Future research is warranted on the extent to which cooperation and competition exist as a continuum or rather as related but somewhat different dimensions. For example, cooperation and competition may co-exist simultaneously, such as in the situations where subsidiaries cooperate in R&D but compete for market share. Does this mean that competition and cooperation are orthogonal? In our conceptualization we allowed for a neutral point of simultaneous low, or non-existent, competition and cooperation. Nevertheless, further research is needed to clarify this issue. Other research avenues entail investigating how transfer capabilities affect technologytransfer flows among subsidiaries even within a competitive game. The capability to transfertechnology depends not only on the recipient's absorptive capacity but also on the technology's codifiability, sophistication, and ease of transfer within the MNE. Investigating how subsidiaries combine their own technological uniqueness with new technologies from other subsidiaries is interesting for work on the knowledge multinational. Finally, we may research how the type of technology (e.g., product, process, or management) influences both the transfer process and success. For instance, transfer of management technologies may be subject to higher inter-subsidiary competition than product technologies.
An empirical test of the propositions we advanced seems a fruitful avenue for additional research. The search for empirical support will benefit technologytransfer literature and disclose other dimensions that impact intra- firm technology transfers. The operationalization of the major constructs (i.e., MNE strategy, MNE structure, inter-subsidiary competition, inter-subsidiary cooperation, and internal technologytransfer) may rely on existing scales and surveys. Birkinshaw (2001), for example, offers a good template to operationalize global integration, and but other studies exist that offer validated scales for inter-subsidiary relationships, internal technologytransfer, and some organizational structure features of the MNE. Measures for internal technologytransfer may be designed in terms of actual outcomes such as the occurrence and success of previous transfers, and be based on Kostova's work (1997). Additionally, interviews may be conducted to assess the intention to transfer and whether technologytransfer was a subsidiary strategic decision or a corporate policy. Finally, empirical studies may need to control for cultural distance, the MNE home base, the absorptive ability of the subsidiary, and government regulations (NAVARETTI & TARR, 2000).
Increasing the strength of IPRs protection in pursuant to the TRIPS reduces the possibility of technologytransfer via free of charge transmission from North to South. Thus, it restricts the means of obtaining technologies by channels of formal transfer that is associated with substantial costs. It means that there is a correlation between potential increasing of price and reduction of access to available technologies, on the one hand, and high tech production, on the other hand. An important element worth stressing is that, both advanced developing countries and LDCs need informal channels of transfer of technologies that provide development or create their innovative sector. This channel should not be diminished in its importance. According to C. Correa, LDCs policies in the field of technologytransfer should be focused on mobilizing the informal modes of technology acquisition and should address the situation of firms at more advanced stage of technological development. In addition, the given policies should include mechanisms to expand acquisition and to ensure the exploitation of equipment and machinery, and should elevate bargaining capacity of the more advanced firms to obtain technologies through licensing agreements .
will this issue be of sector-specific importance, but it will also be less critical in some territories than in others. 51 It is not unreasonable to extrapolate that a similar ‘market size effect’ may operate with respect to other potential barriers to technologytransfer, for example, risks associated with weaknesses in national legal institutions of developing states, resulting in elevated contract, property or regulatory risks. 52 Certain categories of risk associated with foreign trade can already be protected against by either private insurance, 53 or government operated schemes, 54 and there seems to be no intrinsic reason why such cover should not be extended to cover such additional categories of risk. Where the size of the potential market opportunity is of sufficient scale that commercial operators begin to consider that the possible rewards of technologytransfer may outweigh the risks, the wider availability of insurance to address the risk of deficiencies may be more expeditious in encouraging, and hence expanding the scale of, private sector led transactions, than trying to bring all such territories to an internationally recognised standard of legal or intellectual property practice. Such an approach should possibly be considered when prioritising capacity building activities under the UNFCCC technologytransfer. This proposal in no way means to undermine the long term aspiration of global harmonisation of standards of legal and intellectual property protection, but seeks only to offer a route to increasing technologytransfer to states with otherwise commercially attractive levels of market potential, pending the longer term adoption of such standards.
