Top PDF Performance Analysis of Ad hoc Routing Protocols in Mobile WiMAX Environment

Performance Analysis of Ad hoc Routing Protocols in Mobile WiMAX Environment

Performance Analysis of Ad hoc Routing Protocols in Mobile WiMAX Environment

promise to offer high data rate over large areas to a large number of users where broadband is unavailable. This is the first industry wide standard that can be used for fixed wireless access with substantially higher bandwidth than most cellular networks [1], [2]. Development of this standard facilitates low cost equipment, ensure interoperability, and reduce investment risk for operators. In the recent years, IEEE 802.16 working group has developed a number of standards for WiMAX. The first standard IEEE 802.16 was published in 2001 and focused on the frequency range between 10 and 66 GHz and required line-of-sight (LOS) propagation between the sender and the receiver [3]. This reduces multipath distortion, thereby increases communication efficiency. Theoretically IEEE 802.16 can provide single channel data rates up to 75 Mbps on both the uplink and downlink. Providers could use multiple IEEE 802.16 channels for a single transmission to provide bandwidths of up to 350 Mbps [4]. However, because of LOS transmission, cost-effective deployment is not possible. Consequently, several versions came with new features and techniques. IEEE 802.16-2004, has been developed to expand the scope to licensed and license-exempt bands from 2 to 11 GHz. IEEE 802.16-2004 specifies the air interface, including the Media Access Control (MAC) of wireless access for fixed operation in metropolitan area networks. Support for portable/mobile devices is considered in IEEE 802.16e standard, which is published in December 2005. WiMAX networks consist of a central radio Base Station (BS) and a number of Subscriber Stations (SSs). In Mobile WiMAX network, BS (which is fixed) is connected to public network and can handle multiple sectors simultaneously and SSs are mobile.
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BEHAVIOUR OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS INVESTIGATED FOR EMERGENCY AND RESCUE SITUATION IN INDIA

BEHAVIOUR OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS INVESTIGATED FOR EMERGENCY AND RESCUE SITUATION IN INDIA

26 As shown in previous discussion, both proactive and reactive protocols have their own advantages and disadvantages. However many research papers [25-27] have shown reactive protocols perform well compared with proactive protocols. In this paper we investigate reactive and proactive protocols namely AODV and DSDV by means of taking the following considerations. For any mobile communication utilization of battery power is significant because of power constrain and minimizing the control overhead is also important because it affects the overall network performance therefore in connection with these requirements reactive protocols are considered for our analysis because in AODV, routes are updated only when it is required by the way to minimize the power consumption and control overhead and also in [14-16] authors shown the better performance of AODV. Quality of service is one of the considerable factors in this uncertain environment because we could not predict the topology and link break between the mobile nodes. In DSDV, routing information are updated to all available destination therefore even if link breakage and topology change, every node can get the accurate routing information so that quality of service is increased and also end to end delay is minimized. In addition author has [28] shown the better performance of DSDV.
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An Investigation about Performance Comparison of Multi-Hop Wireless Ad-Hoc Network Routing Protocols in MANET

An Investigation about Performance Comparison of Multi-Hop Wireless Ad-Hoc Network Routing Protocols in MANET

Professor Dr.T.Ravichandran received the B.E degrees from Bharathiar University, Tamilnadu, India and M.E degrees from Madurai Kamaraj University, Tamilnadu, India in 1994 and 1997, respectively, and PhD degree from the Periyar University, Salem, India, in 1988. He is currently the Principal of Hindustan Institute of Technology, Coimbatore,Tamilnadu, India. Before joining Hindustan Institute of Technology, Professor Ravichandran has been a Professor and Vice Principal in Vellalar College of Engineering & Technology, Erode, Tamilnadu, India. His research interests include theory and practical issues of building distributed systems, Internet computing and security, mobile computing, performance evaluation, and fault tolerant computing. Professor Ravichandran is a member of the IEEE, CSI and ISTE. Professor Ravichandran has published more than 30 papers in refereed international journals and refereed international conferences proceedings.
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A Comparison of the TCP Variants Performance over different Routing Protocols on Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

