Devise and design a technology strategy in power distribution industrial, Case study: great tehran electrical distribution company.

Texto

(1)

Vol-7, Special Issue-Number2-April, 2016, pp743-762 http://www.bipublication.com Case Report

Devise and design a technology strategy in power distribution industrial,

Case study: great tehran electrical distribution company.

Ali Mighi1, Morteza Mousakhani2 and Taghi Torabi3

1Department of Technology Management,Science and Research Branch,

Islamic Azad university,Tehran,Iran; a_mighi@yahoo.com

2Department Of Technology Management,Science and Research Branch,

Islamic Azad university,Tehran,Iran; mousakhani@srbiau.ac.ir (Corresponding author)

3

Department Of Technology Management,Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad university,Tehran,Iran;

t-torabi@srbiau.ac.ir

ABSTRACT

Given the increasing importance of technology in organizational development, considered as one of the most important issues of strategic enterprise technology strategy actually. The increasing production and consumption of electric energy in the developing world and interconnected and expand interaction with other development of industrial, trade, agriculture activities, and services power industry development has become one of the pillars. Industry is an industry study in the field of power supply providing electricity services to consumers and applicants; to determine priorities for future investment, technology strategy is to develop their technological needs thereby determine the scope of its activities in the future. This study was conducted to answer the following questions: What are the industry's technological capabilities? Technologies required by industry to offer new services to their business in what condition? What are important development technologies of this industry? The models presented in this article were positioning school and then focus on these patterns according to industry characteristics studied, Hax and Majlof was considered as the base model and making changes in some of its parts, including technology risk assessment in addition to the capability and attractiveness, the final model was presented.

Key words: technology strategy, Hax and Majlof model, technology strategy model, capability evaluation, attractiveness and risk

1. INTRODUCTION

Studied industry that is an active industry in the process cycle of generation, transmission and distribution of electricity, determine your future investment priorities, particularly in the renewable energy require technology strategy to thereby determine the scope of its activities in the future. The aim of this research is to develop technology investment priorities and methods appropriate to meet, development and utilization of technology has been selected. Alignment and coordination between the industry's technology strategy and

(2)

of technology management in an organization with diverse activities and various management companies established in accordance macro strategies?” How are strength, attractiveness and risk technologies in the company? Is there a general model for doing this important? Do I need to design a new model for efficient and effective management of technology? Implementation and application of these models in electricity distribution companies Tehran in what form is it possible? These issues are aim of this research will be to find the right answers for them.

2. Definitions and Concepts

2.1 Strategy: the development objectives of the organization in the form of long-term goals, action plan and prioritize the allocation of resources [1]. 2.2 Technology: the knowledge and skills necessary to produce goods or providing services, which resulted from a combination of human and intellectual power and knowledge of the law is found in nature [2].

2.3 Technology Strategy: an operations strategy that can be translated and interpreted grand strategy of the organization's technology, so that the position of competitive advantage and achieve long-term goals of the organization through determines technology development organization [3].

2.4 Electrical Distribution Company Tehran: A subsidiary firms Tavanir specialized company, affiliated to the Ministry of Energy whose mission is to provide reliable electricity, sustainable economic approach was to applicants in Tehran [4].

2.5 Reliability: the probability of satisfactory performance of the equipment under specified conditions for a certain period [5]

2.6-Quality: an indicator of compliance with the functional specifications and standards by doing so will provide consumer opinion [6].

2.7 Failure: the inability of a piece of equipment could define his work to do quality within the allowable range [7].

3. Literature review and conceptual framework 3.1. Porter Model

In the early 1980s, Michael Porter examined the relationship between technology strategy and business strategy of the firm. In his opinion the proper groundwork for formulating competitive strategy and competitive advantage, provide business technology strategy. The business strategy, competitive advantage for the firm include certain features for finding an appropriate competitive environment, the desirable benefit that can be achieved in the medium term determine the method and strategy is also achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. In this study, Porter, driven decision-making based on developments in its sphere of business activity and status field is located. His firm in the field of trade, industry attractiveness parameters based on five forces model and the firm's commercial position against competitors it through the value chain studied [8].

3.2. Mogen Model

About 1982 Mogen after identifying major technology firm, assess the attractiveness of them. To evaluate these technologies Mogen proposes has two basic criteria: Criteria for evaluating the attractiveness of an organization's technology and capabilities evaluation criteria identified technologies.

