based society) 4 can be traced in papers writ- ten around 1960 by Fritz Machlup and Peter Druker. First proposed the term of know- ledge industries (1962), the second know- ledge work and knowledge worker (1969). The skepticism for the knowledgesociety concept has at its base the idea that the hu- man society has always been based on know- ledge and the new brought in contemporary society of today refers only to the electronic communication and information processing support. A differentiation between informa- tion society and knowledgesociety must be made. While information society is in tech- nologies developments and strategies for their implementation, knowledgesociety 5 is a society that creates, shares and uses know- ledge for people’s prosperity and welfare. The main factor for knowledge society’s de- velopment is innovation market demand and lifelong learning, which require continuous improvement working conditions, productivi- ty and efficiency. Knowledgesociety uses problem solving instruments. We can men- tion here high speed computers, networks, in- formation acquisition and so on. Develop- ment of this society requires continuous knowledge discovery, assimilation and or- ganization. Knowledgesociety 6 implies a new economy, in which innovation process (assimilation and new knowledge conversion for creating new goods and services) is the core. It has a global character and therefore has a main part in globalization process. In- formation revolution and era, in which we are, are defined by economical, social and political globalization. While the “globaliza- tion” term is widely spread and used, there are different definitions and understandings of this phenomenon. Because it has different
The papers by some Italian scholars – Luciano Gallino, Cristiano Castelfranchi, Andrea Cerroni, Giancarlo Quaranta – featured in this issue are JCOM’s critical and open way to take part in this debate. Firstly, because it is in the knowledgesociety that public science communication plays a new role. Secondly, because public science communication is a coessential part in the building process of a knowledge democracy.
During the recent years human society evolved from the “industrial society age” and transitioned into the “knowledgesociety age”. This means that knowledge media support migrated from “pen and paper” to computer-based Information Systems. Due to this fact Ergonomics has assumed an increasing importance, as a science/technology that deals with the problem of adapting the work to the man, namely in terms of Usability.
A further development, and over simplification, of these citations is just: «think and act». This may be a hidden objective, yet more profound, that should direct all our research and practises. We cited the information era and the knowledgesociety, but we all live, recognise and suffer from non-knowledge situations, where organisations, as a whole, and individuals, per se, refuse, first to think – which implies to confront, to question, to reflect, to evaluate and to decide – and then, to act – to act according to the reasoning and decision made, and not solely following a pre-defined pattern. As is referred by a popular saying: «There is no one more blind than someone who doesn’t want to see.»
The knowledgesociety generated a new organization of work, with focus to the innovation, in which the fast obsolescence of the intellectual capacities, the instability of the relation webs, the shock between the waves of management models and the difficulties of constant transition, created a feeling of eminent catastrophe. The apparent sense of chaos in which the organizations live is the result of sudden and fast changes which the society passes through. About 15% of the worldwide population is in conditions to generate new knowledge (changes) constantly through the daily access to all kind of advantageous information “[…] and in one day of work in the world, it is generated more knowledge than in all the ancient and modern history of humankind” (SABBAG, 2007, p.30).
To be able to achieve this, each individual citizen should develop their own knowledge management system, seek knowledge and develop their skills set. Each individual becomes a knowledge citizen as the value of knowledge becomes higher. That is nurtured by the positive way the society and culture perceive learning and knowledge seeking. The idea of knowledge management should start from home, when the child is being raised, then the foundation of lifelong learning should be strengthened at school, then at the university and at the work environment. The knowledge citizen should learn how to identify and manage their knowledge. They also should have sufficient awareness of the enabling tools that help them produce knowledge, and document it. The tools include ICT skills and literacy, the internet, online services, online content, research skills and, critical and creative thinking. As the knowledge citizen also acts as teacher to other citizens, it is important for them to learn how to share the knowledge they created. They also should possess soft and interpersonal skills such as communication and teamwork. The knowledge citizen should be aware of the importance of those skills and consistently seeks training and development that are enabled by the environment.
ployment process. Whereas other professions, such as medi- cine, engineering and law ensure that graduates possess certain knowledge and skills regardless of their place of study, this is not the case with IS. One of the main reasons for this is that IS academics undertake curriculum development with much more autonomy than other educators. In the cases of medicine and engineering, for example, curricula are largely developed by professional bodies, with academics having very little freedom to distinguish their teaching from that in other institutions. This high level of standardisation, whilst reducing the student’s ability to differentiate him- or herself in the job market, provides employers with a guaranteed minimum level of professional competence, which employers and their repre- sentatives have helped to specify. IS employers have no such influence, which may help to explain their dissatisfaction with IS education. Moreover, where employers do communicate their needs to IS academics, they do so with less experience and understanding of curriculum development and implemen- tation because there is no official dialogue between industry and academia (note that professional bodies are not repre- sented in Figure 1 for this reason). The lack of management of practitioner expectations of IS educators is, perhaps, leading to their deficiencies being exaggerated. The lack of standardi- sation also means that IS educators must work harder to construct course materials because best practice cannot be shared easily and textbooks cannot be guaranteed to corre- spond with the syllabus being delivered. Thus, curriculum development time is more likely to be spent duplicating simi- lar teaching materials in many institutions, leaving less time for updating skills and awareness of industry best practice. It should be noted, however, that many professions, such as medicine, are increasing the number of optional courses of- fered in recognition of the fact that relevant content cannot be delivered in the time scale of a degree programme. Whilst study options increase variation in student education, there remains a common core in all professional programmes and the content of optional courses is still agreed through formal mechanisms.
