Melipona fasciculata

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Avaliação da introdução da criação racional de melipona fasciculata (Apidae: Meliponina), entre os agricultores familiares de Bragança - PA, Brasil.

Avaliação da introdução da criação racional de melipona fasciculata (Apidae: Meliponina), entre os agricultores familiares de Bragança - PA, Brasil.

Meliponiculture, the name given to stingless bee keeping, is a practical example of the concepts of diversification of sustainable use in Amazonia. It is an activity that can be integrated into forestry, fruit crop plantation and short cycle cultivar and can contribute through pollination to the increase of the agricultural production and regeneration of natural vegetation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the introduction of management techniques for the bee keeping of the bee known as uruçu-cinzenta (Melipona fasciculata) among the traditional beekeepers in Bragança, Pará State, Brazil. Using participative methods, from June to December of 2002, 30 families of bee, in rustic bee boxes, were replaced for boxes adapted to improve colony multiplication and increase honey production. Traditional method are described, evaluated and compared with the new method. Results demonstrated the new system to be efficient and economically viable, increasing the amount of honey obtained, facilitating crop yield and producing honey under stricter conditions of hygiene. The blooming period coincides with the dry period, in the area ranging from June to December. The largest honey production occurred, however, between August and November. The most important botanical species in the constitution of the honeys include: cashew (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae), cashew-açu (A. giganteum - Anacardiaceae), mangrove- siriuba (Avicennia nitida - Avicenniaceae), sapateira (Miconia minutiflora - Melastomataceae) and lacre (Vismia guianensis - Clusiaceae). The adopted method was well accepted, piquing interest of experienced creators’ as well as of the community in general.
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Características de qualidade do mel de abelha sem ferrão (Melipona fasciculata) produzidos na baixada maranhense / Quality characteristics of honey bees without sting (Melipona fasciculata) produced in the sea down

Características de qualidade do mel de abelha sem ferrão (Melipona fasciculata) produzidos na baixada maranhense / Quality characteristics of honey bees without sting (Melipona fasciculata) produced in the sea down

Honey from native bees or meliponines is appreciated for consumption in natura due to its different sensorial characteristics in relation to honey of the species Apis mellifera. The aim of this study was to determine the microbiological and physico-chemical quality characteristics of Tiúba honey (Melipona fasciculata Smith), a native bee, produced in the Baixada Maranhense Region, in the State of Maranhão. Twenty samples were collected (n = 20) and subjected to microbiological analysis for counts of total and thermotolerant coliforms, molds and yeasts, salmonella sp and clostridium sulfite reducers, and the following physical- chemical parameters: humidity (%), reducing sugars (% ) and non-reducing sugars (%), insoluble solids (%), soluble solids (ºBrix), ash (%), free acidity (meq.kg-1), and pH. The microbiological quality of the samples (95%) was suitable for human consumption. It was observed that, with the exception of the average free acidity content (30.5 meq.kg-1), ash (0.12%) and insoluble solids (0.09%), the other physical-chemical characteristics are different from the Legislation (Brazil, 2000). Honey had higher mean contents regarding the parameters humidity (27.2%), non-reducing sugars (8.5%), pH (3.79) and lower average reducing sugar content (50.1%), not allowing its regulation which reinforces the need for specific legislation for this type of honey.
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Espectro polínico de mel de tiúba (Melipona fasciculata Smith, 1854, Hymenoptera, Apidae).

Espectro polínico de mel de tiúba (Melipona fasciculata Smith, 1854, Hymenoptera, Apidae).

