Essentialoil was obtained from crushed mature fruits by hydrodistillation using Clevenger-type apparatus. The contentofessentialoil in anise fruits was 3.91% on the average. The chemical compositionofessentialoil was ana- lyzed using GC/MS (gas chromatography- mass spectrometry) technique. GC-MS analysis was performed using an Agilent 6890 gas chromatograph in conjunction with an Agilent 5973 Network mass selective detector (MSD) in positive ion electron impact (EI) mode. The separation was achieved using Agilent 19091S-433 HP-5MS fused with silica capillary column, 30m × 0.25 mm, i.e. 0.25 µm film thickness. The GC oven temperature was programmed from 60 °C to 285 °C at a rate of 4.3 °C/min. Helium was used as carrier gas; inlet pressure was 25 kPa; linear velocity was 1ml/min at 210 °C. Injector tempera- ture was 250 °C and the injection mode was splitless. MS scan conditions: source temperature – 200 °C; interface temperature – 250 °C; energy – 70 eV; mass scan range was 40–350 amu. Identification of components was done on the basis of retention index and by comparison with reference spectra (Wiley and NIST databases).
Ocimum sanctum L. (Lamiaceae) sin. Ocimum tenuiflorum L. or Tulsi basil is a plant originating from the tropical and subtropical areas of India. It is used in both the traditional and official medicine in India. Tulsi is a type of basil that is insuffi- ciently explored and studied in Europe. The goal of this paper is to determine the chemical composition, antioxidative, and antimicrobial activity of the essentialoil Ocimum sanctum L. grown in Serbia. The quantity ofessentialoil in 100 g of herb (v/w) is 0.68%, with 41 components identified in the tested essentialoil. The most represented chemical group were sesquiturpene hydrocarbonates with 80.47%. Other groups were much less represented. Sesquiturpene hydrocarbonate β -car- iophyllene is a predominant component in the essentialoil with 63.80%. The quantity of tested essentialoil needed to achieve 50% of inhibition of DPPH radi- cals is 0.35 μg/ml, and it has high potential to neutralize free radicals. The essen- tial oil exhibited antibacterial activity to all tested strains of bacteria, both Gram- positive and Gram-negative. It affected all strains in an inhibitory way in the inter- val 0.34–41.50 μl/ml, and in a bactericide way within the range 22.50–124.5 μl/ml. The most sensitive strains of bacteria were Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, while Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococus faecalis showed greatest resistance. The essentialoil exhibited antifungal activity on all tested fungi. It affected all tested fungi in an inhibitory way in the interval 4.42–8.83 μl/ml, and in a microbicide way within the range 10.00–50.00 μl/ml. The most sensitive fungi are: Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium ochrochloron and Penicilium funiculosum, while the most resistant one is Aspergillus niger. The tested basil essentialoil Oci- mum sanctum demonstrated significant antioxidative and antimicrobial effect and may be used as a raw material in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries.
