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Reading Ability, Reading Fluency and Orthographic Skills: The Case of L1 Slovene English as a Foreign Language Students

Reading Ability, Reading Fluency and Orthographic Skills: The Case of L1 Slovene English as a Foreign Language Students

processing words in the text while attending to their semantic contents. To de- velop luency through extensive reading, recommendations have been made on how to devise exercises speciically for improving word recognition speed (Grabe & Stoller, 2002). One of the most widely recommended exercises is one in which the student searches for the target word from among distractors as quickly as possible. According to Crawford, the majority of word recognition exercises in textbooks and articles related to L2 luency reading resemble this exercise (Crawford, 2005). L2 text reading can be made easier for students with reading diiculties, using various forms of assisted reading (CDs, computer programs, choral reading, and partner reading). Students must be motivated to read more, also by taking into account their interests and feeding those inter- ests through reading. Teachers can experiment with supplements to text read- ing such as word and sub-word study, word lists, and the proportion of time devoted to text- and word-level practice. Among the instructional strategies that have been advocated for luency development are repeated readings (Gor- such & Taguchi, 2008). hese can include relatively short passages (50 to 250 words) or can include poetry. Poetry is short, highly patterned, and predictable, and it contains letter patterns that can be adapted for building students’ luency (Rasinski, 2003). Finally, students’ text luency should be measured regularly to inform instructional decision making (Fuchs et al., 2001).
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Understanding Reading and Reading Difficulties Through Naming Speed Tasks

Understanding Reading and Reading Difficulties Through Naming Speed Tasks

of the tasks. A number of studies have analyzed eye movements during NS tasks. Al Dahhan et al. (2014; Al Dahhan et al., 2016) found that typically achieving readers made shorter fixation durations, longer saccades, and fewer fixations and saccades when compared to readers with read- ing difficulties. Jones, Ashby, and Branigan (2013) found that orthographically similar parafoveal letters increased process- ing time for participants with reading difficulties, but phono- logically similar parafoveal information did not for either typically achieving readers or those with reading difficulties. Similarly, researchers have found that Chinese-speaking chil- dren with reading difficulties extracted less parafoveal infor- mation than typically achieving readers, indicating that they may allocate more attentional resources mapping visual sym- bols to orthographic representations during foveal processing (Yan, Pan, Laubrock, Kliegl, & Shu, 2013). This also sug- gests that translating visual symbols into phonological output may be a less automatic process for those with reading diffi- culties, reducing their perceptual span and leading to less pre- activation of parafoveal information and more difficulty in processing the next foveal item.
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The book and the reading in Spain

The book and the reading in Spain

From this transformation of the festival into news, we can affirm that there is, as Berger and Luckman (1997) point out, a process of construction of reality. In the specific case of the coverage of 2017, it includes reports and interviews, numerous articles signed by prestigious people in the Spanish society and also Catalan. The festival is the central topic of the journal on April 23, 2017, both in terms of number of pages and advertising as well as the content of its articles. And we come to one of the crucial points for the analysis of the April issue: its size. It is a newspaper with more than 100 pages and almost half of it, whether it is news or articles, refers to the book festival. We find in the reading and analysis of this edition its exceptionality. Certainly it is not monothematic. There are many issues from politics, international and sports publishing, to name a few. But the main thread of the newspaper was the Sant Jordi Festival. It is the main subject of the newspaper and extrapolates the pages from the specific editorial: culture. And here we find another element that contributes to justify the breadth of news coverage. This is the application of the Barcelona city festival to become an Intangible Heritage of Humanity.
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Reading and the world within Milton's Paradise