The pollen spectrum of honey of the Melipona fasciculata was analyzed aiming to elucidate the nectariferous resources used by this species. The identification of the visited plants was based upon the analysis of the pollen spectrum of 12 honey samples collected in one meliponarium located in Palmeirândia county, lowland area of Maranhão State, Brazil (02º40’47,6S, 44º52’39,8”W). The quantitative and qualitative analysis of honey samples was conducted in order to determine the pollen type percentages and frequency classes. Forty-five pollen types were found, being Pontederia parviflora Alexander (Pontederiaceae) the most frequent species during period of sampling (38.6%) and considered dominant pollen in October (86%), June (85%), July (76%), August (49%) and September (51%) and accessory pollen in December, January and March. Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth (Mimosaceae) was the second most frequent species (22.8%) and was a dominant pollen in November (46%), April (74%) and May (72%). Myrcia eximia DC. (Myrtaceae) was considered important isolated pollen. The most representative families found in the pollen spectrum of the honey samples were Pontederiaceae and Mimosaceae. 50% of honey samples was bifloral, but there were also monofloral (41.7%) and heterofloral (8.3%) honeys.
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Microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics of honeys from the bee Melipona fasciculata produced in two regions of Brazil

Microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics of honeys from the bee Melipona fasciculata produced in two regions of Brazil

ABSTRACT: The honey from Tiúba bees (Melipona fasciculata) is commercially important in the Brazilian state of Maranhão. However, the absence of any specific legislation for this kind of honey is an obstacle to its increased production and commercialization. Determining the microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics of different Tiúba honey can inform the elaboration of specific legislation. Thus, honey samples from two Water Catchment Areas in Maranhão (Munim and Pericumã, sample size 20 for each) were collected and submitted for microbiological analysis (total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, molds and yeasts, Clostridium sulfite reducers and Salmonella sp.) and physical-chemical analysis (moisture content, reducing and non-reducing sugars, insoluble and soluble solids, ash content, acidity and pH). Most of honeys sampled were suitable for human consumption, except for one sample from Pericumã. Honeys from the two water catchment areas presented differences in some physicochemical characteristics, which can be attributed to the botanic, soil and climatic diversity of the two areas. Still, these Tiúba honey samples did not fall within the Brazilian legislation for Apis mellifera honey for some of the physical- chemical characteristics, and so is not properly regulated, thus reinforcing the need for specific legislation for this type of honey.
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Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of geopropolis produced by Melipona fasciculata (Meliponinae) in flooded fields and cerrado areas of Maranhão State, northeastern Brazil

Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of geopropolis produced by Melipona fasciculata (Meliponinae) in flooded fields and cerrado areas of Maranhão State, northeastern Brazil

In the State of Maranhão (northeastern Brazil), Melipona fasciculata Smith, popularly known as tiuba, is the species most frequently cultivated for honey production by rural populations, especially in flooded fields and cerrado areas, because of its high economic value and the production of wax, pollen, and geopropolis. The last product has potential applications in the fields of chemistry and biology, but few studies have been conducted (Bezerra 2002; Bankova and Popova 2007; Holanda et al. 2012).

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Avaliação farmacognóstica de geoprópolis de Melipona fasciculata Smith da Baixada maranhense, Brasil.

Avaliação farmacognóstica de geoprópolis de Melipona fasciculata Smith da Baixada maranhense, Brasil.

As amostras de geoprópolis de Melipona fasciculata Smith, foram coletadas com auxílio de espátulas esterilizadas, diretamente em meliponários de diferentes localidades dos municípios de Arari, São João Batista e São Bento, da Baixada maranhense, Brasil, no fi nal da estação chuvosa e início da estação seca, durante o mês de agosto de 2003. Foram acondicionados, isoladamente em frascos de vidro âmbar esterilizados e mantidos sob refrigeração, as quais foram denominadas 1-7 respectivamente.

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Phenolic acids, flavonoids and antioxidant activity in honey of Melipona fasciculata, M. flavolineata (Apidae, Meliponini) and Apis mellifera (Apidae, Apini) from the Amazon.

Phenolic acids, flavonoids and antioxidant activity in honey of Melipona fasciculata, M. flavolineata (Apidae, Meliponini) and Apis mellifera (Apidae, Apini) from the Amazon.