terpenoids and flavonoids (Cole, 1992), although alkaloids, iridoids and ursolic acid have been found (Watson and Dallwitz, 1991). Many of the medicinal uses are presumed to be connected to the terpenic constituents of the essential oils of these plants (Richardson, 1992). Terpenoids are also linked to the chemical defenses of these plants against the attack of herbivores and pathogenic microorganisms (Cole, 1992). Some species of the family belonging to the genus Ocimum, Cunila, Mentha and Glechon are found spontaneously in the South of Brazil. The genus Ocimum is comprising more than 30 species of the herbs and shrubs from the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa and Central and South America, and is source of the essential oils which are used in pharmaceutical, perfume and cosmetical industry (Almeida et al., 2004). The genus Cunila is widely distributed throughout the America (Fracaro and Echeverrigaray, 2001) and consists of 22 species with two centers of distribution: Mexico with ten species and the southern part of South America with 12 species (Agostini et al., 2006). The essentialoilcompositionof single species of the genus shows a large variation. Most of the species have a high content menthofuran, pulegone or citral (Fracaro and Echeverrigaray, 2001). Mints are herbaceous and perennial aromatic plants that are cultivated for their essential oils used for the medicinal and culinary purposes as well. These plants belong to the genus Mentha, which is native
This result shows a slight qualitative similarity to those reported for samples ofessentialoil made from the fruit of S. terebinthifolius from the USA (Lloyd et al., 1977; Pieribattesti et al., 1981) and leaves collected in India (Jamal and Agusta, 2001; Singh et al., 1998). Ibrahim et al. (2004) in their study on the fruits of the plant detected monoterpenes a-pinene (15.01%) and germacrene D (14.31%) and sesquiterpene elixene (15.18%) as major constituents of the EO. Pieribattesti et al. (1981) obtained a-pinene (26.50%), a-phellandrene (22.30%), limonene (16.00%) and b-phellandrene (15.00%) as the monoter- penic predominant species. In the study carried out by Barbosa et al. (2007) on the analysis of the variation in vol- atile compositionof the EO from the fruits of S. terebinthifolius vs. time of extraction, three of the four main chemical constituents obtained after one hour of ex- traction were identified as: a-pinene (6.48%), a-phellan- drene (7.45%) and d-3-carene (17.15%). Nascimento et al. (2011), in their work with the EO of ripe fruit of Schinus, obtained limonene (31.8%), thujene (21.7%), sabinene (15.8%) and a-phellandrene (11.9%) as major compounds.
Antimicrobial Activity: For the bioassays we used eight bacteria: Pseudomons aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Micrococcus flavus (ATCC 9341), Bacillus cereus (clinical isolate), Listeria monocytogenes (NCTC 7973), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 13311) and Enterobacter faecalis cloacae (human isolate). and seven fungi: Aspergillus flavus (ATCC 9643), A. niger (ATCC 6275), A. versicolor (ATCC 11730), A. ochraceus (ATCC 12066), Penicillium funiculosum (ATCC 36839), Penicillium ochrochloron (ATCC 9112) and Trichoderma viride (IAM 5061) insted; The micromycetes were maintained on malt agar (MA), bacteria on Mueller-Hinton agar (MH) and cultures were stored at +4°C and subcultured once a month .
Our results for the essentialoilcompositionof sage, thus, comply with the reference values speciied in the German Drug Codex monograph for Salvia oficinalis es- sential oil. The composition analysis of the volatile con- stituents of the three Macedonian sage populations showed that only the essentialoil from Karaorman Mtn. population belongs to the thujone-rich oils, while essential oils isolated from Galicica Mtn. and Jablanica Mtn. populations had camphor as major component. Typically, according to some authors (Perry et.al., 1999; Walch et.al., 2011), three are three Dalmatian Sage chemotypes with low (9%), medium (22-28%), and high (39-44%) thujone contents. Concerning the latter, essential oils from S. oficinalis samples from Galicica Mtn. and Jablanica Mtn. populations, belong to the Sage group containing medium thujone amounts and cannot meet with the requirements for the sage essentialoil chemical composition reported in other available scien- tiic literature where the demand of thujone content is stated as 35-60% (e.g. Radulescu et.al., 2004; Maksimovic et.al., 2007). Due to the camphor predominance in essentialoil isolated from Galicica Mtn. population, this essentialoil cannot meet the ISO 9909 standard (Table 2).
