Starting from anthropology of healthand cross- cultural psychiatry, this theoretical study analyzed the conceptions of healthandillness present in three short stories of the book Primeiras estórias (1962) written by Guimarães Rosa: “Sorôco, sua mãe, sua filha”, “A menina de lá” and “A terceira margem do rio” (in Portuguese). A diversity of concepts and feelings related to mental health issues was noticed in these short stories, such as: lack of comprehension, marginalization, social pressure for institutionalization, stereotyping, dehumanization, mental and physical isolation, feelings of fear and guilt, and acceptance and mystification attempts. Considering the indissociable relation between author, work, public, and social conditions, such elements present in the short stories can be important to revisit, historically and culturally, practices inside mental health care institutions when searching for a more humanized care that combat the violence in this context, favoring a view that indeed surpasses the biomedical model centralized in pathologies and promotes new meanings for healthandillness.
Three questionnaires were used in the study: Health-Related Behaviors Inventory (HRBI), The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLCS) and Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS). Health-Related Behaviors Inventory allows evaluating the frequency of four categories of health-related behaviors: healthy eating habits, preventive behaviors, positive mental attitude, and healthy practices. Healthy eating habits include behaviors related to the choice of healthy foods in everyday diet. Preventive behaviors involve compliance with health-related guidelines and with the possessed knowledge on healthand disease. Positive mental attitude relates to behaviors such as avoiding excessively strong emotions, tensions, and stressful or upsetting situations. Healthy practices include desirable sleep, entertainment and physical activity habits . The total score of HRBI is obtained by summing up the scores for each subscale. Higher scores indicate higher frequency of a given category of health-related behaviors. The authors of this instrument report satisfactory Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients for the subscales, ranging from 0.60 to 0.64. High reliability is reported for the total score:.85 and.88 for internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) and stability (test-retest), respectively. Validity of this instrument was tested in terms of theoretical (factor), convergent and divergent validity, with the results demonstrating that the measurement is valid . The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale was used to assess the profile of HLC. This questionnaire is a brief self- report measure providing scores for internal and external HLC: The category of external HLC is subdivided into powerful others HLC, and chance HLC . Higher scores are indicative of a more intense HLC in a given category. In this study, the Polish version of the instrument was used. Cronbach’s alpha reliabilities for the Polish version are satisfactory and range from.54 to.74, depending on the subscale and the investigated sample. Validation data were also provided for the Polish version of the instrument .
indicating that the burden of financial catastrophe falls dispropor- tionately on the poor. The three key preconditions for catastrophic health expenditure are the presence of health services requiring payments, low capacity to pay, and lack of prepayment or health insurance options . These conditions are all present in the poorest households in Bangladesh, and the high proportion of catastrophic expenses in the lowest quintiles points to the urgent need to remove one or all of these preconditions. For example, the OOP share dropped markedly following the introduction of health insurance in China , Vietnam , and India , and the introduction of even basic prepayment or health insurance systems in Bangladesh may have a similar effect on the poorest households. Our analyses demonstrate a negative impact of average illness per child and adult, and presence of chronic illness in the household, on the household economy. These results are similar to the determinants of catastrophic expenditure in Burkina Faso and India [18,20], such as lack of formal education, tuberculosis, diabetes, dementia, modern medical care, number of illness episodes among adults and chronic illness. In concordance with results from India , the level of OOP payments is higher among those who used inpatient care services and suffer from chronic illness. Moreover, the study also revealed the importance of the average number of illness episodes among children and adults, and larger household size as key factors responsible for high OOP payments. Chronic care for NCDs puts an enormous and continuous financial strain on household budgets. The costs of care of chronic NCDs often contribute to increased OOP payments, pushing households into impoverishment or below the poverty line [3,50]. In such critical situations, only a strong risk pooling mechanism can prevent the poorest households from risk of financial catastrophe. Health insurance can have the dual function of protecting families against health shocks that increase healthcare needs, and against economic shocks that reduce their capacity to finance healthcare .