PHENOLIC ACIDS, FLAVONOIDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN HONEY OF Melipona fasciculata, M. flavolineata (Apidae, Meliponini) AND Apis mellifera (Apidae, Apini) FROM THE AMAZON. Honey produced by three stingless bee species (Melipona flavolineata, M. fasciculata and Apis mellifera) from different regions of the Amazon was analyzed by separating phenolic acids and flavonoids using the HPLC technique. Data were subjected to multivariate statistical analysis (PCA, HCA and DA). Results showed the three species of honey samples could be distinguished by phenolic composition. Antioxidant activity of the honeys was determined by studying the capacity of inhibiting radicals using DPPH assay. Honeys with higher phenolic compound contents had greater antioxidant capacity and darker color.
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The chemical composition and pharmacological activities of geopropolis produced by Melipona fasciculata Smith in northeast Brazil

The chemical composition and pharmacological activities of geopropolis produced by Melipona fasciculata Smith in northeast Brazil

Carbohydrates and triterpenes were the major chemical constituents found in geopropolis sample collected in Palmeirândia. Libério et al. [7] analyzed 3 samples collected in Maranhão State: The lowest concentration of phenol content and the highest concentration of flavonoids were observed in the sample from Palmeirândia. Triterpenes were also detected in this sample. The chemical composition of Brazilian geopropolis samples produced by other stingless bees (Melipona compressipes, Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides and Tetragona clavipes) was evaluated by GC-MS, revealing that the main compounds were phenolics and triterpenes [16]. Geopropolis chemical composition depends on the local flora and geographic region, and this aspect is extremely important in order to link its biological properties to its chemical profile, and establish a possible standardization of the assays.
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Desenvolvimento e produção de mel de colônias de abelhas tiúba, Melipona fasciculata Smith, 1854 (Apidae: Meliponina), em diferentes modelos de colmeias e localidades do Maranhão

Desenvolvimento e produção de mel de colônias de abelhas tiúba, Melipona fasciculata Smith, 1854 (Apidae: Meliponina), em diferentes modelos de colmeias e localidades do Maranhão

Em muitas regiões do Brasil, antes da introdução das A. mellifera, as abelhas sem ferrão eram mantidas em cortiços, cabaças, potes de barro e caixas rústicas de madeira, constituindo uma atividade tradicional usada por muitas comunidades rurais. Além disso, os povos indígenas foram os primeiros a domesticarem as abelhas nativas sociais e já utilizavam os produtos dessas abelhas para alimentação, para auxiliar na confecção de objetos de caça e na impermeabilização de cestos e outros utensílios feitos de fibras vegetais (KERR et al, 1996). Os índios Kayapó representam um dos grupos indígenas que demonstraram, em passado recente, bom conhecimento referente ao manejo de abelhas sem ferrão e seu comportamento (KERR & POSEY, 1984; POSEY & CAMARGO, 1985 e CAMARGO & POSEY, 1990). Os índios Timbira no Maranhão, tinham método eficiente de reprodução de colônias de M. fasciculata, que são mais produtivas do que em outros estados (KERR, 2006).
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Repositório Institucional da UFPA: Efeitos da alimentação artificial protéica em colônias de uruçu-cinzenta (Melípona fasciculata, Smith 1858) (Apidae, Meliponini) e adaptação em casa-de-vegetaçao

Repositório Institucional da UFPA: Efeitos da alimentação artificial protéica em colônias de uruçu-cinzenta (Melípona fasciculata, Smith 1858) (Apidae, Meliponini) e adaptação em casa-de-vegetaçao