C. botrys possesses glandular trichomes that produce essentialoil with intense characteristic odour reminiscent to the frankincense scent. Essentialoilof this plant has been studied and presence of some oxygen-containing sesquiter- penes was correlated with pronounced antibacterial and an- tifungal activity (Kokanova-Nedialkova et al., 2009; Yadav et al., 2007; Tzakou et al., 2007). Iranian researchers in es- sential oilof C. botrys showed presence of 2,3-dehydro-4- oxo-β-ionon, (+)-7-epi-amiteol, elemol, α-cadinol and tau- cadinol as main components (Mahboubi et al., 2011). In the essentialoilof Greek C. botrys, Tzakou et al. (2007) have identiied the sesquiterpenes: elemol acetate, elemol, botrydiol, α-chenopodiol, β-eudesmol and selina-3, 11-dien- 6α-ol as major components. For C. botrys from Saudi Ara- bia, El-Sayed et al. (1989) showed presence of oxygen- containing sesquiterpenes, primarily α and β-eudesmol while Chalabian et al. (2006) identiied α-eudesmol, epi-α- muurolol and cubenol as major constituents.
components limonene (42.3%), linalool (9.7%) and nerolidol (8.6%), which are the major constituents in the essentialoil studied and with anti-Leishmania activity already known (Arruda et al. 2005, Graebin et al. 2010, Camargo and Vasconcelos 2014). Limonene has also been previously reported as the compound responsible for the leishmanicidal activity exhibited by the essential oils of Citrus limonia and Citrus latifolia (Estevam et al. 2016). The leishmanicidal potential of the linalool was already reported in the literature against promastigote and amastigote forms of L. amazonensis (LD 50 of 4.3 ng/mL and 15.5 ng/ mL, respectively) (Camargo and Vasconcelos 2014). Nerolidol, in turn, showed promising leishmanicidal activity against the promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis, L. braziliensis, and L. chagasi (Arruda et al. 2005). The treatment of macrophages infected by L. amazonensis with 100 μM of nerolidol resulted in 95% reduction in infection rates (Arruda et al. 2005). However, further studies should be addressed to verify the occurrence of possible synergistic and/or additive effects between these compounds.
Essential oils are volatile, natural and complex compounds characterized by a strong odor, formed by aromatic plants as secondary metabolites from many parts of plants, including the flowers, buds, seeds, leaves, twigs, bark, wood, fruit and roots (Burts, 2004; Dorman et al., 2007; Bakkali et al., 2008). In nature, it plays an important role in the protection of the plants as antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and insecticides. Essential oils are valuable natural products used as raw materials in many fields, including perfumes, cosmetics, aromatherapy, medicine, Phytotherapy, spices and nutrition plus insecticides (Buchbauer, 2000). Many oils show antibacterial, fungicidal, relaxing, stimulating, antidepressant effect and may be a very effective therapeutic agent. Essential oils are known for their therapeutic properties hence, used in the treatment of various infections caused by both by pathogenic and non-pathogenic diseases (Hamid et al., 2007). Essential oils have been traditionally used for 35 differtent respiratory tract infections, and are used now a day as ethical medicines for colds. In the medical field, inhalation therapy ofessential oils has been used to treat acute and chronic bronchitis and acute sinusitis (Boyd and Sheppard, 1970). Inhalation of vapors ofessential oils or their individual volatile terpenes has a significant role in controlling the central nervous system (Boyd and Sheppard, 1970) and had an anti- inflammatory effect on the trachea and to
ABSTRACT: The present study aimed at investigating the chemical compositionofessentialoil extracted from Brazilian propolis and the susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermides, Streptococcus pyogenes and Escherichia coli to this substance. The essentialoil was obtained by steam distillation of propolis and examined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In addition, the agar diffusion method using filter paper disks was employed. Antibacterial activity was measured as equivalent diameters of inhibition zones (in millimeters) after incubation at 37C for 24 hours. From the 26 identified constituents, β-caryophyllene (12.7%), acetophenone (12.3%) and β-farnesene (9.2%) were found to be major components. New components, namely linalool, methyl hydrocinnamate, ethyl hydrocinnamate, α-ylangene, γ-elemene and valencene, are reported for the first time to be present in propolis essentialoil. This oil also exhibited antibacterial activity.