Reading and the world within Milton's Paradise

In case this last metaphor catches the readers in their quest “looking back, all the eastern side beheld / Of Paradise” (Book XII: 641-2) and helps them in the act of reading, then we gather round Milton’s play of meaning and interpretive tradition of origin. Mindele Anne Treip’s Allegorical Poetics and the Epic: The Renaissance Tradition to Paradise Lost is a work of Milton scholarship written out of the conviction that “Paradise Lost must be considered in relation to the critical tradition from which it grew” (1994, p. 128). Treip undertakes the task of mapping a poetic and exegetic tradition of allegory spanning from Aristotle to Milton and relates these historical practices to Paradise Lost in a way that allegory emerges as the key for comprehending the text. Central to Treip’s argument is the view that the sixteenth-century formulation of allegory as metafora continuata affords the poet who works with this model a greater flexibility of imaginative expression than is conceded by interpreters who would over-emphasize either the figurative or literal aspects of allegory. Given her concern for cautioning against reductive strategies of reading allegory, it is noteworthy that Treip does not find it necessary to question whether her own commitment to the Tassonic formulation of a two-level model of allegory as an interpretive key to Paradise Lost may not also be considered reductive. The aesthetic coherence that such any formulation brings into the epic, regardless of its historical viability, imposes order on the generative potentialities of the text and, necessarily, places limits on their interpretation. The problem of origins, authentification, and reading is here acute, a matter for various responses that do not depend on external authority.
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READING AND MEDIATION BY CLOISTERED NUNS

READING AND MEDIATION BY CLOISTERED NUNS

Abstract: The aim of this text is to investigate whether there is mediation in cloistered nuns’ reading during the Old Regime. To consider religious cloistered female readers as mediation agents is a challenge; in this reflection, another one still reinforces it: the usual approach followed by historians, the analysis and quantification of the titles and subjects of the books belonging to the libraries which are known, is left behind. In order to get answers to our question, little by little different mediators of the whole process and their modes of action become identified, as well as the existence of cross interventions. In the end, it is proved that numerous forms of individual and collective intermediation are actually associated with cloistered nuns’ reading in Early Modern Age, within the monastery and towards its outside.
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Phonological Processing and Reading and Writing Skills in Literacy

Phonological Processing and Reading and Writing Skills in Literacy

Phonological memory has also been considered in the literature as largely related to reading skills (Kibby, Marks, Morgan, & Long, 2004; Wagner & Torgesen, 1987) and phonological awareness (Melby-Lervag et al., 2012). According to the model proposed by Baddeley and Hitch (cited by Gathercole & Baddeley, 1993), the working memory would have two support systems, responsible for processing and maintaining information in the short-term memory, one of phonological and another of visuospatial nature. According to Wagner and Torgesen (1987), the efficiency in phonetic coding and its temporary maintenance in the memory assist the reader to apply the maximum of their cognitive resources to connect isolated phonemes in order to form words. For the authors, there is considerable evidence that good and bad readers vary in terms of their efficiency in phonetic recoding in working memory, which manifests in verbal memory span tasks, whose performance is relatively independent of general cognitive skills.
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Language, reading, and math learning profiles in an epidemiological sample of school age children.

Language, reading, and math learning profiles in an epidemiological sample of school age children.

deficit in reading disorder and ADHD [84]. Nevertheless, we ensured that our clustering was reflective of the data by completing several runs with different ordering of the data. We considered it important to examine all of the unique learning profiles present in the data, and so explored additional clusters until no further unique profiles were identified. Importantly, the character of these results did not change when we used these different approaches, supporting the view that the clusters were robust. As well, the epidemiological sample in the present study was relatively small for a population-based sample. Replication of the cluster analysis with a larger sample is needed to better establish the learning profiles. Finally, we used single measures to estimate language, reading, and math skills, which could have influenced our results. Although we employed valid and reliable measures commonly used in identifying language, reading, and math disabilities, the use of a single indictor per construct is not ideal. It is possible too that the particular indicator influenced the cluster characteristics. For example, there are phonological short-term memory demands associated with sentence recall, the task that indexed language skills in the present study. It may be no surprise, then, that the weak language clusters were associated with low phonological short-term memory. It is clear that future studies should include multiple measures of each of these complex skills in order to provide a more robust estimation of these abilities. Further research should also include additional cognitive measures administered to all individuals in the epidemiological sample in order to better understand comorbid learning disabilities in children.
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Post-stroke writing and reading disorders

