MICROWAVE-ASSISTED EXPERIMENTS FOR UNDERGRADUATECOURSES. Theoretical and practical aspects of the use of microwave-assisted strategies in chemistry are introduced for students using simple and safe experiments employing a domestic oven. Three procedures are proposed for evaluating the distribution of microwave radiation inside the microwave oven cavity: (1) variation of the volume of marshmallows; (2) drying of filter paper wetted with Co(II) solution, and (3) variation of water temperature, after microwave-assisted heating. These experiments establish the position with the highest incidence of microwave radiation in the oven cavity, which was chosen for the synthesis of salicylic acid acetate. This synthesis was performed in 5 min of heating and the yield was around 85%. All experiments can be carried out in a 4 h lab-session using low-cost instrumentation.
After the self-evaluation initiatives promoted by HEIs were established as an adequate way to measure the quality of Brazilian higher education, the Institutional Evaluation Program of the Brazilian Universities - PAIUB was created, regulated by MEC. However, even with the strengthening of this new model, the PAIUB still did not have criteria for measuring the quality of teaching and research services parameterized among all Brazilian HEIs (SOBRINHO, 2010). Because of PAIUB not being a complete evaluation tool, between 1996 and 1997, the National Exam of Courses (ENC) was created, known as “Provão”. This new model of evaluation had as main objective to regulate the institutional growth and to measure the performance of all Brazilian HEIs (BARREYRO, 2008; POLIDORI et al., 2011). Only after the “Provão”, the MEC was able to establish the criteria for authorization and recognition of undergraduatecourses in Brazil. Meanwhile, in order to make the evaluation of these courses even more complete, MEC developed two more tools that would complement the “Provão”, which were the Assessment of Teaching Conditions and Institutional Evaluation (MEC, 2017; SOBRINHO, 2010).
The discipline ‘Integrated Health Practices I’ (PIS I) has been offered since 2012, as an elective or additional curricular discipline, to students from 15 undergraduatecourses: Collective Health, Biomedicine, Biological Sciences, Physical Education, Nursing, Pharmacology, Physiotherapy, Speech- Language Pathology and Audiology, Medicine, Veterinary Medicine, Nutrition, Dentistry, Psychology, Social Work, and Public Policies. It is organized in concentration moments, which involve the entire group of students, teachers and health professionals, and tutorship moments with two teachers and eight students in Family Health Units (USF) 21 .
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to analyze the construction of the professional identity of students and graduates of undergraduatecourses in Public/Collective Health in Brazil. The theoretical-methodological framework proposed by Claude Dubar was adopted, aiming, from the performance of a focal group with students and graduates of these courses, to identify the forms of insertion in the health work market and the employment movements carried out by these subjects. The results found point to the challenges in the insertion of this new professional in the labor market of the sector, indicating the need for actions that favor the access of the graduates to the job, so that they advance in the process of professionalization and the delineation of their specific identity.
Abstract: This paper describes the experience of the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) in the process of incorporating extension actions in the curriculum of undergraduatecourses, in view of the directives of the Brazilian National Education Plan. A curriculum proposal for its adjustment is presented by highlighting the main challenges and opportunities considered necessary to foster involvement of students in extension activities in order to reach 10% of the total undergraduate course load. To this end, the steps taken by the dean of extension at UFRJ, together with the extension coordinators and undergraduatecourses with the objective of adjusting to the general curriculum directives are described. The inclusion of extension activities in undergraduatecourses has represented an opportunity for faculty members, the student body and administrative staff to rethink their concepts and expand interest in university extension programs, and also to enable more civic education actions and a closer integration between the university and society. Keywords: University Extension, Curriculum, Community-Institutional Relations.
The purpose of this article is to investigate some policies of teacher education in order to think about the effects of truth that such policies have produced; and analyzed, starting with some dialogue with the elements of the sexuality device proposed by Foucault, the fields of knowledge in which the disciplines addressing sexuality in federal universities appear in a relationship with schools. Research data were collected from a mapping conducted in the universities, in the five geographical regions of Brazil, and they have shown a remarkable presence of discipline in teacher-training undergraduatecourses. In addition to the mapping, we have also reviewed some educational policies, in other to think about how much they have impelled such debate around sexuality in teacher education. Based on the analyses undertaken, it was possible to realize that although the disciplines offered are more significant for teacher-training courses, just a few of them focus the school environment. Among the degree courses, Pedagogy emerged as the field of knowledge that prioritizes the discussions on sexuality, as we have found a significant number of disciplines delivered in that course. Concerning educational policies, they have propelled the debate around differences and diversity, which makes them a topic discussed in the discipline programs. These movements to analyze curricula in teacher-training course allowed us to problematize the displacements that the device of sexuality has been going through nowadays.
