Strategies of comprehension instruction

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Meta aprendizagem e Ciência da Informação: uma reflexão sobre o ato de aprender a aprender :: Brapci ::

Meta aprendizagem e Ciência da Informação: uma reflexão sobre o ato de aprender a aprender :: Brapci ::

______. Beyond direct explanation: transactional instruction of reading comprehension strategies. Elementary School Journal, n. 92, p. 511-554, 1992. PRESSLEY, M.; AFFLERBACH, P. Verbal protocols of reading: the nature of constructively reading. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1995.

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Metalearning: A reflection on the act of learning to learn :: Brapci ::

Metalearning: A reflection on the act of learning to learn :: Brapci ::

______. Beyond direct explanation: transactional instruction of reading comprehension strategies. Elementary School Journal, n. 92, p. 511-554, 1992. PRESSLEY, M.; AFFLERBACH, P. Verbal protocols of reading: the nature of constructively reading. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1995.

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Meta-aprendizagem e Ciência da Informação: uma reflexão sobre o ato de aprender a aprender.

Meta-aprendizagem e Ciência da Informação: uma reflexão sobre o ato de aprender a aprender.

______. Beyond direct explanation: transactional instruction of reading comprehension strategies. Elementary School Journal, n. 92, p. 511-554, 1992. PRESSLEY, M.; AFFLERBACH, P. Verbal protocols of reading: the nature of constructively reading. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1995.

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There is no free won't: antecedent brain activity predicts decisions to inhibit.

There is no free won't: antecedent brain activity predicts decisions to inhibit.

We asked participants to produce roughly 50% rapid and 50% delay responses. This may have led to stereotyped behaviour, such as chunking or direct alternating strategies. If this had been the case, the decision to act rapidly or delay would not have been taken just before the instruction, but presumably at the onset of the trial. To discourage this strategy, we interleaved instructed and free-choice trials. The alternation between free rapid and delayed trials would therefore require a higher effort of maintenance of the preceding history of choices in working memory. We did formal tests to rule out potential chunking behaviour (e.g., patterns of responses such as AABBAABB). We examined the run length in each participants’ sequence of free-choice responses, and com- pared it with simulated random data (see figure S1 in Supporting information S1). The simulated data shows the same pattern than the experimental data. To test if this was indeed the case, we did a 264 ANOVA with the factors data type (experimental/simulation) and run length (1 to 4). We found a main effect of data type (F 1,13 = 6.98, p = 0.02) and a significant data type x run length
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Guider des stratégies de compréhension de l'oral en ALAO : le cas de l'inférence Guiding oral comprehension strategies with CALL: the case of inference

Guider des stratégies de compréhension de l'oral en ALAO : le cas de l'inférence Guiding oral comprehension strategies with CALL: the case of inference

Quelques exemples de tâches d'inférence extraites de la trame pédagogique que nous avons conçue pour un projet de didacticiel d'anglais, montrent comment on peut susciter l'activité inte[r]

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Comment analysis for program comprehension

Comment analysis for program comprehension

This type of IR process was introduced in the PC field by Maletic and Valluri in [60]. In this work, the authors applied LSA to create clusters of similar source code components. The performed text operations on source code were rather limited, and included only the removal of non-essential symbols such as comment delimeters, syntactical tokens and ubiquitous tokens such as semi- colons. The granularity issue was addressed, as the authors decided to define mostly source code files as documents, because they felt that modules were too large in granularity and functions were too small. The new concept space in LSA included 250 dimensions, which was a large reduction to the original (approximately 2000). To create the clusters, the authors defined a similarity value λ, calculated by the cosine similarity. According to them, a document belongs to a given cluster if it is at least λ similar to any one of the other documents in the cluster. Although the authors assumed that the use of LSA does not take advantage of word ordering, syntactic relations or morphology, the results showed that LSA, applied to the source code, was able to induce clusters of source code components which were similar in reality. This work included two experiments which applied LSA to a C++ application and a C application. The clusters created for the first one (object oriented) reflected groups of related classes which addressed the same concepts or solved similar types of problems. For the second one, the created clusters seem to reflect classes, as most of them included one or two definitions of data structures and included functions that operated on those structures.
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Development of an Intelligent Instruction System for Mathematical Computation