A Comparison of the TCP Variants Performance over different Routing Protocols on Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Abstract: We describe a variant of TCP (Tahoe, Vegas), TCP is most widely used transport protocol in both wired and wireless networks. In mobile ad hoc networks, the topology changes frequently due to mobile nodes, this leads to significant packet losses and network throughput degradation. This is due to the fact that TCP fails to distinguish the path failure and network congestion. In this paper, the performances of TCP over different routing (DSR, AODV and DSDV) protocols in ad hoc networks was studied by simulation experiments and results are reported.
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Efficient Load Balancing Routing Technique for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Efficient Load Balancing Routing Technique for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Abstract —The mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is nothing but the wireless connection of mobile nodes which provides the communication and mobility among wireless nodes without the need of any physical infrastructure or centralized devices such as access point or base station. The communication in MANET is done by routing protocols. There are different categories of routing protocols introduced with different goals and objectives for MANETs such as proactive routing protocols (e.g. DSDV), reactive routing protocols (e.g. ADOV), geographic routing protocols (e.g. GRP), hybrid routing protocols etc. There are two important research problems with such routing protocols to address such as efficient load balancing and energy efficiency. In this paper, we are focusing on evaluation and analysis of efficient load balancing protocol design for MANET. Inefficient load balancing technique results in increasing routing overhead, poor packet delivery ratio, and other Quality of Service (QoS) parameters. In literature, there are a number of different methods proposed for improving the performance of routing protocols by efficient load balancing among mobile nodes communication. However, most of the methods suffer from various limitations. In this paper, we propose a novel technique for improved the QoS performance of load balancing approach as well as increasing the network lifetime. Evaluation of Network lifetime is out of scope of this paper.
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Analysing the Behaviour and Performance of Opportunistic Routing Protocols in Highly Mobile Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

Analysing the Behaviour and Performance of Opportunistic Routing Protocols in Highly Mobile Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

We use simulations in Network Simulator-2 [71] to study the performance of the five categories of opportunistic protocols. Initially we carry out simulation with 100 nodes in a uniformly distributed network topology. The packet size is set at 256 bytes and the transmission range is 250 m. The nodes are distributed over a 1000m ×800m rectangular region. The two-ray ground propagation model is used for the simulation. Constant Bit Rate Traffic is generated between the nodes. The simulation time is set at 1000 seconds. In order to check the performance of these routing protocols in highly dynamic a hoc networks, the speed of the nodes is then varied from a minimum of 1 m/s to various maximum limits in the topology setup to analyse the performance of the protocol in fast changing MANETs with highly mobile nodes. Mobility is introduced in the network with the Random Way Point mobility model [72]. Two important performance metrics, Packet Delivery Ratio and Average end to end delay are used to compare the performance of these protocols.
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Secure Routing and Data Transmission in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Secure Routing and Data Transmission in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

In this paper, we present an identity (ID) based protocol that secures AODV and TCP so that it can be used in dynamic and attack prone environments of mobile ad hoc networks. The proposed protocol protects AODV using Sequential Aggregate Signatures (SAS) based on RSA. It also generates a session key for each pair of source-destination nodes of a MANET for securing the end-to-end transmitted data. Here each node has an ID which is evaluated from its public key and the messages that are sent are authenticated with a signature/ MAC. The proposed scheme does not allow a node to change its ID throughout the network lifetime. Thus it makes the network secure against attacks that target AODV and TCP in MANET. We present performance analysis to validate our claim.
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An Efficient Routing Protocol under Noisy Environment for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using Fuzzy Logic

An Efficient Routing Protocol under Noisy Environment for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using Fuzzy Logic

The proposed approach is called An Efficient Routing Protocol under Noisy Environment for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using Fuzzy Logic (ERPN). In this paper, the proposed protocol enhances Dynamic Source Routing protocol by considering Signal strength and Noise constraints to improve its performance. The fuzzy logic based technique uses two important parameters as noise factor and signal strength for route selection that results in best possible combinations to choose a route. The proposed protocol defines how a fuzzy logic based technique is effective to select routes, avoid link failure and increase network lifetime. A control mechanism like fuzzy logic is used to make mobile nodes intelligent. Fuzzy logic is basically the extension of crisp logic that includes the intermediate values between absolutely true and absolutely false. It has the efficiency to solve the system uncertainties.
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Exploring the Behavior of Mobile Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols with Reference to Speed and Terrain Range