Post-stroke writing and reading disorders

ning from words once they are read. Or an inability to read words, although spelling ability is intact (16). For example, injuries of the left IPL can disrupt the ability to read and spell. Damage to the adjacent but more an- terior-lateral supramarginal gyrus can disrupt the abil- ity to spell by sound and to engage in phonological pro- cessing-which is one of the most common correlate of reading disability.) Injuries to Wernicke’s area can dis- rupt reading, writing, and all aspects of linguistic com- prehension (16). Lesions to the basal (middle/inferior) temporal lobe can disrupt both reading and naming; a condition referred to as phonological alexia and which is also associated with injuries of the supramarginal gyrus. Furthermore, it is showed that phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia may be produced by damage to variety of perisylvian cortical regions which is con- sistent with distributed network models of phonologi- cal processing (3).
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READING RESEARCH AND DIGITAL READING RESEARCH: an overview of the current scientific scenario

READING RESEARCH AND DIGITAL READING RESEARCH: an overview of the current scientific scenario

In addition, the following groups of authors were established: [CORDÓN-GARCÍA, J.A.; ALONSO-ARÉVALO, J.; GÓMEZ-DÍAZ, R.; LINDER,D.], [PEARSON, J; BUCHANAN, G.; THIMBLEBY, H] and [ARDOIN, SCOTT P.; BINDER, KATHERINE, S.]. These results indicate that research on reading and digital reading is not as widespread as originally thought. Also, sixteen of the researchers belonged to four different disciplines: Information Sciences; Computer Science; Education; and Psychology.

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Reading in a Digital Age: Issues and Future of Reading on the Web among Young People

Reading in a Digital Age: Issues and Future of Reading on the Web among Young People

develop capabilities in searching, judging, selecting, sharing, and utilizing Web-based reading resources in learning and problem solving. Libraries are an important institution for promoting digital literacy for the future generations. Based on the literature review with discussion, this paper concludes that: (1) the new mode of Web reading deserves more attention from educators and librarians; (2) digital literacy should be incorporated into literacy education and assessment; (3) Design for Web reading and learning materials should incorporate the idea of “edutainment” that delivers both knowledge and pleasure; (4) book reading and Web reading may continue to co- exist in the foreseeable future.
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Public Policies to Promote Reading in Brazil: an analysis (1930-2014)

Public Policies to Promote Reading in Brazil: an analysis (1930-2014)

ABSTRACT – Public Policies to Promote Reading in Brazil: an analysis (1930-2014). This paper analyzes the trajectory of federal programs to pro- mote reading and literature in Brazil. To this end, it investigates the period from the creation of the Ministry of Education and Public Health (1930) – the first governmental body to carry out reading promotion actions – until the establishment of the PNBE (1997-2014), the most comprehensive and expensive program for providing Brazilian public schools with literary col- lections. Our proposal is inscribed in the perspective that the book is not a neutral object (Chartier, 1990). Its curtailing, in a country marked by deep social inequalities, may point to interests of discourse appropriators (Fou- cault, 1996). The study of its history can therefore reveal these interests. Keywords: History of Reading. Public Policies. Literary Reading. PNBE. RESUMO – Políticas Públicas de Fomento à Leitura no Brasil: uma análise (1930-2014). Este trabalho analisa a trajetória dos programas federais de fomento à leitura e à literatura no Brasil. Para tanto, investiga o período que compreende desde a criação do Ministério da Educação e Saúde Pública (1930), que inaugurou as ações de propagação da leitura, até o PNBE, mais abrangente e dispendioso programa de envio de acervos literários às es- colas públicas no Brasil (1997-2014). A nossa proposta circunscreve-se na perspectiva de que o livro não é um objeto neutro (Chartier, 1990). Seu cer- ceamento, em um país marcado por profundas desigualdades sociais, pode revelar os interesses de quem se apropria dos discursos (Foucault, 1996). O estudo de sua história é, portanto, revelador desses interesses.
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The Relation between Reading Skills and Eye Movement Patterns in Adolescent Readers: Evidence from a Regular Orthography.