The research revealed that the folk infor- mants possess a unique form of caring, in which the process of healthandillness is thought of indi- visibly, the body, soul and spirit being in balance with nature and their culture. The use of medicinal plants, in this context, is not limited only to health, but to the construction of care and to the participa- tion of individuals in their process of well-being. The act of caring, for the folk informants, is undertaken through a relationship based on trust, links, and the exchange of knowledge. During this process, the individuals receive not only the guidance needed for re-establishing their health, but also for developing healthy and sustainable routine practices. Thus, the health professionals, in particular the nurses, need to consider the concepts of healthandillness held by the population being assisted, and need to accept the existence of the system of folk care, which seeks to contribute to improving people’s quality of life in their histori- cal, social and cultural context.
Without a clear disciplinary orientation and foundation to guide the development of the profession, it is easy to lose the way. The Nursing profession, without the disciplinary foundation for knowledge and practice, can easily be guided by a hospital culture and pressure to conform to medicalized, clinicalized views of humanity. This medical technical view of human experiences in healthandillness is in contrast to nursing’s unitary disciplinary worldview, e.g., a committed worldview based on timeless values, a philosophical orientation to unity of mindbodyspirit, whole person health, and human caring – healing knowledge that sustains global humanity.
suggests that this is a region where a large percentage of individuals depend exclusively on the public sector. Therefore, increased supply of public dental services can have a large impact on the oral health of this popula- tion. The expansion of supply in dental services, with incentives for regular utilization, can lead to improved knowledge about the healthandillness process, increase the early diagnosis of oral problems and decrease the resulting loss of teeth from untreated caries.
Improving child health requires not only promoting living conditions favorable to children's growth and development, but guaranteeing that all boys and girls benefit from the available prevention and treatment measures—measures that will keep them free of many illnesses and prevent such illnesses from becoming serious when they do strike, thus averting a potentially fatal outcome. Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) is a strategy that includes all of these measures. It can be used by health workers and others responsible for the care of children under 5 years of age, including parents. It imparts the necessary knowledge and skills for the sequential, integrated assessment of children's health status and, thus, the detection of the most common illnesses or health problems, as determined by the epidemiological profile in each locality. IMCI provides clear instructions on how to classify the illnesses andhealth problems discovered in the assessment and outlines the treatment that should be administered for each of them. It also contains indications for monitoring the progress of the treatment, identifying the need for preventive measures, and informing and educating parents about how to prevent disease and promote the health of their children.
Although there was a good geographical spread of practices, GPRF practices are over-representative of large practices in less deprived areas and only twelve of the recruited practices had a list size below the national median. We compensated for this by applying sampling weights to produce approximate nationally representative results. The demographic details of the patient sample were however similar to other contemporaneous cohort studies of people with serious mental illness in terms of gender and employment rates . In addition, unweighted and weighted estimates of the percentage of patients seen in primary care differed by only 0.3%, indicating that the estimate is stable. However, it is possible that the mental health services contact data in primary care notes under represented actual contacts with secondary care.
Headspace and EPPIC also had high-profile policy advo- cates lobbying politicians and policy makers. These included: Ian Hickie, a founder and later director of Headspace; Pat McGorry, Executive Director of Orygen Youth Health, the mental health organization that developed and ran EPPIC, and a director of Headspace; and John Mendoza, CEO of what was then the Mental Health Council of Australia, the peak mental health advisory body to the federal government. Their proposed policy options received endorsement in the media and parliament as a “solution” to youth mental illness (Australian Associated Press, 2010b; Medew, 2010; Robotham, 2009; Schmidt, 2009). They were promoted as part of a “collaborative continuum of care” (Commonwealth of Australia: House of Representatives, 2010, p. 980) that was better able to meet the needs of young people than exist- ing overburdened mainstream services that prioritized care for people with severe and chronic mental illnesses (McGorry, 2011b; Muir, Powell, & McDermott, 2012).
In short, inferences from this discussion refer to the idea that man, when influenced by hegemonic gender ideologies, may place both woman’s healthand his own at risk. In this sense, an understanding of these and other issues by Public Health can create a new focus for dealing with certain forms of illnessand for both male and female health promotion.