Development of an Intelligent Instruction System for Mathematical Computation

Thus, the web remains problem ridden in respect to applications in the field of edu- cation. Although many web-based learning techniques have been proposed to assist web- based learning, little research has taken into account the issue of learning diagnosis in the development of web-based instruction systems. It is significant to diagnose learners’ understanding in e-learning and courseware. This guarantees quality and sustainability of learning, but it is particularly difficult in self-learning because learners must judge their own understanding levels by themselves. Hence, systems with a diagnosis function such as Intelligent Tutoring Systems (Gunel, 2010) are required. An artificial intelligence model is effective for such a problem (Namba, 2012).
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Programa fonoaudiológico em compreensão leitora e ortografia: efeitos na ortografia em disléxicos

Programa fonoaudiológico em compreensão leitora e ortografia: efeitos na ortografia em disléxicos

Purpose: Prepare a Speech-language Pathology Program for Reading Comprehension and Orthography and verify its effects on the reading comprehension and spelling of students with Developmental Dyslexia. Methods: The study sample was composed of eleven individuals (eight males), diagnosed with Developmental Dyslexia, aged 09-11 years. All participants underwent a Speech-language Pathology Program in Reading Comprehension and Orthography comprising 16 individual weekly sessions. In each session, tasks of reading comprehension of texts and orthography were developed. At the beginning and end of the Program, the participants were submitted to a specific assessment (pre- and post-test). Results: The individuals presented difficulty in reading comprehension, but the Cloze technique proved to be a useful remediation tool, and significant improvement in their performance was observed in the post-test evaluation. The dyslexic individuals showed poor performance for their educational level in the spelling assessment. At the end of the program, their performance evolved, but it remained below the expected, showing the same error pattern at the pre- and post-tests, with errors in both natural and arbitrary spelling. Conclusion: The proposed Speech-language Pathology Program for Reading Comprehension and Orthography produced positive effects on the reading comprehension, spelling, and motivation to reading and writing of the participants. This study presents an unprecedented contribution by proposing joint stimulation of reading and writing by means of a program easy to apply and analyze in individuals with Developmental Dyslexia.
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Discourse comprehension and simulation of positive emotions

Discourse comprehension and simulation of positive emotions

asked to read a target text identical in size to the previous non-emotional text. More precisely, participants in the matching condition read the target text while holding the pen sideways between the teeth to force a partial smile (Oberman, Winkielman, & Ramachandran, 2007). Participants in the mismatching condition read the target text while having a pen straight between the lips, without touching the pen with their teeth, to prevent smile (Oberman et al., 2007; Strack, Martin, & Stepper, 1988). Participants in the control (neutral) condition read the target text in a normal condition without a pen. Participants read tutorial and target texts while their paragraph reading times were measured. Thirdly, participants answered a set of filler questions, designed to free up the working memory. Finally, participants replied to verbatim and inference questions checking offline explicit and implicit comprehension of the target text. With regard to online processing, we expected that comprehension would be facilitated when suggested mood of the text is congruent with the emotional state induced by the pen manipulation. That is, participants should read a text about happy relationship faster while having a pen between their teeth (matching condition) than while having a pen between their lips (mismatching condition), or in a normal condition without a pen (control condition). With regard to offline processing, we expected that details of emotion simulation would be retained after reading is completed. That is, participants who belong to a matching condition should retrieve both explicitly presented material and inferential material implied in the text better than participants from mismatching and control conditions.
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Physics teaching methods: an analysis on peer instruction and modeling instruction

Physics teaching methods: an analysis on peer instruction and modeling instruction

class so the teachers can learn, see the dif- ficulties of the student and “tailor the class- room sections” just-in-time. Student- student interaction, student-faculty interac- tion and time on task are important factors to the successfulness of Just-in-Time tea- ching (PATTERSON, 2005). Sambataro (2000) says that Just-in-Time teaching does not replace classrooms instruction and that IT lends to just-in-time learning. Just-in- Time teaching is a useful tool for Peer Ins- truction by helping choose the appropriate concept test to class according to the stu- dents’ difficulties (LEMOS; ROCHA; MENE- ZES, 2016). Zhan, Ding and Mazur (2017), shows that students using Peer Instruction seem to show better attitudinal shifts when compared to the students using the traditi- onal method and that while in the traditio- nal method, students tend to have a more novicelike attitudes, in Peer Instructing they showed more expertlike attitudes. Noviceli- ke beliefs being described as seeing physics knowledge as disconnect facts, which is dif- ferent from the expertlike beliefs that is the belief that physics is a coherent topic that uses reason to solve problems and questi- ons.
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Laboratory instruction and subjectivity