(3)

3.3. Porter- Mogen composite Model

In this model, defects Porter model based on the fact that certain procedures in order to assess the attractiveness and identified the technological capability and the Technology Strategy Board, on the basis of this assessment, through the use of matrix attractiveness - the ability Mogen model has been resolved. In this regard, using methods available in the Porter model in order to recognize how important technology firms considering the shortcomings of the value chain Mogen model good removed [9].

3.4 Hax and Majlof Model

In 1984 and 1991 valuable contribution to between Hax and Majlof has been done to understand and explain the technology strategy after determining the business strategy & grand strategy is the first step that should be the issue. Determining the technological requirements at the level of senior management, understand the business unit achieved visible from a distance.

The next step is to determine the technological strategic units. According to the definition of strategic technologies related to the collection of several technologies called in response to the technological requirements of the firm plays an important role. The purpose of the environmental assessment process of acquiring knowledge, assesses the attractiveness of each technology, and determines the opportunities and threats of the current technology firm. The study of internal, systematic approach assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the firm against its competitors. Matrix outlining the performance-based evaluation process in technology capabilities and attractiveness to each of the strategic units, capabilities and attractiveness indicators for each of these units was used to calculate quantitatively and then determines the status of each of them in the matrix. After the above steps, turn to the final stage of shaping the technology strategy to

develop action plans and

budgeting achieved [10].

Fig.1.Hax and Majlof pattern for the formulation of technology strategy

Budgeting / planning strategic capital and operating budgets Identify technological needs

The mission of the organization's overall direction / strength and strategic competitive plan

Mission and overall direction of the organization / scope and implementation plan

Business Strategy

Identify technological needs

Identify strategic units Technology

Check the status of internal / determine the strengths and weaknesses of the technology / capability set

The trend of technology / set of technological opportunities and threats / determine the attractiveness of technology

Technology strategy formulation technology policies / programs and practical recommendations for the coming years

(4)

3 .5.Chaplet and Twistiga Model

In 1984 Chaplet and Twistiga among researchers that developed in each firm's technology strategy with regard to the critical success factors in the market, were highlighted. These set of demands, requirements, and requirements that the customers, suppliers, competitors, distribution channels, government agency, etc. imposed. Chaplet and Twistiga perspective on strategy formulation technology can be summarized under three headings stated:1. The development of technology strategy every business should be conducted according to the critical success factors in the market. 2. the success or failure of firms, heavily dependent on rapid and timely response rate is higher than the critical success factors. 3. Any business should choose to invest in technologies that have the greatest role to play in responding to these factors [11]. In other words, investment in technology priority should be determined according to the critical success factors.

3 .6. Little Model

Another group of researchers in 1987 believed that the formulation of technology strategy should be based on the core competencies of the firm's key capabilities are essential. It is evident that according to the requirements, demands and needs of the market is essential for the survival of the organization, but the ability to respond to the needs and requirements of different organizations [12]. According to these researchers, each firm's unique set of features and capabilities that rival firms are able to mimic them. Firms the ability to intelligently recognize and rely upon, to achieve competitive advantage status.

3.7. Booz -Alen & Hamilton Model

In 1981, they approach for the strategic management technology that was based on the following principles: 1. predict the trajectory and the time needed for gradual development of technologies needed. 2. The emphasis on technology as a rich and important capital in enterprises. 3. The alignment of technology strategy with the business strategy of the firm.

Technology Strategy Board and fits in line with the business strategy developed business and technology portfolio on two important factors "importance of technology" and "technological dependence" firm are developed [13].

3 .8. Mc Kenzy Model

In 1986, Foster and the firm in the face of technological change presented another theory in the formulation of technology strategy and the ability to pay attention stressed. His analysis was based on of the curve. According to the curve at the beginning of a program of research and development is technical performance, low technology. At this stage it required knowledge has been acquired and the problems to be solved. Progress is slow in this section of the graph. Then, the rate increased progress, ultimately shaped the limitations of technology, and again becomes slow rate of progress. At this stage, firms with proper management of the technologies that are slower rate of change, another choice is to develop appropriate technology [14].

3.9.Parhald and Hamel Theory

Prahalad and Hamel in 1990, 1993 and 1998 model for developing a technology strategy was hypothesized that consists of five basic steps: 1. To identify patterns of evolution of the industry. 2. The definition of strategic architecture. 3. determine the level of competition and differences in each level to reach the goals established. 4. Selection and attractive and tension-backed and based on usability. 5. the reorganization of the firm and designing an appropriate structure.

3.10.D Aveni ultro-competitive Theory

(5)

In fact, this interaction is continuous and dynamic firms that can compete with each other to create massive changes and bring future competitive advantage of the firm. In such circumstances, the ability of firms in the conduct and management of interactive business success in the long run.