Exploring the Behavior of Mobile Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols with Reference to Speed and Terrain Range

difference in the throughput of AODV and DSR. For 5, 10, 20 speeds AODV are better and for 30, 40 speeds DSR are better. Fig. 3a shows the average throughput in terrain range 1400m x 900m DSDV performance is greatly degraded for higher speed of 20, 30 & 40. DSR is only performing better for speed 20 otherwise AODV is better. Network throughput decreases when the speed increases, the reason is that link outage becomes more frequent causing a higher packet drop probability. All of the protocols have higher throughput when the nodes move at low speeds, i.e., at speed 5m/s all protocols achieve best throughput. DSR and AODV perform well in all cases, delivering an. average of above 98% of the data packets. However, DSDV throughput degrades to 75% as the speed and terrain range increases, since a stale routing table entry causes data packets to be forwarded over a broken link. DSDV maintains only one route per destination, so each packet that the MAC layer is unable to deliver is dropped due to the lack of alternate routes. When the speed as well as terrain area increases, all the routing protocols suffer a decrease in throughput. Higher speeds cause frequent link changes and connection failures. Overall performance of DSR and AODV is better than DSDV but performance DSR is best, since DSR has already has a route for certain destination; AODV would have to send specific request for destination, the packet would in meanwhile stay in buffer until a valid route is found. This will take some time and therefore increase delay and decreased throughput. At higher speed, DSDV exhibits the highest drop in throughput, which is due to packets being dropped along outdated routes.
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Realtime multiprocessor for mobile ad hoc networks

Realtime multiprocessor for mobile ad hoc networks

Portable electronic devices like PDAs, mobile phones and notebooks are increasingly equipped with wireless commu- nication technologies, providing higher degrees of mobil- ity and ease of use. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a special type of wireless networks that do not require any infrastructure and whose topology can change sponta- neously by the movement of participating nodes. To eval- uate the performance and energy efficiency of new routing algorithms, especially including directional communication (Grünewald et al., 2005b) and transmission power control (Xu et al., 2005), we use the network simulator SAHNE (Volbert, 2002), see Fig. 1. This environment emulates the packet processing of each participating node. Simulations have shown that communicating in eigth directions can in- crease the total thoughput in a mobile ad hoc network by the factor of 2.5.
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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUES IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS (MANETS)

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUES IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS (MANETS)

The implementation of a new security extension and cryptographic schemes are written as a new implementation in the NS-2 [15]. This section discusses the new security agent and functions that been used to simulates the performance of the encryption schemes of our interest. The NS-2 is a popular discrete event simulator developed mainly for networking research. NS-2 is an open source software provides wide simulating network types, network applications, routing protocols, data sources and network elements. In NS-2, the system is modeled as sequential events that take an arbitrary amount of time. NS-2 is designed having two basic building blocks; C++ for the core functionality which handle data processing and the Object TCL (OTCL) for scripting purposes which is simply a special purpose language used for writing control script to run the simulation. In general the protocol implementation requires the C++ language for packet processing. And the use of script language makes the change of simulation configuration faster and freely adjustable with dynamic parameters [15].
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Impact of Malicious Nodes under Different Route Refresh Intervals in Ad Hoc Network

Impact of Malicious Nodes under Different Route Refresh Intervals in Ad Hoc Network

Abstract: Problem statement: Ad hoc networks are formed dynamically by group of mobile devices co operating with each other. Intermediate nodes between source and destination act as routers so that source node can communicate with the destination node even if it is out radio range and thus eliminating the necessity of infrastructure. Co operation of nodes is a very important feature for the successful deployment of Ad hoc networks. The intermediate nodes should not only be involved in the route discovery process but also should be involved in the re transmission of packets as an intermediate between source and destination. Approach: Since nodes have to be co operative for successful deployment of Ad hoc networks, the security mechanisms cannot afforded to be stringent which enables malicious nodes to successfully attack the network. The capability of optimized link state routing protocol has been studied extensively for different types of ad hoc networks and has been proved to behave somewhere in between pro active and reactive routing protocols. Results: In this study we investigate the impact of malicious nodes on the Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocol under different hello intervals which affects the route discovery process and subsequently investigate the degradation of Quality Of Service (QOS). Conclusion: It is observed that the throughput deteriorates when the network is attacked by malicious nodes which selectively retransmit data to some of the destinations. The performance degradation increases as the hello interval time is set beyond 4 sec. Higher hello interval decreases the control packet overheads. It is observed that even with higher hello intervals the network performance is much better than an attack by small group of malicious nodes.
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EFFECTIVE APPROACH FOR REDUCING THE FLOODING IN ROUTING MECHANISM FOR MULTIHOP MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