The Mental Health Ordinance  governs the care, supervision, detention and treatment of mentally incapacitated and mentally disordered persons. The Ordinance grants registered doctors the power to apply for guardianship of mentally incapacitated person, to provide medi- cal treatment and to arrange compulsory psychiatric treatment for them. Under this ordinance, mentally ill persons can be detained in the interests of his own health or safety, or with a view to the protection of other persons. Interpreting ‘his safety’ and ‘the protection of other persons’ is straightforward, but ‘in the interests of his own health’ is too broad and inclusive and will inevitably invite challenges. It is thus seldom invoked and is often forgotten or neglected. As a result, the health care or social workers often excuse themselves from taking a more active role in tackling the mental problem of homeless subjects unless there is a risk of imminent violence or self-harm. Large, Nielssen, Ryan and Hayes  investigated the relationship between the duration of untreated psychosis and mental health laws. They concluded that mental health laws that require the patients to be assessed as dangerous before they could receive involuntary treatment were associated with a significantly longer duration of untreated psychosis. It is thus recommended that mental health care professionals and social workers should be better informed about and trained in aspects of compulsory treatment and the Mental Health Ordi- nance for the benefit of their clients.
Abstract The Integrated Management of Child- hood Illness (IMCI) strategy developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), Panamerican Health Organization (PAHO) and the United Nation Chil- dren's Fund (UNICEF), joint experiences of previous frequent diseases programs in children, with preven- tion andhealth promotion activities. In this new ap- proach the family, the community andhealth workers have a leading role in health condition of the child. The strategy aims a reduction in Infant Mortality Rate, specially in those regions and countries in which it is high. Pneumonia, diarrhea, malnutrition and other preventable diseases are the main causes of deaths in this settings. Health workers can early reco- gnized danger signs of severe diseases, as well as they can evaluate and treat the most frequent health pro- blems. By enhancing prevention andhealth promotion activities, as better conditions of life, giving an holis- tic vision of the child and his family, and not only looking for the symptom that motivate the consulta- tion.
Recognizing the state of vulnerability of ethical subjects and understanding that not only their illness, but also factors managing public health inluence it, it was possible to observe in the results presented six items that clearly demonstrate this condiion: 1) lack of commitment to theimplantaion of an efecive transplant program in the state, which is perpetuated over ime; 2) failure to administer the old transplanion center and current Organ Procurement Organizaion (Organização de Procura de Órgãos - OPO); 3) the Ministry of Health’s (Ministério da Saúde) lack of technical knowledge regarding transplant programs ; 4) lack of structure dedicated to transplantaion, both from the point of view of care and from the diagnosic point of view; 5) OPO’s operaional incapacity; and 6) diiculty in accessing pre-transplant exams for paients from the Brazilian Uniied Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde – SUS).
Advances in neonatal intensive care have decreased the incidence and mor- bidity of chronic lung disease. How- ever, chronic lung disease remains an important issue for clinical and public health because this illness is associated with chronic respiratory difficulties, prolonged and recurrent hospitaliza- tion, and increased incidence of neuro- logical disabilities, growth restriction, and death.
avoiding illnessand obtaining discounts and rewards. The relation between provider and more elderly client has always been one of distrust. The providers have never been enthusiastic in providing services to the elderly. Their policy was always to try and reduce the weight of this segment on their bottom line. The elderly clients, for their part, constantly complained of the diffi culty of receiving care and the rejection of many of the requested tests, which made it diffi cult to use their health plans, which they considered to be very expensive. For the providers, the value paid by this age group is reduced and does not adequately cover the risks of a population with a high probability of falling ill and impacting on their costs.
Recognizing the state of vulnerability of ethical subjects and understanding that not only their illness, but also factors managing public health influence it, it was possible to observe in the results presented six items that clearly demonstrate this condition: 1) lack of commitment to theimplantation of an effective transplant program in the state, which is perpetuated over time; 2) failure to administer the old transplantion center and current Organ Procurement Organization (Organização de Procura de Órgãos - OPO); 3) the Ministry of Health’s (Ministério da Saúde) lack of technical knowledge regarding transplant programs ; 4) lack of structure dedicated to transplantation, both from the point of view of care and from the diagnostic point of view; 5) OPO’s operational incapacity; and 6) difficulty in accessing pre-transplant exams for patients from the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde – SUS).