_

p s o

1 2

_P_

p o

P S s c o

X

0

B

A

RIFD

F D

E

H C

G

P

P

STRUCTURATION

4 4

J

S s c o

S

I s o 5

5 5 6

6

6 3

CSP s c o 8 K

CONSOLIDATION

MATURATION

7

8 8

7

9 10

MORE UNDERSTORY SPECIES ENRICHMENT, BIOMASS ACCUMULATION,

STRATIFICATION, etc.

( ARROW 10)

(67)

Gap Dynamics

(68)

Time P

s c o

P c o

P s o _P_

p s o

1 2

_P_

p o

P S s c o

X

0

B

A

RIFD

F D

E

H C

G

P

P

STRUCTURATION

4 4

J

S s c o

S

I s o 5

5 5 6

6

6 3

CSP s c o 8 K

11 CONSOLIDATION

MATURATION

7

8 8

7

9 10

GAP

DYNAMICS

(ARROW 11)

(69)

We suggest that this

Theory and Model may

improve

restoration in

different ways

(70)

Time P

s c o

P c o

P s o _P_

p s o

1 2

_P_

p o

P S s c o

X

0

B

A

RIFD

F D

E

H C

G

P

P

STRUCTURATION

4 4

J

S s c o

S

I s o 5

5 5 6

6

6 3

CSP s c o 8 K

11 CONSOLIDATION

MATURATION

7

8 8

7

9 10

Helping to identify the

best trajectories

(71)

Time P

s c o

P c o

P s o _P_

p s o

1 2

_P_

p o

P S s c o

X

0

B

A

RIFD

F D

E

H C

G

P

P

STRUCTURATION

4 4

J

S s c o

S

I s o 5

5 5 6

6

6 3

CSP s c o 8 K

11 CONSOLIDATION

MATURATION

7

8 8

7

9 10

Helping to identify

undesirable trajectories

(72)

Time P

s c o

P c o

P s o _P_

p s o

1 2

_P_

p o

P S s c o

X

0

B

A

RIFD

F D

E

H C

G

P

P

STRUCTURATION

4 4

J

S s c o

S

I s o 5

5 5 6

6

6 3

CSP s c o 8 K

11 CONSOLIDATION

MATURATION

7

8 8

7

9 10

Helping to identify how to reverse undesirable

trajectories

(73)

Time P

s c o

P c o

P s o _P_

p s o

1 2

_P_

p o

P S s c o

X

0

B

A

RIFD

F D

E

H C

G

P

P

STRUCTURATION

4 4

J

S s c o

S

I s o 5

5 5 6

6

6 3

CSP s c o 8 K

11 CONSOLIDATION

MATURATION

7

8 8

7

9 10

Helping to determe which parameters should be evaluated

and monitored to guarantee

Structuration and Consolidation

(74)

Help to

discuss how

to increase

Predictability

(75)

Help to choose the adequate restoration

methods

(76)

Table 1 - Decision making table developed to identify restoration strategies that need to be used according to the potentials of self-recovery and seed arrival from surrounding forest fragments to guarantee all phases (SCM) of forest restoration. For all of these situations, it is necessary to remove and isolate degradation factors before implement the indicated restoration strategies.

Adapted from Rodrigues et al. (2009).

(77)

Table 1 - Decision making table developed to identify restoration strategies that need to be used according to the potentials of self-recovery and seed arrival from surrounding forest fragments to guarantee all phases (SCM) of forest restoration. For all of these situations, it is necessary to remove and isolate degradation factors before implement the indicated restoration strategies.

Adapted from Rodrigues et al. (2009).

Potential of self- recovery

in degraded area Absent or Small

Medium

High

(78)

Table 1 - Decision making table developed to identify restoration strategies that need to be used according to the potentials of self-recovery and seed arrival from surrounding forest fragments to guarantee all phases (SCM) of forest restoration. For all of these situations, it is necessary to remove and isolate degradation factors before implement the indicated restoration strategies.

Adapted from Rodrigues et al. (2009).

Potential of seed dispersal from surrounding forest fragments

Potential of self- recovery

in degraded area

Absent or Small Medium High

Absent or Small Medium

High

(79)

Table 1 - Decision making table developed to identify restoration strategies that need to be used according to the potentials of self-recovery and seed arrival from surrounding forest fragments to guarantee all phases (SCM) of forest restoration. For all of these situations, it is necessary to remove and isolate degradation factors before implement the indicated restoration strategies.

Adapted from Rodrigues et al. (2009).

Potential of seed dispersal from surrounding forest fragments

Potential of self- recovery

in degraded area

Absent or Small Medium High

Absent or Small A B C

Medium A B D

High E E D

Is Necessary

a Restoration Strategy more than

a Restoration Method

(80)

In This situation

What Restoration Strategy Is Necessary ?