The Relation between Reading Skills and Eye Movement Patterns in Adolescent Readers: Evidence from a Regular Orthography.

Similar to studies comparing German- or Italian-speaking adolescents with and without dyslexia (e.g., [20,24,25]), we found German reading skills in typically developing individuals to be consistently related to parameters corresponding to (i) the amount and (ii) the length of forward movements of the eyes (number of fixations per word, total number of saccades, sac- cadic amplitude). Gaze duration was also reliably predicted by LGVT reading skills in the text and pseudoword reading tasks, and marginally in the word reading task. In line with the only small effect reported in the aforementioned studies (e.g., [20,24,25]), regressive eye movements (total number of regressions, percentage of regressions) did not vary with reading skills in either of the reading tasks. Prolonged first and/or average fixation durations for less skilled readers, as reported for English-speaking cohorts (e.g., [4,7,38]) and by Hutzler and Wimmer [20], could only be observed for text reading. Although our results showed the same trend as previously reported for German (e.g., [20–22]), we assume that fixation duration only accounts for a small amount of variance in typical German readers. Instead, the extra time needed to process written information during first-pass reading appears to be mainly caused by the inter- action of reading skills and spatial eye movement parameters. This is in line with De Luca and colleagues [25], who found that Italian dyslexic readers fixate longer compared to typical read- ers, but differences with regard to spatial parameters were more pronounced.
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Reading Notes

Reading Notes

)t continues the presentation of the heritage of this family, a great commissioner of artworks. A mischievous reader might be tempted to say: residences! estates! hmm!, but reading the book carefully sheds light on the social role played by this family, who were founders of religious and social institutions hospitals and schools , of cultural institutions libraries , of economic enterprises model farms and agricultural holdings, as well as agro-industrial or pharmaceutical companies, carpentry workshops, weaving mills, etc. , where there were hundreds and hundreds of employees. Patriotic and deter-mined in their actions, the members of this family assiduously promoted Romanian products and Romanian creations. They were the authors of a genuine social project! The present-day status of some institutions, such as the Brătianu Foundations, suggests the imperative necessity of finding solutions for their use after their sorely needed restoration from the ground up. Romania would be much richer if these treasures were brought back into the cultural and social circuit.
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Relations Between Reading, Vocabulary and Phonological Awareness in low-Income Children

Relations Between Reading, Vocabulary and Phonological Awareness in low-Income Children

What the fifth-year students are concerned, transformations were needed in the variables AGE, TSWRF, VOC, GR, E% and OR. Their new versions were ln_AGE, TSWRF_cube, VOC_square, ln_GR, sqrt_E% and ln_OR, respectively. The descriptive statistics and the meaning of the changed variables were described in Table 1. The variable PA went through a change, as its influence on the reading ability had to be investigated using hierarchical regression and did not comply with the homoscedasticity requisite (constant variation in PA along the evolution of the TSWRF scale observed in a scatterplot between the two variables) required for this instrument to produce proper results. Therefore, PA was transformed into PA_sqrt_PA, complying with the orientations by Hair et al. (2010).
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Comparation and validation of reading span tasks

