Suicidal behavior

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Cross-national analysis of the associations among mental disorders and suicidal behavior: findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys.

Cross-national analysis of the associations among mental disorders and suicidal behavior: findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys.

Background. Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide. Every 40 seconds, someone somewhere commits suicide. Over a year, this adds up to about 1 million self-inflicted deaths. In the USA, for example, where suicide is the 11th leading cause of death, more than 30,000 people commit suicide every year. The figures for nonfatal suicidal behavior (suicidal thoughts or ideation, suicide planning, and suicide attempts) are even more shocking. Globally, suicide attempts, for example, are estimated to be 20 times as frequent as completed suicides. Risk factors for nonfatal suicidal behaviors and for suicide include depression and other mental disorders, alcohol or drug abuse, stressful life events, a family history of suicide, and having a friend or relative commit suicide. Importantly, nonfatal suicidal behaviors are powerful predictors of subsequent suicide deaths so individuals who talk about killing themselves must always be taken seriously and given as much help as possible by friends, relatives, and mental-health professionals. Why Was This Study Done? Experts believe that it might be possible to find ways to decrease suicide rates by answering three questions. First, which individual mental disorders are predictive of nonfatal suicidal behaviors? Although previous studies have reported that virtually all mental disorders are associated with an increased risk of suicidal behaviors, people often have two or more mental disorders (‘‘comorbidity’’), so many of these associations may reflect the effects of only a few disorders. Second, do some mental disorders predict suicidal ideation whereas others predict who will act on these thoughts? Finally, are the associations between mental disorders and suicidal behavior similar in developed countries (where most studies have been done) and in developing countries? By answering these questions, it should be possible to improve the screening, clinical risk assessment, and treatment of suicide around the world. Thus, in this study, the researchers undertake a cross- national analysis of the associations among mental disorders (as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition [DSM-IV]) and nonfatal suicidal behaviors.
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A genome-wide copy number variant study of suicidal behavior.

A genome-wide copy number variant study of suicidal behavior.

Subjects and controls were genotyped using the Illumina Omni1-Quad Beadchip. Initial QC procedures on the genotyping data were performed using PLINK [22]. For those subjects who passed this initial QC, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were filtered out of the analy- sis if they had call rates below 95%, minor allele frequency < 0.01, or Hardy-Weinberg Equilib- rium with p < 0.0001. Samples with ambiguous sex, genotyping call completeness <95%, and duplicated individuals were excluded from the analyses. Five Multidimensional Scaling Analy- sis components in PLINK and a comparison to HapMap Phase 3 populations were used to ex- clude individuals of non-European ancestry. Logistic regression with an additive model adjusted for the first five principal components was used to test the genotype-suicidal behavior association. The association test was repeated separating suicide attempt and completed suicide as outcomes. After initial QC and each of these filtering steps, 1,810 subjects remained out of the 2,382 total sample.
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Body mass index in young adulthood and suicidal behavior up to age 59 in a cohort of Swedish men.

Body mass index in young adulthood and suicidal behavior up to age 59 in a cohort of Swedish men.

The homogeneity by age, sex and ethnicity of the cohort may limit its generalizability to other populations and females. Moreover, participants were measured in 1969–70, over a decade before the epidemic increases in obesity seen in many industrial- ised countries. For instance, between 1971 and 1995 the prevalence of overweight at conscription doubled, and for obesity almost quadrupled [39]. The small number of cases among men who were obese at conscription causes low power and uncertain results in this group. Men who were very obese (BMI.35), and might have an increased risk of suicidal behavior [29], were too few to analyse separately which might have diluted the estimate in the obese group. Categories by WHO definitions yield very unevenly numbered groups in this data. The majority were classified as normal weight and the cases of attempted and completed suicide are very low in some of the other categories.
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Relationship between suicidal behavior and eating disorders: a systematic review     /     Relação entre comportamento suicida e transtornos alimentares: uma revisão sistematizada