EFFECTIVE APPROACH FOR REDUCING THE FLOODING IN ROUTING MECHANISM FOR MULTIHOP MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

Flooding technique is considered as a simple and direct approach to broadcast a message from one node to another node in the MANET. Most of the well-known ad hoc routing protocols of MANET use flooding to ensure that all nodes receive the source message and it is assumed that the reachability of this approach is approximately up to 100% [11] and [12]. However, the flooding mechanism increases the number of packet and is unsuitable for MANETs [13] and [14]. Route discovery in wireless mobile ad hoc networks with adjusted probabilistic flooding [15], A new A New Probabilistic Broadcasting Scheme for Mobile Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routed Networks[16], Performance evaluation of an efficient counter-based scheme for mobile ad hoc networks based on realistic mobility model [17] and the broadcast storm problem in a Mobile Ad hoc Networks [18] debated that the broadcasting operation without using flooding technique can minimize the BSP and improve the MANETs performance in terms of low collision, overhead and end-to-end delay. Among various schemes, a fixed probabilistic scheme is the first probabilistic approach and is considered as the base for all later dynamic probabilistic schemes. Every node receives a broadcast message for the first time and rebroadcasts it to all the nodes in the network with a certain value of probability, regardless of the density level of current node. The paper [13] have derived best probability value (0.07%) for high reach ability and saved rebroadcast. However, the degree of density is not considered and the paper [16] has demonstrated that while the probabilistic scheme considers the degree of nodes density, it will outperform the fixed probabilistic scheme. A probabilistic broadcasting algorithm has been developed, which divides the MANET into four levels of density such as sparse, medium sparse, dense and high dense. A specific forward value is assigned for each level. The density information is collected by broadcasting HELLO packets every second for 1-hop to construct a neighbour list at each node. Then, the node can decides the current level by comparing its neighbour list with average network neighbours. This scheme opens up a promising approach towards optimal probabilistic broadcasting. However, manipulating the levels for comparing neighbour consumes more energy.
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An Efficient Routing Protocol under Noisy Environment for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using Fuzzy Logic

An Efficient Routing Protocol under Noisy Environment for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using Fuzzy Logic

Mobile ad hoc network is a collection of mobile devices which can communicate through wireless links. The task of routing protocol is to direct packets from source to destination. This is particularly hard in mobile ad hoc networks due to the mobility of the network elements and lack of centralized control. Source routing is a routing technique in which the sender of a packet determines the complete sequence of nodes through which it forwards the packet. The sender explicitly lists this route in the packet’s header, identifying each forwarding “hop” by the address of the next node to which to transmit the packet on its way to the destination host. When a host needs a route to another host, it dynamically determines one based on cached information and on the results of a route discovery protocol, unlike conventional routing protocols.
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Mobile ad hoc networks tcp performance and comparison over routing protocols

Mobile ad hoc networks tcp performance and comparison over routing protocols

Abstract- Mobile ad hoc networks have attracted attention lately as a means of providing continuous network connectivity to mobile computing devices regardless of physical location. An adhoc network is a collection of nodes that donot need to rely on a predefined infrastructure to keep the network connected. Such network may be interconnected to fixed network and serve as access network for mobile nodes. Hoiver the wireless neture ad hoc network introduce new requiremnets to the effects that link breakage due to obility has on TCP performance. Through simulation, i show that TCP throughput drops significantly when nodes move, due to TCP’s inability to recognize the difference betien link failure and congestion. i examine the performance of the TCP protocol for bulkdata transfers in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). i vary the number of TCP connections and compare the performances of three recently proposed on-demand (AODV and DSR) and adaptive proactive (ADV) routing algorithms.
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Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols in Ad-hoc and Sensor Networking Environments

Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols in Ad-hoc and Sensor Networking Environments

Nodes communicating with both technologies are set into a network topology with a changing node number. The topology is defined for 6 different numbers of nodes, starting from 10 to 60 with a step of 10. The mobility management model sets the position of the nodes based on a random generator of coordinates. The movement speed and pause are also randomly defined with two parameters, i.e. a mean value (fixed) and a variance of the value. The variance sets the maximum oscillation value from the mean value. The mean values for the speed and pause in Wi-Fi were 10m/s and 10s, with a variance of 1 m/s and 1s, respectively, while in ZigBee the mean values of the speed and pause were 1m/s and 20s, with a variance of 0.1m/s and 0.1s, respectively. The time duration of the simulations has been set to 60 seconds for all scenarios. All of the nodes in the simulations follow the random waypoint mobility model, which is generated before the start of every simulation. Also, the established sessions in the scenarios are variable. Small and large number of sessions is taken into consideration (2 and 10 sessions), where the establishment of the sessions is also random. The traffic used in all simulations was 1 Mbps FTP/TCP.
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STUDY AND ANALYSIS OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORK

STUDY AND ANALYSIS OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORK

Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) is a network without a fixed Infrastructure. In wireless networks users expect to get access to the network security and to exchange information anytime and anywhere. The ad hoc wireless network consists of mobile networks which creates architecture for communication without the help of traditional fixed-position routers. Establishing strong routes and providing security are the main tasks in MANETs. Routing is the critical issue in the MANET and focus based on routing protocols such as Ad hoc On-demand Distance Routing Protocol (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) are interesting due to their applications. OPNET is used to establish the simulations of these routing protocols the performance of the routing protocols is studied by selecting metrics. Metrics are used to select the best path for exchanging information from source to destination. Result show that AODV and TORA is suitable for larger networks while changing network topology with selected metrics.
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A Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc  Networks

A Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Networks

Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes in which the wireless links are frequently broken down due to mobility and dynamic infrastructure. Routing is a significant issue and challenge in ad hoc networks. Many routing protocols have been proposed like OLSR, AODV so far to improve the routing performance and reliability. In this paper, we describe the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR) and the Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV). We evaluate their performance through exhaustive simulations using the Network Simulator 2 (ns2) by varying conditions (node mobility, network density). Keywords - MANET; OLSR; AODV; ns2.
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Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

fluctuations in route updates, DSDV employs a "settling time" data, which is used to predict the time when route becomes stable. In DSDV, broken link may be detected by the layer-2 protocol [2], or it may instead be inferred if no broadcasts have been received for a while from a former neighboring node. In this paper the performance comparison between three routing protocols, namely AODV (Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector), DSDV (Destination Sequenced Distance Vector) and the Improvement of DSDV (I-DSDV). While all routing protocols use sequence numbers to prevent routing loops and to ensure the freshness of routing information, AODV and DSDV differ drastically in the fact that they belong to two different routing families [3]. Namely, AODV is a reactive protocol (routes are only generated on demand, in order to reduce routing loads), and DSDV is a proactive protocol (with frequent updates of routing tables regardless of need).
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Energy-Aware Performance Metric for AODV and DSDV Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

Energy-Aware Performance Metric for AODV and DSDV Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

The Ad-Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector routing protocol is a r eactive routing protocol. AODV protocol is a combination of Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and DSDV protocol [5]. It is a distance vector routing protocol and is capable of both unicast and multicast routing [8]. It will maintain the routes only between the nodes which need to communicate. The routing information will be maintained as routing tables in each node. A routing table entry expires if it has not been used or reactivated for pre- specified expiration time. When a source node wants to send the packet to a destination node then the entries in the routing table will check whether there is a current route to the destination node or not, if there is a route then the packets will transmit to destination node in that path [2]. If don’t have any valid route, then the route discovery process will be initiated. For route discovery AODV is using Routing Request (RREQ), Routing Reply (RREP) Packets [1]. The RREQ packet containing the source node IP address, source node current sequence number, the destination node sequence number and broadcast ID [1][8]. The advantage of AODV is that it creates no extra traffic for communication along the existing link but requires more time to establish a connection. It is simple and doesn’t require much memory or calculation.
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