go hi h ake the dii ult fo ei g u de stood [ ]. F o the st ategi poi t of ie , pate tees a e ete of to p o ide u lea a d ague dis losu es i o de to e eal as litle i fo aio as possi le a d ip- ple o peito s i taki g ad a tage of i e io [ ]. Ho e e , ii s o ei ie of pate t dis losu es o - side i u i g su h osts e essa ut ot sui ie t i te h olog t a sfe p o ess due to la k of tea hi g efe ts i pate ts [ ]. T a sa io osts ii s o side e essit fo esta lish e t of lo g te elaio s et ee li e so a d li e see a d i u osts of dei i g pote ial li e es, egoiaio s, taki g app op iate easu es agai st st ategi eha iou s i o de to efe i el t a sfe the te h olog . FACTORS AFFECTING SUCCESS OF TECHNOLOGYTRANSFER IN UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY RELATIONS
So, the extension specialist is responsible for transferring new technologies to the county extension agents or directly to producers. In this work, new research areas and suitable technologies are identified and fed back into the system. The Land - Grant extension system has high costs and a large organization structure. However, the efficiency of technologytransfer depends on the dynamics of the human resources involved in the process, producer motivation and commitment to research to solve the problem (MARCHESAN, 2007).
Abs tra c t. The article studies the necessity to im prove the innovation potential of light industry enterprises. The essence of light industry enterprises innovation potential im provem ent in the technologytransfer system is defined. Som e approaches and key elem ents, used for the construction of such m odel are identified. The author’s m odel to im prove light industry enterprises innovation potential in the technologytransfer system is proposed. The principles of the innovation potential im provem ent system , taken into account in the course of m odel construction practice are described.
This research aimed to identify facilitators and restrictive factors on Technological Transfer by comparing case studies of the Brazilian TechnologyTransfer Offices (TTO). The research was carried by a comparative case studies based on interviews with Directors and selected documentation. The three case studies’ results revealed, regarding the restrictive factors, that the federal universities showed an initial cooperation process through their TTO, whereas the state university presented facilitator factors about better-structured cooperative processes and generated returns to the institution. Federal universities showed restrictive factors from a legal framework and changeable professors’ profile and personal interests more dedicated to research and lectures in graduate courses than I-U partnerships. This research evidences the importance of national policies towards technologytransfer via industry- university in developing countries.
TECHNOLOGYTRANSFER PROCESS FROM UNIVERSITY TO INDUSTRY: A CASE STUDY INVOLVING OF GLYCEROL CONVERTION. Currently, public policy has encouraged innovation in universities and also transference of technology to the industry. Another important stage to be considered would be the registration or filing of a patent and the economical viability study. Government programs, such as the innovation incentive program, among others, should facilitate popularization and promote interest by industry. In this work we described the steps, from the conception of the idea to the scale up going through its interest by the industry. The case study is about the glycerol conversion utilizing modified niobia as catalysts.
PANORAMA OF THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, TECHNOLOGYTRANSFER AND INNOVATION FOR THE BRAZILIAN CHEMISTRY AND COMPARISON WITH THE BRIC COUNTRIES. Based on Science, Technology & Innovation (ST&I) indicators, Brazil is a competitive and interesting country from the point of view of technological foreign investment. However, it is still incipient with regard to national investments, production of technological knowledge, inbound mobility of scientists and technologytransfer to the productive sector. Among many other factors, global patent production is considered as an important indicator of innovation. Likewise, the balance between revenue and expenses obtained through royalties and licensing fees of technologies is also critical in mapping the diffusion and absorption of knowledge. The understanding of intellectual property and its strategic management brings a significant advantage to the economic and technological development of nations, especially in the field of chemistry, which greatly contributes to biotechnology, new materials and microelectronics – three fundamental areas for innovation in developed countries. Therefore, this article aims to map out competencies in chemistry in Brazil and evaluate science, technology and innovation indicators in the country, comparing this dynamic to the one of other BRIC members (Russia, India and China). Chemistry is the fourth biggest field of interest in Brazil based on the number of researchers registered at the governmental platform for researchers, Plataforma Lattes/CNPq, and is preceded by education, medicine and agronomy. The majority of research groups are registered in the area of materials, followed by macromolecules and polymers, pharmaceutical products and basic materials chemistry. These groups represent approximately 77% of research groups analyzed, therefore, indicating a tendency in the country. The analyses of patents in different sub-areas of chemistry reveal that non-residents file
Through supplier development programs, dependent suppliers have access to various types of training activities; for the purposes of this study, we categorised them into four types of technical exchanges. The study focuses on those activities that lead to technologytransfer from the buyer (or other external parties) to the suppliers. Kotabe et al. (2003) stated that technical exchanges only become technology transfers when these technical exchanges are part of a long-term, systematic program that has an evident buyer-supplier relationship. We particularly wanted to examine direct supplier development (Krause et al., 2000) through activities that included training and plant visits.