Relationship between suicidal behavior and eating disorders: a systematic review / Relação entre comportamento suicida e transtornos alimentares: uma revisão sistematizada

Objective: This paper offers a systematic review of the literature on eating disorders and the relationship with suicidal behavior. Methods: Searches were performed in the Medline, Lilacs, Adolec and Pubmed databases for articles published between 2003 and 2014. Results: Anorexia nervosa was the most often cited eating disorder in the articles selected. In cases of bulimia nervosa, suicide attempts and self-aggression were more frequent among those who use multiple compensation behaviors. Behavior disorders, emotional disorders and chemical dependency were described as risk factors in all publications. Conclusion: Despite the small number of studies performing an in-depth investigation into the relationship between eating disorder and suicidal behavior, the concomitant presence of these conditions places the health of patients at greater risk.
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For a public policy of surveillance of suicidal behavior

For a public policy of surveillance of suicidal behavior

The nursing students pointed out factors of formation that ag- gravated preexisting psychopathologic conditions or promoted the suffering that led to suicidal behavior. The excess of activities such as seminars, tests, final course papers, participation in researches and academic leagues, elective disciplines, rigid curriculum, aridity of green areas, which leads to the lack of free time for recreation and leisure, and lack of adequate number of hours to sleep and to be with close people. Such data can be found repeatedly in studies on the topic. The students also pointed out the inadequate interpersonal relation with the professors—with their lack of understanding of the needs and problems the student has –, the situations to which they were subjected and in which they felt humiliated, the pressure of internships, the coldness and detachment of professors, and the feeling of incapacity.
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Diagnostics of suicidal behavior risks of children and adolescents in educational institutions

Diagnostics of suicidal behavior risks of children and adolescents in educational institutions

Опросник суицидальной направленнос- ти (Inventory for Suicidal Orientation-30, ISO-30) — шкала самоотчёта из 30 во- просов, разработанная для оценки суи- цидальных намерений у подростков 13— 18 лет [19]. Вопросы составлены на ос- нове теорий, выделяющих систему убеж- дений индивида и жизненную позицию как ключевые факторы для понимания процессов, приводящих к суициду. Оп- росник состоит из пяти шкал: безнадеж- ность, суицидальные мысли, чувство соб- ственной несостоятельности, неспособ- ность справляться с эмоциями, социаль- ная изоляция. Восемь вопросов, оценива- ющих суицидальные мысли, считаются ключевыми. При валидизации опросни- ка основной акцент был сделан на оцен- ку суицидальных мыслей и намерений, оценки способности теста показывать риск совершения суицидальных попы- ток не производилось.
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Risk factors for suicidal behavior

Risk factors for suicidal behavior

Рассматривая факторы риска развития суици- дального поведения и распространённости суицидов вообще, следует обратить внимание на определён- ные группы лиц, которые несколько от[r]

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Suicidal Behavior among Portuguese Psychiatry Trainees: Comparison with the European Situation

Suicidal Behavior among Portuguese Psychiatry Trainees: Comparison with the European Situation

Results: From the inquired population, 62 trainees (40,3%) partially responded, and 46 (29%) were complete responders - these entered the final analysis. There was a ratio of 2:1 (female:male) and a mean age of 29 years. The suicidal ideation was present in passive form in 44% and in active form in 33%; also, 4.3% of respondents had previous suicide attempts. In first degree relatives, 22% had attempted suicide and 13% completed suicide.

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Assessment of Suicidal Behavior in a Psychiatric Emergency Room in Lisbon,

Assessment of Suicidal Behavior in a Psychiatric Emergency Room in Lisbon,

With the present study we set out to perform a detailed characterization of patients who were admitted to an urban psychiatric emergency room, following suicidal behaviour. We focus searched several factors in order to verify which better predict suicide intention, allowing a more precise evaluation of risk. We also looked for satisfaction levels among patients treated in our ER department, after an episode of deliberate self-harm, parassuicide or suicide attempt.