24. Deans, S. G.; Svoboda, K. P.; Acta Hort. 1992, 306, 450; Hansen, R. C.; Keener, H. M.; Elsohly, H. N.; Trans. of the ASAE 1993, 36, 1387; Buggle, V.; Ming, L. C.; Furtado, E. L.; Rocha, S. F. R.; Marques, M. O. M.; Acta Hort. 1999, 50, 71; Rocha, S. F. R.; Ming, L. C.; Marques, M. O. M.; Rev. Bras. Plantas Medicinais 2000, 3, 73; Martins, P. M.; Melo, E. C.; Barbosa, L. C. A.; Santos, R. H. S.; Machado, M. C.; Acta Hort. 2002, 569, 155; Radünz, L. L.; Melo, E. C.; Berbert, P. A.; Barbosa, L. C. A.; Rocha, R. P.; De-Grandi, A. M.; Rev. Bras. Armazenamento 2002, 27, 09.
The test was carried out using the technique previously described by Tamaddonfard et al., (2008). For adaptation of animals to test environment, they were placed 30 min inside a Plexiglas opaque chamber (40×30×20 cm 3 ) that equipped with a mirror angled at 45° below the chamber. Using a 27-gauge injection needle, Tween 80 (2%, s.c., 200µl) as control, EOVAC (25 and 50 mg/kg) and piroxicam (50 mg/kg) subcutaneously injected 30 min before intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid (2% v/v in saline, 4 ml/kg). Immediately after the injection of acetic acid, frequency of writhing response was recorded in 5-min periods during the test which lasted 40 min. Moreover, latency time to the beginning of the first abdominal contraction (first writhe) was recorded. A writhe was defined as a wave of the
Aspergillus parasiticus ATCC-15517, A. flavus ATCC- 16013, A. fumigatus ATCC-40640, A. ochraceus ATCC-22947 and A. niger ATCC-1004 were used as test microorganisms. Stock cultures were kept on sterile Sabouraud agar (SA) slants under 7 °C (± 1 °C). For preparing the inocula used in anti- mould assays were used 7 days-old cultures grown on sterile SA at 25-28 °C. After the incubation period, the mould spores were taken by adding sterile NaCl (0.85 g/100mL) on the growth media followed for gentle shaking for 30 s. The obtained suspensions were filtered through sterile triple layer cheesecloth to remove mycelial fragments. Mould spores was counted using hemocytometer. Spores suspensions were adjusted by serial dilutions using sterile NaCl (0.85 g/100mL) to contain approximately 10 6 spores/mL (19).
ABSTRACT: The essential oils of fresh and dried leaves and ine stems of Hyptis crenata furnished the following yields: 1.4% and 0.9%. The main volatile constituents were a-pinene (22.0%; 19.5%), 1,8-cineole (17.6%; 23.2%), b-pinene (17.0%; 13.8%), camphor (4.7%; 11.6%), limonene (5.4%; 4.4%) and g-terpinene (3.5%; 2.4%), totalizing more than 70% in the oils. The DPPH radical scavenging activity (EC 50 , 16.7 ± 0.4 mg/mL) of the methanol extract was comparable to BHT (19.8 ± 0.5 mg/mL) showing a signiicant antioxidant activity. The oils showed low activities. The amount of total phenolics (TP, 373.0 ± 15.9 mg GAE/g) and trolox equivalent (TEAC, 226.8 ± 0.5 mg TE/g) conirmed the antioxidant activity of the methanol extract that can be attributed to the presence of polar phenolic compounds. In the brine shrimp bioassay the lethal concentrations (LC 50 ) for the oiland methanol extract were 6.7 ± 0.2 mg/mL and 13.0 ± 3.7 mg/mL, respectively, providing important evidence of their biological activities. Keywords: Hyptis crenata, Lamiaceae, salva-do-marajó, essentialoil, antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, cytotoxicity.