Comparation and validation of reading span tasks

The aim of the present study was to compare two most widely employed versi- ons of the reading span task in Serbian speaking population, with respect to the pro- cedure and validity. First step was to compare psychometric properties of several measures of reading span, derived from each task version. Second step was to com- pare predictive validity of memory span and processing measures, for each task ver- sion. Two task versions proved to be parallel, with small discrepanciens, providing reliable and discriminative measures. The only exception was traditional reading span measure, which has not met any of psychometric standards. Therefore, we pro- pose this measure to be abandoned. While processing measures showed better pre- dictive validity with respect to criteria of verbal ability and reading comprehension, reading span measures independently contributed to prediction of the same criteria with only one exception. Results obtained suggest a small modifications of reading span tasks recquired in order to improve their psychometric properties. They also suggest combining processing and span measures might yield a better verbal working memory efficiency estimate.
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READING AUTOBIOGRAPHIES AND (RE)IMAGINING THE NATION

READING AUTOBIOGRAPHIES AND (RE)IMAGINING THE NATION

ABSTRACT: Contemporary discourses on the nation, nationality and nationalism are theoretically discursive and aporetic. Ideological constructions of the nation from positions of liberalism, Marxism and cultural constructivism further complicate our understanding of the nation and what constitutes its nationness. To Homi Bhabha ‘a particular ambivalence [that] hunts the idea of the nation, the language of those who write of it and the lives of those who live it’. Following Bhabha and others, the present paper attempts to open up another window on the discourse of the Indian nation reading through the autobiographies of Mohandas Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru and Verrier Elwin. While Gandhi and Nehru have the advantage of being insiders to Indian culture and its history, Elwin remains as a figure on the margin. Gandhi and Nehru, the two most important figures at the helm of India’s struggle for independence view the Indian nation from their own perspectives while Elwin’s autobiography as an outsider-insider’s account offers a critique of the dominant cultural construct of the nation advocated by Gandhi and Nehru in espousing the cause of the tribes of India, a marginal constituency, thereby unpacking a counter discourse on the Indian nation that the country’s diverse communities and their aspirations need to be accommodated in the evolving national discourse. Reading through the biographies of Gandhi, Nehru and Elwin, the present paper, taking a non-ideological position, argues that together these three texts provide an inclusive view of the Indian nation that could engender the discourse on ‘diversity’ in strengthening democracy and multiculturalism.
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ye movement parameters while reading show cognitive processes of structural analysis of written speech

ye movement parameters while reading show cognitive processes of structural analysis of written speech

he anatomical and functional substrate of these processes constitutes hierarchi- cally organized wide areas of the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes (Luria, 1975; Vigneau et al., 2006). he contemporary framework for understanding the mecha- nisms and localization of speech functions is based on neuropsychological (Luria, 1975; Ellis, 2012) and neurophysiological data obtained with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (Hagoort, 2005; Hasson & Small, 2008) and evoked po- tentials (Kutas & Hillyard, 1984; Hagoort et al., 2004; Steinhauer & Connolly, 2008). But neurophysiological methods impose certain limitations on experimental study of reading, since they require that eye movements be eliminated from investigation. Eye movements produce signiicant artifacts and thereby mask the neuronal signals of the actual speech process. In real life, reading is carried out with the help of eye movements, and in such conditions the processes of motor control are inevitably su- perimposed on the speech analysis processes, which makes it impossible to separate these efects. However, the parameters of saccades and ixations indirectly represent the brain’s linguistic processes because they are closely related to the cognitive func- tions (attention, memory, letter pattern recognition, decision making) that achieve recognition and comprehension of written language (Cliton et al., 2007). he un- deniable advantage of recording eye movement during reading consists in the pos- sibility of tracking the gaze position in real time; therefore, for several decades, eye movement parameters have been widely used to study linguistic processes (Rayner, 1998; Underwood, 2005; Cliton et al., 2007; Rayner et al., 2012).
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Anscombe reading Aristotle