When large Transnational Corporations (TNCs) enter a host country, consequent development of local Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) is expected. The public sector may play an important role by fostering Business Linkages (BL), by which TNCs establish purchasing relationships with local SMEs. This article was motivated by growing attention in literature to the interaction between economic development and the ability of companies to absorb and disseminate competences. Its purpose is to understand the role of public policy programs that promote BLs for development by: (a) analyzing actions and programs developed by public and private institutions to foster BL in Brazil; (b) discovering the participants’ benefits from such actions and programs; and (c) identifying opportunities for public sector promotion of BL. The research design was a multiple case study which analyzed Supplier Development Projects in five Brazilian states. Results indicate that public policies may complement overall development as well as industrial policy, which is related to capacity building, stimulating technologytransfer, and, more broadly, promoting a business friendly environment able to attract investment for development, calling for a regional and sub-regional approach for a country the size of Brazil.
Thus, for Brazil and Brazilian companies succeed in this segment and in- corporate in their structures new standards that emerge from the Informa- tion Society, which is focused on innovation, it becomes necessary the accele- ration of the creation of supportive environments, that is to say collaborative networks, which will help enabling a greater cooperation establishment, which allows innovation, resulting in agreements of technologytransfer and licensing of intellectual property rights.
service courses and increasing the level of specialized knowledge of employees. Further, it can be added the formulation of training programs has been for staff's development and job promotion this matter in turn would increase staff's motivation and satisfy their job needs. The results of the current are consistent with Daneshfard et al., (2010), Ballot et al., (2001), Karroubi et al., (2009), and Khanmohammadi (2010). For the community residents, one advantage for the workers/employees is the acquisition of enhanced work skills or experience in technologytransfer that maybe adapted from the workplace. This item was ranked 7 th also by the business employees/ workers as this is one of their primary need to attain a very satisfactory performance rating and be more productive in the workplace. Improvement of infrastructure and facilities of the barangay was ranked 7 th with weighted mean of 3.32, by the community residents. because these are mostly needed to respond to the growth and development of the place. The level of development of the social sphere and infrastructure are indicators of the level of national development of an economy. Providing appropriate infrastructure in developing countries can play a vital role in poverty reduction. Infrastructure makes it possible to overcome "natural" causes of poverty such as remoteness from material and information resources, provides access to social services, and helps to increase the mobility and economic activities of the population.
This article aims to explain the way technologytransfer occurs in logistic risk management. Generally, the development of a strategical plan for an isolated area of a company depends on information in the business. The management of risk is used to manage actual and potential risks to the business, properties (vehicles and freight) and lives involved. The risk manager must be informed of all proceedings which arise from the strategic planning of the management.The need for information transference from all the other sections of the company to the risk manager is extremely important in order to keep the process safe. Since this paper highlights exactly this process, this research seems to be appropriated. The theoretical framework deals with logistic risk management and its phases, technologytransfer, and analysis of the evaluated company, referring to authors such as Reis, Ribeiro, and Vasconcelos.
internationally to generate knowledge flow to a local organization from a provider organization, promoting the institutional development of the new technologies absorbed (Oliveira & Segatto, 2009). In the case of service companies, the knowledge creation and flow is the basis to enhance product value and, for Kon (2004, p. 8) “it will add value to the global process of productrion and accumulation”. For Barras (1986), services innovation also predicts that opportunities are necessities identified and solved as a result of use and exploration of new technologies. He also describes adaptability as the way that human and technical aspects can impact the introduction of new technologies. Barras describes how technologies can generate incremental changes, and in a latter phase, these same technologies can generate higher quality in services, increase effectiveness and reduce costs. In a mature level, they will be able to support new services, and exploration of new markets. Following this line, Gallouj (2002) develops the formalization of innovation, in other words, innovation as a result of new methods, a design or new tools and instruments that contribute to formalize new behavior. Using this services innovation concept based on competences, products, processes in the organization, as well as the firm’s external relations, with suppliers and the firms’ systems and structures allowed this study to organise the technologytransfer process and analyse its impact for innovation at the levels of the organization, the service itself and the market.