Laboratory instruction and subjectivity

Os trabalhos de Pichon-Rivière (1994 e 1995) nas áreas de saúde mental, psiquiatria e medicina, pautados no conceito de grupos operativos, bem como os de Bleger (1991) que estende a ut[r]

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Flowing with the changing needs of hydrogeology instruction

Flowing with the changing needs of hydrogeology instruction

Field trips are generally considered sightseeing tours where students examine fea- tures, perhaps make a few measurements and take notes. Even a simple walk around campus can lead to discussion about local topography, geology and likely groundwater flow pathways, without the need for measurement. To give students a greater under- standing of the entire aquifer, Trop et al. (2000) recommended a short field trip that

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Comprehension of atypical literary text and scholastic achievement

Comprehension of atypical literary text and scholastic achievement

Helmke, A. & F.E. Weinert (1997): Bedingungsfaktoren Schulischer Leistungen; in F.E. Wei- nert (Hrsg.): Psychologie des Unterrichts und der Schule (71-176). Göttingen: Hogrefe. Kintsch, W. & K.A. Rawson (2005): Comprehension; in M.J. Snowling & C. Hulme ( ds.): The science of reading: a handbook (209-226). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Köller, O. & J. Baumert (2008): Entwicklung Schulischer Leistungen; in R. Oerter & L. Mon-

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Maritime English instruction – ensuring instructors’ competence

Maritime English instruction – ensuring instructors’ competence

Former seafarers are perceived by many managers as an attractive solution, but in reality such persons are not widely available or willing to work at substantially reduced rates of pay, where they are unlikely to receive remuneration in line with the competitive, tax free salaries they were used to as international seafaring officers. Further, as a result of their research the authors seriously question the suitability of ex shipmasters, deck, engineer or radio officers, who are thought to have, or claim to have, a good command of the English language, replacing trained (Maritime) English instructors. Naturally those who have successfully completed an English language degree course and graduated with a teaching qualification in ESP could be perfect employees. However, such persons are rarely encountered; a situation that is likely to remain until the shipping industry and its regulators and educators undertake a suitable initiative.
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Physics Instruction Utilizing Culture-Based Pedagogy

Physics Instruction Utilizing Culture-Based Pedagogy

To construct an ideal questionnaire, the researchers searched for books and other related resources. They also sought the ideas from the Science Education Supervisor, master teachers and their co- science teachers and social studies teachers for the enumeration and identification of the aspects of Batangueño culture and its scientific connection with Physics laws, principles and theories. After reading related resources and interviewing different persons with enough knowledge regarding practices of Batangueño, the researchers made the first draft. It was turned over to the practitioners and professionals including the division science supervisor who have enough knowledge for validation of the research tool for corrections, comments and suggestions. After the second revision, the researcher approached a grammarian for the appropriateness of grammar, clarity and enrichment of each item. The validated questionnaire was administered to the target teacher respondents. The responses of the respondents were tallied, scored and tabulated for statistical treatment. Options of 1 to 4 were used with the following ranges: 1.0-1.49;1.5- 2.49; 2.5-3.49; and 3.50-4.00.
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How the emotional content of discourse affects language comprehension.

How the emotional content of discourse affects language comprehension.