The study aimed to develop an artificial food of the protein of soybean extract (artificial fermented pollen), and assess its effect on sex ratio, longevity of workers and development of newly divided colonies of Melipona fasciculata, and verify the adjustment the species in greenhouses. The fermented artificial pollen developed here consists of 50g of soybean extract, 20g of fermented pollen and 60mL inverted sugar syrup (60%). Aniline was used to color the fermented pollen artificial in an attempt to trace and verify the use by workers within the colonies. Five colonies were used, three of which received only the fermented pollen and two received artificial fermented pollen. There was no significant difference between the production of queens and workers in both treatments and in both cases there was no production of males. The workers who were born from boxes fed with artificial fermented pollen had greater longevity and lower birth weight. These boxes also have begun to build cells and earlier oviposition that the boxes fed with fermented pollen, however, their queens had lower daily rate of oviposition. The food based on soybean extract not adversely affect newly divided colonies of M. fasciculata. In the early days, the bees spend most of their time at the top of the greenhouse trying to escape, only after the third day there was a reduction in mortality of workers. There was no significant difference, over five days, between the mortality of workers moved in boxes during the night and during the day, inside the greenhouse. The aniline was an excellent tool to track the food handled and consumed by the colony.
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Quality of honey produced by Meipona fasciculata Smith of cerrado region from Maranhão state, Brazil.

Quality of honey produced by Meipona fasciculata Smith of cerrado region from Maranhão state, Brazil.

QUALITY OF HONEY PRODUCED BY Meipona fasciculata SMITH OF CERRADO REGION FROM MARANHAO STATE, BRAZIL. The honey of Melipona fasciculata is few known in terms of composition, and therefore generally associated with the characteristics of the honey of Apis mellifera. This study contributes to the knowledge of the physico-chemical characteristics of honey of M. fasciculata of the municipalities of Barra do Corda, Jenipapo dos Vieiras, Fernando Falcão, Carolina and Riachão, in cerrado region from Maranhão. The parameters studied were: moisture, pH, acidity, reducing sugars, apparent sucrose, hydroxymethylfurfural, diastase activity, insoluble solids, ash and color. Some of the observed patterns may conform to the established for A. mellifera, but others must be accompanied by a specific legislation.
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Melipona GARBAGE BEES RELEASE THEIR CARGO ACCORDING TO A GAUSSIAN DISTRIBUTION

Melipona GARBAGE BEES RELEASE THEIR CARGO ACCORDING TO A GAUSSIAN DISTRIBUTION

Bees have a great quantity of biological data that were naturally selected and that fit mathemati- cal equations and curves that likely are the ones that provide them the best adaptability (Darwin, 1859; Vogt, 1911). In the present case one con- cludes that, except for cargo that slipped before and fell occasionally, the workers of Melipona scutellaris release the set of cocoon (plus larval feces and a small quantity of wax) according to the normal distribution term in the Equation 1.

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Filogeografia e conservação de Melipona capixaba Moure e Camargo, 1994 e Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811, e biogeografia do gênero Melipona Illiger, 1806 (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

Filogeografia e conservação de Melipona capixaba Moure e Camargo, 1994 e Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811, e biogeografia do gênero Melipona Illiger, 1806 (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

Duas filogenias moleculares de abelhas sem ferrão foram recentemente publicadas. Na primeira Rasmussen & Cameron (2010) apresentaram proposta filogenética para a tribo Meliponini e, na segunda, Ramírez et al. (2010) para o gênero Melipona. Entretanto, em nenhuma delas a espécie M. capixaba foi amostrada. Cristiano et al. (2012) apresentam uma hipótese filogenética com base em sequências do gene mitocondrial CO1, onde M. capixaba é alocada ora como grupo irmão de M. scutellaris ora como grupo irmão de M. scutellaris, M. ogilviei. Entretanto, o objetivo daqueles autores foi demonstrar a ocorrência aparentemente comum de numts (Nuclear mitocondrial DNA) em diferentes espécies de Melipona, incluindo M. capixaba e M. scutellaris, podendo levar a interpretações errôneas da filogenia. Assim, as relações filogenéticas e a filogeografia das espécies M. capixaba e M. scutellaris permanecem pouco esclarecidas e tal conhecimento é importante contribuição ao entendimento dos processos e padrões que atuaram para a diversificação da Mata Atlântica.
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Estudos sobre o gênero Melipona.

Estudos sobre o gênero Melipona.