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Attitudes of doctors and medical students toward patients with suicidal ideation

Attitudes of doctors and medical students toward patients with suicidal ideation

26. Malakouti SK, Nojomi M, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Hosseini M, Fallah MY, Khoshalani MM. Integration of suicide prevention program into primary health care network: a field clinical trial in Iran. Med J Islam Repub Iran [Internet]. 2015 [acesso 11 jul 2016];29:208. Disponível: https://bit.ly/2wsCl5N 27. Beurs DP, Groot MH, Bosmans JE, Keijser J, Mokkenstorm J, Verwey B et al. Reducing patients’ suicide ideation through training mental health teams in the application of the Dutch multidisciplinary practice guideline on assessment and treatment of suicidal behavior: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial. Trials [Internet]. 2013 [acesso 3 dez 2014];14:372. Disponível: https://bit.ly/39kUHTv
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Brazilian population perception about suicide          /          Percepção da população brasileira sobre o suicídio

Brazilian population perception about suicide / Percepção da população brasileira sobre o suicídio

Despite the alarming number of suicides in Brazil and the world, and national campaigns such as the Yellow September, there is still misinformation and prejudice against suicide people, which hampers the search for help. In part, this reality is due to a certain taboo in relation to the subject, since it is little discussed, which causes lack of information of the population, even of the health professionals, who often do not know how to deal with patients who already had thinking suicidal. So, it is important to ensure that both professionals and the population itself have a minimum knowledge on the subject in order to reduce the difficulties of dealing with suicidal behavior, then cooperating in order to reduce the harm to the patient with this type of conduct.
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Attitudes of doctors and medical students toward patients with suicidal ideation

Attitudes of doctors and medical students toward patients with suicidal ideation

Regarding the ethics of principles, the suicidal behavior emerges as an important circumstance in which the primordial principle of patient’s autonomy can be superseded by the principles of beneficence and non-maleficence, since neglecting the risk to life and mental suffering resulting from suicidal behavior can incur in ethical misconduct. About this issue, the Brazilian Code of Medical Ethics states that the physician is prohibited [from] causing harm to the patient, by action or omission, characterized as malpractice, recklessness or negligence and that medical liability is always personal and cannot be presumed  32 . The results in
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How to cite this article

How to cite this article

One limitation of this research is the cross- sectional design and the fact that it is restricted to a single educational institution of a limited geographic territory. Another limitation is the use of a convenience sample that included the entire eligible population, to comprise as many nursing students as possible during the data collection period. The sample size is another limitation. Future research should include a larger, and more representative samples. The study did not explore religious beliefs and may have been imprecise in assessing mental health guidance and experience (by self-report and without detailed duration). Regardless of these limitations, this is one of the few Brazilian studies associating attitudes towards suicidal behavior and educational strategies. This knowledge is relevant for planning interventions and conducting investigations related to the support, supervision, and education of nursing students.
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Rev. LatinoAm. Enfermagem  vol.22 número4

Rev. LatinoAm. Enfermagem vol.22 número4

Objectives: to evaluate the results of “+Contigo” training, developed by nurses and directed at 66 health professionals of integrated school health teams in Primary Health Care. Method: quantitative with data collection through the Suicide Behavior Attitude Questionnaire, administered before and after the training. Results: significant increases were observed in suicide prevention knowledge and in changing attitudes of health professionals towards individuals with suicidal behavior. Conclusion: these results allow us to affirm that nurses hold scientific and pedagogical knowledge that grant them a privileged position in the health teams, to develop training aimed at health professionals involved in suicide prevention.
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Attitudes of doctors and medical students toward patients with suicidal ideation

Attitudes of doctors and medical students toward patients with suicidal ideation

26. Malakouti SK, Nojomi M, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Hosseini M, Fallah MY, Khoshalani MM. Integration of suicide prevention program into primary health care network: a field clinical trial in Iran. Med J Islam Repub Iran [Internet]. 2015 [acesso 11 jul 2016];29:208. Disponível: https://bit.ly/2wsCl5N 27. Beurs DP, Groot MH, Bosmans JE, Keijser J, Mokkenstorm J, Verwey B et al. Reducing patients’ suicide ideation through training mental health teams in the application of the Dutch multidisciplinary practice guideline on assessment and treatment of suicidal behavior: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial. Trials [Internet]. 2013 [acesso 3 dez 2014];14:372. Disponível: https://bit.ly/39kUHTv
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Suicídio em adolescentes no Brasil: problema de saúde publica?