Emotion effects on cognition have often been reported. However, only few studies investigated emotional effects on subsequent language processing, and in most cases these effects were induced by non-linguistic stimuli such as films, faces, or pictures. Here, we investigated how a paragraph of positive, negative, or neutral emotional valence affects the processing of a subsequent emotionally neutral sentence, which contained either semantic, syntactic, or no violation, respectively, by means of event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Behavioral data revealed strong effects of emotion; error rates and reaction times increased significantly in sentences preceded by a positive paragraph relative to negative and neutral ones. In ERPs, the N400 to semantic violations was not affected by emotion. In the syntactic experiment, however, clear emotion effects were observed on ERPs. The left anterior negativity (LAN) to syntactic violations, which was not visible in the neutral condition, was present in the negative and positive conditions. This is interpreted as reflecting modulatory effects of prior emotions on syntactic processing, which is discussed in the light of three alternative or complementary explanations based on emotion-induced cognitive styles, working memory, and arousal models. The present effects of emotion on the LAN are especially remarkable considering that syntactic processing has often been regarded as encapsulated and autonomous.
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Possession in Latin: Effects of linguistic models on comprehension

Possession in Latin: Effects of linguistic models on comprehension

with her well thought-out translation decisions and I do not intend to make this paper a devaluation of her work in any sense. My concern is a theoretical one: which theory of language is more suitable for developing models of language that can be applied to reading and translation tasks. To defend that the traditional/generative hybrid model that is currently used and taught is not adequate for enabling the development of proficiency and expertise in reading ancient languages such as Latin, I shall take two separate routes. In the first route, I shall sketch a description of Latin according to the Systemic-Functional Theory. In the second, I shall show how little explanatory power comes from Braga Bianchet’s generative claims and demonstrate that they are not appliable to the tasks of reading and translating texts. I also consider a secondary explanation of how Latin works from another generative description of Latin to demonstrate that Braga Bianchet’s model of Latin is not less powerful nor less accurate than other models within the same framework, the issue being in the framework itself. When we come to the application of the two models, the parallel routes come together and I extract an example of a comprehension problem from her translation and demonstrate that its occurrence is predictable given her linguistic claims. Again Braga Bianchet is not alone in this misunderstanding. All translations I have access to for this passage in English, German, Spanish, and French show that this reference does not get understood by anyone with the current models of Latin. What makes her case special is that we have access both to the linguistic model she used and to the corpus that she used to create the linguistic model, and not her actual misunderstanding of the original. Finally, I show that such a comprehension problem would not have happened if she had used a functional description of Latin such as the one sketched in this paper.
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Foreign language instruction: Students' perception of a virtual learning environment

Foreign language instruction: Students' perception of a virtual learning environment

According to Valentini and Soares (2005), “VLE is a social space, consisting of cognitive- social interactions on, or around, an object of knowledge” (p.15) [my translation], in which people interact mediated by the language of hypermedia, and learning is the common purpose. Through this perspective, Virtual Learning Environments work as a tool to assist the production and development of courses via internet, and serve to support the learning process of students. The authors also highlight that the “expression is related to the development of conditions, strategies, and learning interventions in a virtual space on the Web, organized in such a way that allows the construction of concepts through the interaction among students, teachers and object of knowledge” (p.16) [my translation].
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MATHEMATICS LANGUAGE IN-CLASS INSTRUCTION

MATHEMATICS LANGUAGE IN-CLASS INSTRUCTION

goals and tasks of the mathematics instruction, the realization of specific tasks to create and develop speech in children who are hearing impaired using mathematics instruction should be noted, abiding by the main principle that “learning of the language is in everything” (8). However, the main tool in mastering mathematics is abstract thought, which develops quicker, more successfully, and better in children who have mastered speech (9). Why is this so? The limited possibilities of the mimic-gesture language with which children who are hearing impaired enter the school does not allow for the development of abstract terms, which is one of the main educational components in the instruction of mathematics in schools for students with hearing impairments. Children who are hearing impaired, due to their disability, are not exposed to natural stimulation. That is, they do not hear surrounding sounds which are reflective on speech development. The formulation of speech, especially oral speech, is very slow in children who are hearing impaired. Unskilled use of inadequate words in mathematics instruction may hamper the process of learning speech and calculus. This is especially true in senior classes when terms of actions, and in turn calculus problems, get more and more complicated. Moreover, this is true when pupils with hearing impairments are supposed to obtain mathematical vocabulary in calculus classes. Some operations have synonyms which makes them even harder for deaf to master. For example, addition: +, more, add, up... It is very important that a problem stated in words cannot be solved if the pupils do not understand every word of it. It is only possible to clearly state the problem content using words (10).
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