Potential of seed dispersal from surrounding forest fragments

Potential of self- recovery

in degraded area

Absent or Small Medium High

Absent or Small A B C

Medium A B D

High E E D

Table 1 - Decision making table developed to identify restoration strategies that need to be used according to the potentials of self-recovery and seed arrival from surrounding forest fragments to guarantee all phases (SCM) of forest restoration. For all of these situations, it is necessary to remove and isolate degradation factors before implement the indicated restoration strategies.

Adapted from Rodrigues et al. (2009).

For Example

(81)

Sugar–cane in river banks

No Seedlings No Soil Seed Banks

No Seed Rain

(82)

Potential of seed dispersal from surrounding forest fragments

Potential of self- recovery

in degraded area

Absent or Small Medium High

Absent or Small A B C

Medium A B D

High E E D

Table 1 - Decision making table developed to identify restoration strategies that need to be used according to the potentials of self-recovery and seed arrival from surrounding forest fragments to guarantee all phases (SCM) of forest restoration.

For all of these situations, it is necessary to remove and isolate degradation factors before implement the indicated restoration strategies. Adapted from Rodrigues et al. (2009).

Restoration Strategies

A = Active species introduction to guarantee SCM

B = Active species introduction to guarantee SC and to favor dispersal from surrounding forest fragments to guarantee M

C = Active species introduction to guarantee S

D = Management of self-recovery potential to guarantee S

E = Management of self-recovery potential to guarantee S and active introduction

of species to guarantee CM

(83)

Restoration Strategy

Active Species Introduction to Guarantee SCM

Restoration Methods

Planting Seedlings

Direct Seeding

Transference of Soil Seed Banks

etc…

PROBLEM No Seed Rain No Seedlings

No Soil Seed Banks, etc.

(84)

Planting Seedlings - after (6,5 years) 15/06/2007

(85)

Direct Seeding (Araras,SP - March/2012 – 3,5 years)

(86)

Ribeirão Grande (SP) jun/2010 No Seedlings

No Soil Seed Banks

No Seed Rain

(87)

Transference of Forest Soil Seed Banks

AFTER 1 YEAR

(88)

So the important is by the use

of thisTheory it is possible puts

the Restoration Methods at the service of a Concept

Is necessary guarantee all

the Restoration Phases (SCM)

(89)

Restoration Strategies

A = Active species introduction to guarantee SCM

B = Active species introduction to guarantee SC and to favor dispersal from surrounding forest fragments to guarantee M C = Active species introduction to guarantee S

D = Management of self-recovery potential to guarantee S

E = Management of self-recovery potential to guarantee S and active introduction of species to guarantee CM

So depending on the local condition

the Strategy to be selected may be different

(90)

SO WE BELIEVE THAT IS NECESSARY USE HIGH SPECIES RICHNESS

FROM REFERENCE ECOSYSTEM TO PLAN:

SPECIES SELECTION

SPECIES SPATIAL COMBINATION TIME SPECIES REPLACEMENT

AND TO PRIORITIZE

SOME DESIRED BIOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS

(FOR EXEMPLE, DISPERSION)

(91)

FINALLY

We believe that successful tropical forest restoration requires:

having tested methods,

and the know-how to combine them, a team of people trained to correctly

implement the projects,

enough economic and material resources to carry out the projects, landowners and interested stakeholders

engaged and committed to the project objectives, and

a Theory about the restoration process

(92)

THANKS

Referências

Documentos relacionados

Quando usamos todos os teàdos para determinar a quantidade de tecidos na carcaça, teríamos que dissecar o lombo e a pá para obtermos as melhores estimativas de

Table 2 shows that, as for germination, the first germination count and accelerated aging (Table 1), the seeds submitted to the fermentation without drying (T5)

This study specifically contributes to the knowledge of the informal sector of care and aims to (i) describe the national reality of the dependent older person in Portugal regarding

cases according to FAST ultrasound findings and the need for surgery... Table 4 reports the distribution of cases according to the need for hospitalization

Table XX – Successful fiscal consolidations according to the different criteria (1970-2012) 42 Table XXI – Expenditure and revenue based consolidations: λ =1/2

A higher weight gain and improved feed conversion was found at 42 days of age among birds that had received the basal diet without growth promoter + MOS.. The absolute weight

When analyzing if the percentage of surgeons that routinely and incidentally perform IOC was higher in SRP centers, the results (Table 5), showed that there was a

LISTA DE ABREVIATURAS Assembleia Geral das Nações Unidas – AGNU Comissão de Limites da Plataforma Continental – CLPC Comité dos Direitos Económicos, Sociais e Culturais