As considerações teóricas a respeito do que expuzemos acima encontram-se bem detalhadas nos trabalhos de BRIEGER sôbre números mínimos (1947 a) e sôbre amostras pequenas (1947 b ) , [r]

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Melipona scutellaris (Apidae, Meliponini)

Melipona scutellaris (Apidae, Meliponini)

Na maioria dos Hymenoptera, a diferenciação de castas ocorre via alimentação diferencial da larva. As abelhas sem ferrão do gênero Melipona representam uma exceção a essa regra. Operarias emergem de células de cria do mesmo tamanho, com a mesma quantidade e qualidade de alimento e os fenótipos divergentes das fêmeas dependem de um mecanismo que envolve componente genético associado a componente ambiental. Os diferentes fenótipos das fêmeas pode ser resultado de modulação casta-específica por Hormônio Juvenil (HJ) durante o desenvolvimento larval. Além disso, a heterocromatina desempenha papel importante na regulação da expressão gênica durante o desenvolvimento e diferenciação celular, por meio de controle epigenético de processos fisiológicos, morfológicos e comportamentais. Com objetivo de verificar possível papel epigenético na diferenciação de castas em M. scutellaris, núcleos de células de corpora allata de rainha e operárias e, também, de rainha induzida por tratamento com HJ foram comparados por meio de imagens obtidas por microscopia confocal e analisados por reconstrução computacional. Nossos resultados apresentam semelhanças e diferenças de padrão da heterocromatina, formato, volume total e de heterocromatina em núcleos de células de corpora allata de operaria e rainha de M. scutellaris.
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UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE UBERLÂNDIA INSTITUTO DE GENÉTICA E BIOQUÍMICA PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM GENÉTICA E BIOQUÍMICA

UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE UBERLÂNDIA INSTITUTO DE GENÉTICA E BIOQUÍMICA PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM GENÉTICA E BIOQUÍMICA

Abelhas sem ferrão, M. scutellaris, apresentam quatro estágios de desenvolvimento, a saber, embrião, larva, pupa e adulto. Dias et al (2001) realizaram medições de cápsula cefálica de larvas e utilizando a regra de Dyar (Dyar, 1890) demonstraram que o período de larva em M. scutellaris apresenta três instares. O alimento larval é uma mistura de pólen, mel e secreção glandular das abelhas nutridoras (Machado, 1971). O alimento, dentro do alvéolo de cria, possui duas fases: uma superior contento basicamente secreções das glândulas mandibulares e hipofaringeanas, água, açúcares e subprodutos da digestão do pólen, portanto, mais liquida e uma inferior, contendo o pólen, alimento mais sólido (Velthuis, 1992). O 3° instar larval de Melipona subdivide-se em cinco estágios: L3-1, L3-2, L3-3, LPD e LD, que podem ser bem caracterizados pela consistência do alimento e pela presença ou ausência de fezes na célula de cria. A divisão dos instares larvais em estágios bem definidos, permite melhores análises dos processos fisiológicos dessa abelha que envolvem determinação de casta e/ou sexo e, ainda, análises do sistema imune inato, como o apresentado neste trabalho.
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Physicochemical characteristics of pollen collected by Amazonian stingless bees

Physicochemical characteristics of pollen collected by Amazonian stingless bees

O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as características físico-químicas do pólen coletado pelas abelhas amazônicas sem ferrão, Melipona seminigra e Melipona interrupta, para verificar se suas características atendem aos requisitos físico-químicos estabelecidos no Regulamento Técnico Brasileiro de Identidade e Qualidade de Pólen Apícola. As análises físico-químicas foram realizadas através de métodos analíticos oficiais. Os resultados das análises do pólen coletado por M. seminigra e M. interrupta foram, respectivamente: umidade: 53,39 e 37,12%; proteínas: 37,63 e
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UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO PARÁ MUSEU PARAENSE EMILIO GOELDI PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ZOOLOGIA CURSO DE MESTRADO EM ZOOLOGIA APTIDÃO REPRODUTIVA E ACASALAMENTOS EM CONDIÇÕES ARTIFICIAIS NA ABELHA SEM FERRÃO Melipona flavolineata Friese

UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO PARÁ MUSEU PARAENSE EMILIO GOELDI PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ZOOLOGIA CURSO DE MESTRADO EM ZOOLOGIA APTIDÃO REPRODUTIVA E ACASALAMENTOS EM CONDIÇÕES ARTIFICIAIS NA ABELHA SEM FERRÃO Melipona flavolineata Friese

Investigating the effect of age and social interactions that reproductive females of eusocial bees experience over their sexual capability, we can get evidence on reproductive strategies they adopt. In stingless bees, a tribe of eusocial bees, the reproductive strategies seem to vary as much as their number of species. Our goal was to describe the development of sexual attractiveness of virgin queens of Melipona flavolineata throughout adulthood, and test it in different social contexts. Thus, a total of 124 virgin queens were distributed in two groups of experiments. In the first queens were placed in 64 minicolonies, where they were kept until they reach certain ages (categories: 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18). Then, the queens were subjected to six different social contexts, with a variation in the number of workers and virgin queens present, where they were manteined for six days. When they had reached the stipulated age, sexual attractiveness of queens was tested by means of your individual submission on 10 sexually mature drones in a mating arena. The virgin queens become sexually attractive from the third day of age, remaining attractive up to 18 days. Isolated queens from social contexts did not become attractive, differing greatly from queens who have experienced complex social settings such as minicolonies. We show that attractiveness (number of males attempts) and sexual receptivity (effective matings) develop in adulthood. The level of attractiveness is maintained at this phase and may change as a result of experienced social context. With the investigation of sexual capability, at different times of life of the queens we could get behavioral evidence about a possible reproductive strategy in Melipona. This strategy is that the queens must be always ready to mate, by maintaining constant its attractiveness and sexual receptivity for as long as possible. Moreover, we demonstrated the importance of social interactions on the development of sexual traits of virgin queens, which should be adequate to enable them to develop their reproductive capacities.
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Rosane Gomes de OLIVEIRA1 , Sona JAIN1 , Alexandre Cândido LUNA1 , Lisiane dos Santos FREITAS1, Edilson Divino de ARAÚJO1

Rosane Gomes de OLIVEIRA1 , Sona JAIN1 , Alexandre Cândido LUNA1 , Lisiane dos Santos FREITAS1, Edilson Divino de ARAÚJO1

The honey samples showed important nutritional and therapeutic properties, and high antioxidant capacity. Good levels of reducing sugar content and low protein levels help to keep the balance of microbiota in honeys, confirming the product quality. Few published articles analyzing above mentioned properties are available for Melipona honey. Moreover in Brazil no laws are laid out to asses its quality. This study can thus serve as an important reference for future studies relating to the honey produced by stingless bees.

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Extensive variation in cadmium tolerance and accumulation among populations of Chamaecrista fasciculata.

Extensive variation in cadmium tolerance and accumulation among populations of Chamaecrista fasciculata.

In other studies, tolerance indices of plants considered to be acceptable for use in phytoremediation or restoration through revegetation range from approximately 0.24–0.81 in response to elevated cadmium exposure reaching 18 mg/kg in soil and 50 ppm in solution [12,48,49]. Tolerance indices of C. fasciculata fall within this range when exposed to soil cadmium levels up to 10 mg/kg, with two populations (KS and KY) also falling within this range when exposed to soil cadmium levels up to 15 mg/kg. Populations within a species may also vary in attributes useful for restoration and remediation. At the germination stage, Chamaecrista fasciculata did not exhibit between-population variation for tolerance. However, between-population variation for toler- ance was noted in plant growth, as reflected by their tolerance indices (Table 1). For example, populations FL and TX performed relatively poorly in all treatments, whereas populations KS and KY exhibited higher tolerance at all soil cadmium concentrations. Our results suggest that phytoremediation and restoration projects will be more successful if they are preceded by a survey of populations for their tolerance to the contaminant. Populations
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