Abstract The main challenges to our understanding of the so-called “information society” as well as to pertinent social and political action result from new instabilities and uncertainties. These instabilities create, on the one hand, insecurity in all fields: occupational, economic, financial, political and social. On the other, they also open up new fissures or “institutional informalities”, which allow us to see possible roads to social change. For those who study this field of information and knoledge, the challenges are fundamentally methodological. And they are not trivial. Are we being asked to imagine a new relation between the State and society? Should we consider a new articulation between the market and the State, facing a new space created between the technology and the user? Who are the new social actors?
Especially in the latest years of her life, she was passionate by the theory of complexity and systems thinking. Her scientific interests mainly concentrated on the relationships between education and sustainable human development, as well as in the processes of personal and communities’ growth. She considered that, in the present knowledgesociety, educational systems are evolutionary systems, complex, unpredictable, bringing about the need to build frameworks for the intelligibility of their problems and behaviours through research, debate and social regulation. Aiming to apply research findings to real action, she believed in democratic participation both by society in general and by citizens responsible for the decision of possible pathways, under a permanent process of reflexivity leading to informed action. In our time of uncertainty, risk and unpredictability, she believed this procedure would design the governance models fitted to the future of Education, which she viewed as Education for the future. She argued for the necessity of a vision of change and of the sustaining mechanisms of such change, not only at the organisational and institutional management levels, but also of the new processes of teaching and learning, of new disciplinary themes and fields, of new knowledge emerging from everywhere. Such issues should, she argued, be taken into account for global, dynamic, systemic, pluralistic evaluating criteria in the new Higher Education.
As stated in a paper we recently published , no matter what development model is chosen, this activity involves complex processes that are often prone to errors. This is why, beyond agility or traditionalism an important role in software development goes to testing and validation. Any good quality informatics system, with professional design and implementation, must be tested and validated before it goes into production. When the business evolves in the context of the knowledgesociety, the collaborative work environment will make its mark on the results testing, validation and verification models.
Describe los procesos, los colaboradores involucrados y la repercusión del desarrollo del proyecto ecuatoriano "Sociedad FLOK - Free Libre Open KnowledgeSociety", con miras a la construcción de planos para fortalecer la economía social del conocimiento social común y abierto. El proyecto dio lugar a la Cumbre del Conocer Bien en mayo de 2014 en Quito, con diferentes actores e instituciones sociales. Sus resultados serán publicados en un libro con las principales directrices disponibles en un número especial del "Journal of Peer Production". Durante la elaboración del proyecto y en la Cumbre se asistió a una intensa participación de varias instituciones, entre ellas de la comunidad internacional. La inicialmente difícil participación de la sociedad civil que por las barreras del idioma fue superada a partir de la idea de "Bueno saber cómo habitar Bien Vivir", marco político ecuatoriano desde 2008, y por los esfuerzos de instituciones, tornando posible aumentar la participación de la sociedad civil. De este modo, a través de una red participativa, las discusiones que produjeran contenidos en 190 documentos iniciales fueron publicadas, lo que llamamos "propio contenido". Su impacto y discusión aparecieron en los medios de comunicación tradicionales, un total de 130, lo que llamamos "contenido en medios", en las discusiones en los "medios de comunicación de redes sociales " y de diversas acciones de comunicación y equipo FLOK . Por último, también alcanzamos lo que llamamos redes de territorios que hibridaran territorios digitales y geográficos en las reuniones # Beer2peer en los bares de Quito. A pesar de alta visibilidad dada al contenido propuesto, la eficacia de las recomendaciones de política y de proyectos productivos aún tiene bajo rendimiento por el pequeño número actual de participantes en el equipo. Todavía hay cuellos de botella como la necesidad de programas de capacitación, programas piloto y tácticas para promover los ya posibles planes y profundizar los iniciados.
O artigo de Fuller, “A critical guide to knowledgesociety newspeak: or, how not to take the great leap backward” (Um guia crítico a respeito do discurso sobre a sociedade do conhecimento: ou, como não dar um salto para trás), inicia a terceira e última parte dessa edição especial de Current Sociology. O principal objetivo do trabalho é criticar as várias versões e interpretações relativas à sociedade atual, rotulando-a de “sociedade do conhecimento”. O autor chega a afirmar que esse termo “parece fascinar os teóricos sociais porque finalmente foram incorporados ao modo de produção capitalista” (p. 233). Sua crítica, por vezes irônica, é também contundente e bem fundamentada. O conhecimento transforma-se em mercadoria, sujeito às forças de mercado e não a normas e práticas que tradicionalmente o caracterizavam, tais como aquelas apontadas por Merton como “os imperativos institucionais da ciência”, dos quais fazia parte o desinteresse como característica básica da produção científica.