the movements of who the student and the teacher are, but rather providing a problem- -posing method of education. Accordingly, other undergraduate health programs have been using active problem-posing methodologies and have achieved promising results, such as the required experience for students to pave their own way believing in their potential, with higher self- -esteem, autonomy, motivation, and a closer interaction between school and care service reaching a proper understanding of the diversity of needs that healthcare professionals face in their daily practice 27-29 . Among others, these programs
Abstract: Continuing education is one of the statements that cross and nominalize the curriculum of the Bachelor of Science and Technology (BC & T) program of the Federal University of ABC (UFABC). This statement is established within curricular assemblages which, in this project, are mobilized through discourses of interdisciplinarity and curriculum flexibility. To understand the functioning of these assemblages, an archaeological survey of the discourses was made from semi- structured interviews and official documents that circumscribe the teaching activities on the course. Molecular escape lines indicate an opening to training singularities in the case of experienced teachers: They assume the educator-function from which derives an experience-based knowledge, as opposed to the normative knowledge sought by the traditional teacher training courses. The longing for the emergence of a common-teacher appears in the utterances of teachers and students, as evidence of the need for the dispossession of the training process and for the emergence of a rhizomatic pedagogy.
It was requested different information to managers of undergraduatecourses, such as date that the activities started, year of recognition by the Ministry of Education – MEC (Brasil, 2014), course classiication (p. Ex. BA in Physics, Medical Physics, or Emphasis in Medical Physics). In addition, the form referred to the selection process and the entry mode, i.e. if the newcomers make the option for Medical Physics career in the selection process or if they do the choice after the irst years of the course. It were also requested relevant numerical data such as the number of accepted students per year in the selection process, the number of applicants per place in the last year, the expected duration of the course, the average time that students complete the course, the number of student graduated in the last years and the number of graduates by 2012. It was requested information about whether or not mandatory practical work in hospitals and their workloads and the number of associated hospitals. It was also requested information if the institution has information about its egresses in their iles. The person responsible for illing out the information could also make free comments judged relevant.
Both in Brazil and in Great Britain, it can be seen that the habitus of social and human science agents within the healthcare fi eld is formed by idiosyncrasies such as: the relative youth of this teaching in undergraduatecourses, since fi ve decades is not a long time compared with the thousands of years of medical tradition; con- tinual criticism within and between the theories, which is different from the doubts put forward as the principle of scientifi c experimentation, since there are many hypotheses without theoretical refl ection; the relation- ship with the written word, which gives rise to the use of long and detailed texts to express the complexity of multicausal analyses.
Some excerpts of the National Curricular Guidelines (NCG) for nursing undergraduatecourses state the pertinence of nutrition in nursing education. NCG’s article 4 refers to nurses’ general skills and abilities. Section III addresses communication with other healthcare professionals, including nutritionists. It becomes clear that it is important for nursing undergraduates to get contact with teachers from diverse areas, so the student begins to contact other health professionals. Article 5 addresses specific skills and abilities, and section VII states “working in integral health care programs for children, adolescents, women, and the elderly”. In this section, it becomes evident that nutrition contents are pertinent in the life cycle in order to make nursing care more effective (4) .
The pedagogical project of all six undergraduatecourses of Instituto Saúde Sociedade (Health & Society Institute) of Unifesp’s Baixada Santista campus (Physiotherapy, Physical Education, Nutrition, Psychology, Occupational Therapy, and Social Work) includes the following guiding principles: inseparability of education, research and extension programs; professional practice as a guiding axis; questioning education based on practice and research; interdisciplinarity; students’ active role in building knowledge; the teacher as a facilitator/mediator in the teaching and learning process; integration with the community; dynamism of the pedagogical plan with permanent construction and reconstruction; formative assessment as a feedback of the process; and teacher development. In order to accomplish these principles, the curricular design was built based on four educational axes: the human being in their biological dimension, the human being in their social insertion, work in health, and health-specific. These four axes comprise the curriculum of all six courses. The first three comprise a common core to all students, who are distributed into mixed classes so that they can experience and learn together. Each course has its own health-specific axis.