Suicídio em adolescentes no Brasil: problema de saúde publica?

Postmortem brain studies in suicidal subjects with or without depression, studies of levels of BDNF in blood cells/plasma of suicidal patients, and genetic association studies linking BDNF to suicide suggest that suicidal behavior may be associated with a decrease in BDNF functioning. 5 A postmortem study found that

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Providing psychological care using crisis helpline to adolescents with suicidal intent

Providing psychological care using crisis helpline to adolescents with suicidal intent

We consider the possibility of a crisis psychological aid to children with suicidal intentions by means of telephone counseling. We shows the profile of a typical adolescent, requesting assistance from the hotline on suicidal thoughts, intentions: it is an introverted girl aged 14 to 18 years, in a depressed mood with a predominance of anxiety, fears, related to traumatic situation, experiencing feelings of hopelessness, loneliness, thinking of the situation as hopeless, going through a break in romantic relationships. The most characteristic motifs of suicide is the desire to “get away from the pain” and/or to revenge the others, make them regret about her. We specified the main tasks of a helpline specialist solved in the course of counseling: prevention of suicidal behavior, information on the possible forms of psychological aid, direct work with a customer requesting aid on his formed suicidal intent.
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A life-course study on effects of parental markers of morbidity and mortality on offspring's suicide attempt.

A life-course study on effects of parental markers of morbidity and mortality on offspring's suicide attempt.

Maternal markers of morbidity and mortality showed the strongest effect sizes if exposure was short-term among girls. Maternal suicide attempt showed the strongest effect if exposure was short-term for both girls and boys. This finding stresses the importance of maternal suicide attempt for offspring’s suicide attempt as a triggering factor as well as the possibility for an imitation effect. Studies to date have tried to disentangle the underlying mechanisms of familial transmission of suicidal behavior. Potential mechanisms include genetic predisposition, psychosocial environment and imitation [31]. Since previous studies have not found evidence of a temporal relationship between parental and offspring’s suicidal behavior consistent with imitation [31], our finding adds an interesting piece to this body of evidence. In future studies it seems to be important to scrutinize the effects of maternal and paternal suicidal behavior on suicidal behavior in female and male offspring separately in order to elucidate potential imitative effects. These detailed analyses Table 3. Odds ratios and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) of suicide attempt in young men in relation to timing of exposure to parental markers of morbidity and mortality.
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Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr.  vol.33 número1

Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr. vol.33 número1

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe illness affecting a substantial part of the population in both Western and developing countries. Many individuals suffering from PTSD display suicidal behavior. The association between PTSD and suicidal behavior has been observed both in clinical and in general population samples and is irrespective of the type of trauma that led to PTSD. The neurobiology of suicidal behavior in individuals of PTSD is not clear and is subject of research. 1 Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

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Suicidal ideation and attempt of older women in Northeastern Brazil

Suicidal ideation and attempt of older women in Northeastern Brazil

This work deals with the life experiences of older women with persistent suicidal ideation and behavior in Northeastern Brazil. It is understood that traumatic events which occurred in different stages of life – childhood, youth, adulthood and old age – mark in a negative way the path of the individual. In some cases, such experiences can lead him or her to develop suicidal ideation or attempts, associated in the literature with the following risk factors: family history of suicidal behavior; loneliness and social isolation; social, physical, mental or drug and alcoholism dependance; terminal illness accompa- nied by chronic pain; and social and economic problems, as well as mental strain (1-9) .
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