Anscombe reading Aristotle

But what should we make of this? Not all interpreters of Anscombe’s paper agree on this point. Under one particular reading of it – probably the most common one – Anscombe’s paper is considered a seminal text in the revival of virtue ethics. Seen thus, it implies that modern moral philosophy is deep- ly misguided and an alternative account should be developed, one not revolv- ing around the definition of what is the (morally) right thing to do and not focusing on concepts such as ‘moral ought’ or ‘moral obligation’. Indeed, Anscombe states that these concepts are no longer necessary for modern ethics, and she argues that they have even become harmful and should accord- ingly be abandoned: ‘the concepts of obligation, and duty – moral obligation and moral duty, that is to say – and of what is morally right and wrong, and of the moral sense of “ought”, ought to be jettisoned’ (Anscombe, 1958: 1). That is, when used in this special moral sense, the concepts of ‘obligation’ and ‘ought’ should be jettisoned since they are misleading – they invoke a normative force or authority that currently has no referent, no recognizable source. The problem with modern moral theories, according to Anscombe, is that they retain the figure of the legislator while losing sight of the only entity that could legis- late. In Anscombe’s own words, ‘It is as if the notion “criminal” were to remain when criminal law and criminal courts had been abolished and forgotten’ (Anscombe, 1958: 6). Used in this special moral sense, those concepts imply that we are forcefully obliged to act (or not to act) in certain ways, as if we were obliged or bound by law. ‘Morally wrong’ is equated with ‘illicit’. But this ‘law conception of ethics’, as Anscombe calls it, is outdated and no longer makes sense because we no longer acknowledge an authority from which moral rules could be derived. This legalist conception of ethics is completely shallow if there is no such thing as a recognisable legislator, precisely the case in mod-
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Using Anticipatory Reading Guides to Improve Elementary Students’ Comprehension

Using Anticipatory Reading Guides to Improve Elementary Students’ Comprehension

The measurements used in this research were a reading multiple-choice pretest derived from the first six weeks CSCOPE reading unit assessment and a multiple-choice posttest benchmark taken from a complete released STAAR; State of Texas Assessment of Academic Readiness. STAAR tests are the new state-mandated standardized tests, given annually starting in third grade. The students were given as much time as needed to complete the tests within the four-hour timeframe permitted by Texas Education Agency for STAAR. Analysis of variance for pretest scores indicated that there were no significant differences between each class of students; the two-tailed P value equals 0.2818 (see Table 2). Therefore, each class of students began the study with comparable levels of reading comprehension which provide equal baseline from which improvement can be measured equitably.
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Test Anxiety and Foreign Language Reading Anxiety in a Reading-Proficiency Test

Test Anxiety and Foreign Language Reading Anxiety in a Reading-Proficiency Test

Abstract: Problem statement: The impact of foreign-language anxiety has been researched with respect to the reading domain; however, how it affects reading proficiency in relation to test anxiety in a test situation is yet to be explored. Approach: This study investigated possible relationships between test anxiety, foreign language reading anxiety and English reading proficiency by using scales published in previous studies. A total of 302 EFL college freshmen enrolled in Freshman English were assessed with the Test Anxiety Scale, the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale and a reading- proficiency test. Data were analyzed by means of Pearson’s product-moment correlations and independent-samples t-tests. Results: Several findings were reported. First, English reading proficiency was found negatively related to test anxiety and foreign language reading anxiety. Second, test anxiety was found correlated positively with foreign language reading anxiety. Third, the reading- proficiency difference between Low Anxiety Testees and High Anxiety Testees did not reach a significance level. Fourth, the reading-proficiency difference between Low Anxiety Readers and High Anxiety Readers did not reach a significance level, either. Conclusion/Recommendations: It was possible that the sample sizes may not be enough to make the reading-proficiency difference between LAT and HAT or between LAR and HAR reach a significance level. In addition, the reading- proficiency test in the form of multiple-choice questions could not have differentiated low anxiety participants from high anxiety ones. In the future, the number of participants should be increased to increase the power of the statistical procedure. In addition, various reading-proficiency assessments should be considered.
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