Objective: To analyze curricular integration between teaching of patient safety and good infection prevention and control practices. Method: Integrative review, designed to answer the question: “How does curricular integration of content about ‘patient safety teaching’ and content about ‘infection prevention and control practices’ occur in undergraduatecourses in the health fi eld?”. The following databases were searched for primary studies: CINAHL, LILACS, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Scopus, Europe PMC and MEDLINE. Results: The fi nal sample consisted of 13 studies. After content analysis, primary studies were grouped into two subject categories: “Innovative teaching practices” and “Curricular evaluation. Conclusion: Patient safety related to infection prevention and control practices is present in the curriculum of health undergraduatecourses, but is not coordinated with other themes, is taught sporadically, and focuses mainly on hand hygiene.
Objective: To know the perception of expert professionals in infection control and prevention on the teaching of skills for the prevention and control of infections related to health care in undergraduatecourses in Health Sciences. Method: We used the Delphi technique, developed in four sequential rounds. Thirty-one nurses and eight physicians participated in the study. Qualitative data were analyzed through content analysis; the quantitative ones, from the descriptive statistics. Results: The importance of the courses has had teachers with expertise in infection control and prevention added to arguments about the development of the subject in the curricula by means of a specifi c subject or as a transversal theme. Conclusions: In order to cover the complexity of the elements that are interconnected for professional training, teaching must be based on pedagogical strategies that provoke refl ection in students, encouraging them to develop critical thinking about their experiences.
This study sought to identify the perceptions of medical students regarding the teaching of ethics in undergraduatecourses. It is a qualitative approach research which interviewed 24 public university students. Thematic categorical analysis was carried out, preserving the anonymity of the information by the use of alphanumeric codes. Two categories of analysis were highlighted. The first describes perceptions regarding ethics teaching, showing that it is necessary to reflect on the complexity of the teaching-learning process. There are perceptions of devalued education, dissociated from the practice and highlighting the need for the qualification of educators. The second category presents suggestions for the teaching of ethics, among them, to deepen and demand the humanities content throughout the course. To qualify the teaching of ethics, it is necessary to provide interactive and participative moments, between educators and students, that favor the knowledge and comprehensiveness of the problems identified. Thus, the teaching-learning process leads to the improvement of the individual, by contributing to improve the ethical dimension required for health professionals.
Objective: to identify possibilities for improvement in the process of teaching and learning homecare in nursing, pharmacy, medicine, nutrition, dentistry and occupational therapy courses. Method: qualitative research using the Grounded Theory approach. Sixty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted with students, teachers and graduates of the six mentioned courses at a public university in the south of Brazil. Data analysis was performed through open, axial and selective coding. Results: the possibilities for improving the process of teaching and learning homecare included: scientifi c production in the area; use of different teaching techniques; development of extracurricular activities; extension projects; curricular reformulation; and laboratory simulation. Final considerations: the strategies cited in this study enable undergraduatecourses in health to envisage the possibility of enhance the process of teaching and learning homecare.
... it represents a tool for the scholarship holder for decision-making, helping him define a course and develop strategies in the vast and diversified curriculum of undergraduatecourses; it makes it possible for the scholarship holder to follow the example of his tutor as a reference point for building his own professional future, influencing him to enroll directly in the Master’s course, or even for a PhD; it creates the perception in the scholarship holder that he is more likely than the others to deliver a concrete project outcome after his course and become more competitive; non-scholarship students also make plans to enter a post-graduate course, but many do not yet know how to do a Master's degree or why they should; it allows the scholarship holder to create a link between different areas – that of the course and of the project, thus opening up a range of training possibilities for the future exercise of any profession. (2002, p.131)
Objective: To know what issues have been addressed and discussed in research on curriculum in undergraduatecourses in nursing in Brazil, in the period 2000-2013. Method: Used the assumptions of integrative literature review based on the LILACS, SCIELO, BDENF and ERIC databases. Data analysis was organized from the pre- analysis and exploration of material, processing and interpretation of results. Results: 36 articles were selected, which allowed the definition of three categories: Assumptions of curriculum reform; Characteristics of the training of nurses and National Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Nursing courses and curricula. Conclusion: There was adherence was found from studies to relevant legislation, and the emphasis on the need for vocational training based on the principles of the Unified Health System.
This study was intended to analyze pedagogic projects of undergraduatecourses in Nursing, Pharmacy, Physiotherapy, and Medicine in the Federal University of Sao Paulo, in order to appraise the contents of patient safety teaching in those courses. The study is of descriptive and exploratory nature using as strategy a documental review. The documents analyzed were the Pedagogic Projects of the courses. The teaching contents on patient safety were found to be fragmented, without the depth and conceptual scope recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Each course highlights the specific topics related to the pretended formative process. Inserting and trying to unify the contents on patient safety is still in its beginning in Brazilian schools and it is not present in the educational objectives. There is a need of reviewing the curricula using an interdisciplinary and trans disciplinary approach to develop this topic.