Drucker (2004) even say that this new knowledgesociety nucleus is the education and that the school starts, by its time, as a main institution of this process. The knowledge acquisition and distribution might take, at knowledgesociety, the acquisition place and a property and revenue distribution took over the Industrial Age. At educational politics definition center are the essentials themes that involve issues as knowledge development and how to determinate what quality is at teaching and learning process. Would be important, then, approximate education of reality, supporting the research, logic, argumentation, create and learning capacity development to keep on, as argued by Bartholo et al. (2006). The public power actuation in this indispensable search, for even the most precarious, as a more effective participation of parents, students, teachers, schools and communities are equally important and start, necessarily, by two elementary thoughts: over everybody involved action, in a general way, and the school, in a specific way, at social transformations needed and over the type of egress that want to create.
however, is to decline from the next steps of evolution, in which information should be converted into knowledge, through a prepared mind, and handled with creativity, for opening the access to wisdom. One can trace a similar parallel by extrapolating the knowledge pyramid to the production area, in searching for the best route of innovation. Information, as the base of the knowledge, can not be denied; however, its usefulness critically depends on our mind, on our ability of analysing and interpreting, in the same way as a data base will always require software for showing its meaning. A professional, lacking enough background and understanding, will not make the best use of information. In spite of this, the current emphasis on information is reaching a point in which the educational area is being invaded by the so called long distance courses, where the presence of the student in the classroom is not required. Therefore, the noble mission of the professor, as educator, is being buried under the myths of the information society. It already seems that many students are assuming their easy access to the information, effective enough to reach their goal, thus limiting their learning to the reading of the supporting materials and notes, while running away from the classroom, from the professor’s influence and from the educational structure. This is particularly critical in experimental courses, such as in Chemistry, where the laboratory plays an essential role in the formation of the student. Without understanding, information is not enough to capture the enthusiasm from the students. Lacking interest and motivation, their absence in the classroom is just a terrible consequence, which should be treated on due time to prevent their abandon from the course. This is becoming a serious problem in our community. It is necessary to pursue the understanding, through the teaching of concepts and principles. Therefore, great efforts should be directed in order to surpass the information society and build up a real knowledgesociety, aiming at, one day, a society of wisdom.
A presente pesquisa utiliza como universo de análise a International Society for Knowledge Organization (ISKO), cuja formação relaciona-se a uma sociedade anterior, a Society for Classification, que teve como objetivo o desenvolvimento de estudos teóricos e conceituais na organização do conhecimento. Sua fundação ocorreu em 1989, em Frankfurt, na Alemanha, quando Ingetraut Dalhberg, juntamente com outros pesquisadores oriundos de distintas áreas do saber, uniram- se pelo ideal comum de estudar os diferentes métodos e abordagens na organização do conhecimento, de modo a facilitar o seu acesso pela sociedade.
Overall, the perception regarding the quality of life according to the participants bearing HIV/AIDS was considered satisfactory. Although, it has been permeated by knowledge gaps, difficulties at the beginning of treatment with regards to side effects, the need for confidentiality concerning the diagnosis aiming to maintain social relations, concernment with financial issues, as well as discontentment in doing both physical and sexual activities.
Nursing and resistance. There is little evidence that the heritage of Nightingale’s ethical resistance is alive today. Even less clear is what resistance looks like in the neoliberal schema for the discipline of nursing. Foucault suggests that there are a number of ways to resist the exercise of power. He argues that resistance is co-extensive with power; spe- ciically, as soon as there is a power relation, there is a pos- sibility of resistance. It is not a question of an ontological opposition between power and resistance, but a matter of speciic and changing struggles in space and time.[3,73] There is always the possibility of resistance no matter how oppressive the system. Inherent in resistance is the capacity to rationalize from some standpoint, presumptively from a historically situated knowledge. What I have argued, follow- ing Olssen and Peters,[2,9] is that the capacity for knowledge is re-conigured in neoliberal realities. Informational learning predominately representing dogma, ideologies, and disci- plinary speak (nursing’s dominant discourses such as critical thinking and evidence based practice) have supplanted his- torical metaparadigms of knowledge. Knowledge from this perspective represents space for critique and resistance from multiple philosophical world views. Given these neoliberal realities, what is our disciplinary future? What is our vision for a re-conigured ethic?
Organizing ourselves as a scientiic society concerned with the ield of pulmonology was the impetus for the creation of a journal initially designed to disseminate knowledge related to that ield and to strengthen us as a scientiic community—incredibly, the journal continues to embody the essence of that original mission. The setting, however, has changed considerably. Given the incipient nature of respiratory science in Brazil at that time, the journal initially published articles that had already appeared in international journals, translating them to Portuguese for our national readership. As the ield of pulmonology in the country developed, the JBP grew and came to be more representative of its readers. During that transitional phase, the forward thinking of the editors allowed the JBP to be indexed for various databases and even to obtain the bibliometric indices by which it can be compared with other journals in the ield. (1)