Abstract: The compositionof six samples ofessentialoil (EO) extracted from leaves, flowers and seeds of several plants of Hyptis fruticosa Salzm. ex Benth., Lamiaceae, was investigated by GC/MS and GC/FID. 1,8-Cineole, spathulenol, α-pinene, β-pinene were the major constituents. Ten constituents that have not been previously described in the compositionof the oilof H. fruticosa were identified. Hydrocarbons sesquiterpenes represented the main group, followed by hydrocarbons monoterpenes. The results were submitted to Cluster Analysis which allowed three groups of EO to be distinguished with respect to the contentof α-pinene/β-pinene, 1,8-cineole and spathulenol. Growth stages of the plants and geographical parameters seem to be important factors determining the variability of the oil. Sesquiterpenes were mainly produced in the seeds. Keywords:
CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONAND ALLELOPHATIC ACTIVITY OFESSENTIALOIL FROM Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam (ARALIACEAE). The volatile oil obtained from the leaves of Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam (Araliaceae) was analyzed by GC, Chiral- GC and GC-MS. It was identiied 14 compounds and the monoterpene (+)-limonene (53.6%) and sesquiterpene γ-muurolene (10.5%) were the main components. The allelopathic effects of the oil were evaluated against two seeds, Lactuca sativa and Allium cepa. The results show that the oil exhibited inhibition effects in the germination and seedling growth of plants species relative to the control.
Abstract: The essentialoil from the aerial parts of Salvia chrysophylla Staph (Lamiaceae), endemic to Turkey, was investigated by using GC and GC-MS. Fifty-four of 55 components, represented 99.52% of the total oil, were identified. The major components of the essentialoil were found to be -terpinenyl acetate (36.31%), - caryophyllene (15.29%), linalool (8.12%) and -elemene (4.26%). The antioxidant activity of the oil was investigated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and -carotene/linoleic acid tests. Anticholinesterase activity was screened against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase which are the chief enzymes of Alzheimer s disease. The essentialoil showed weak antioxidant activity. However, at 1 mg/mL concentration, the essentialoil exhibited mild acetylcholinesterase (52.5±2.0%) and moderate butyrylcholinesterase (76.5±2.7%) inhibitory activity
total oil from leaves. The identified compounds are listed in Table 1, according to their elution order on a VF-5 capillary column. The oil contains a complex mixture consisting of mainly oxygenated mono- and sesquiterpenes, and mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The major compounds detected in the leaves oil were phytol (27.25%), a- humulene (14.21%), spathulenol (12.12%), 1- octen-3-ol (8.21%), eugenol (6.69%), phenylethyl alcohol (5.81%) and caryophyllene oxide (2.6%), as shown in Table 1. Several papers reported that all these compounds possess significant antioxidant activity in several model systems [ 16,17 ]. It is also
16 bacterial isolates representing both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and one strain of Candida al- bicans were used for antimicrobial screening. Five iso- lates were standard strains (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli 25927, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231). The remaining 12 bacterial strains (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococ- cus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophylus inluenzae, Pro- teus mirabilis, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella enteriti- dis, Shigella lexneri, Campylobacter jejuni, and Acineto- bacter spp.) were clinical isolates provided from the Insti- tute of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medi- cine, Skopje, R. Macedonia.
an emotional impact on the patient) [11,12]. L. paniculata is used to treat “mal aire” (a disease caused by strong winds experienced while the person walks down a hill, by contact with cold air when the person leaves a sheltered place, or when a person walks through cemeteries or places where there are hidden treasures) , besides of the treatment of headache and nervous system affection . As well as L. betonicifolia and L. bullata have been used for the treatment of wound infections, punches and inflammations . Lepechinia radula is a native shrub found in the Andean region of Ecuador. It is located in growing wild in both Azuay and Loja Provinces at 2000 - 2500 m a.s.l. [10,15]. Previous reports don’t have been found about L. radula. Consequently the purpose of this study is to contribute to knowledge of chemical composition, physical properties and biological activity ofessentialoilof L. radula.