3.11. Itami and Numagami Model

In 1992, Itami and Numagami interesting study carried out in the context of the interaction of technology and strategy. They believe there are three types of effects between strategy and technology. 1.Interaction of current strategy and technology strategy.2. interactions with current and future technology.3. mutual influence future strategy and current technology [16]. The first theory, which is presented as the firm's strategic capabilities, business strategies and technologies to obtain the same consistency, is a necessity. The second theory suggests that the current strategic decisions must have an important role in the accumulation of future technologies. Third, the effectiveness of the current theory of the firm considers future strategy. According to this view, current technology or technology firm is committed to their development. Our strategies affect day. Technology, strategy directed towards specific and the orientation of the process of generating ideas and beside these also contribute to the integrity of ideas. Therefore, technology is an important factor in the formation of business strategy.

3.12.Chieza Model

Chieza model for the development of technology strategy in 2001 has provided the competitive dynamics in the environment. This pattern is changing dynamic environments, making decisions based on information collected from the competition and future industry and technological trends and the evolution of the internal environment carried empty and foreign firms [17]. Information collected as a basis in drawing future scenarios and the strategies used. This process is called environmental foresight that the key to the decision. Select (determination of appropriate technologies for the investor), timing (timing is

introduced and developed a new technology) and acquisition of technologies critical factors in this decision are considered.

3.13.Burgelman Theory

Burgelman theory has four main dimensions and essential technology strategy, namely: 1. the application of technology in product strategy - Market Board .2. The use of technology firms in numerous activities that affect firm value chain. 3. Requiring firms to use their resources in various fields of technology. 4. Board of Management organizational design techniques for managing technology and its related activities. Internal and external evaluations are firm unifying factors that are shaping the firm's technology strategy [18]. Finally a simple conceptual framework is presented and describes the factors shaping technology strategy.

4. Research Methodology

The nature of the research is descriptive - survey. This is the first study using library studies, the most appropriate model for electricity distribution companies Tehran of strategy choices. The design questionnaires and surveys of experts to provide a solution to eliminate the gap between existing conditions and model.

4.1. Introduction to Tehran Electricity Distribution Company

(6)

voltage level between 11 and 30 kV and for transfer are not appropriate. Voltage electrical energy generated by transformers increase in post-production is used to transfer the most economical way possible, be prepared. The second part of the transmission system that includes the following sections of transmission lines, substations and transmission under the above distribution. Transmission lines for delivery to transmission substations are up-level positions voltage electrical energy to the voltage level of distribution reduced. Electrical energy at voltages of Extra High (EHV) transmission lines and then at high voltages (HV) of lines distribution to consumption centers conducted. The last part of

the power system distribution that includes the following four sections, which in order of distribution substations, initial distribution, distribution transformers and secondary distribution, respectively. Distribution substations voltage level for distribution by transformers lowering the level of medium voltage (MV) reduced and distribution of electrical energy to deliver. The electrical energy through lines or cables under the initial distribution to distribution transformers delivered and most of the transformers voltage level to the level used by consumers decreases and then electrical energy through secondary distribution to final consumers delivered.

Fig.2. different parts of the power system generation, transmission and distribution

Tehran Electricity Distribution Company from 103 post distribution (63 kV) electrical energy (1,700 GWh) from Tehran Regional Electricity get through 8303 km of medium voltage network (20 kV). 15988 103 140 MVA substation and 21 625 km of medium voltage power grid voltage (400 volts) power for about four million subscribers in Tehran with an area of 1000 square kilometers distributed [4].

(7)

4.2. Choose a suitable model for the development of technology strategy

To identify and assess the strengths and weaknesses of each of the patterns, attitudes and features expected of a pattern of electrical distribution industry technology in strategy model in accordance with Figure 2, technology strategy as an appropriate model for the industry was selected. This model is based on the template provided by Hax and Majlof considered one of the most important models in attitudes based

positioning, of course with a few changes, was designed.

The implementation of this model include: * Determination of the overall strategy Industry * Industrial Business Strategy *Explain the strategic goals of industry *Identify internal process industry *The evaluation process and selection of key processes (strategic) *Identify strategic technologies *Assess the technological capability identified *Assess the attractiveness of the identified technology * Identified risk assessment technology * Formulating technology strategy.

Fig.3.Technology strategy pattern in Tehran electricity distribution companies

4.2.1- Explaining business strategy electricity distribution co.

Due to the lack of transparency grand strategy of the electricity distribution industry and its profound impact on operational factors and strategic decisions, was the first to explain the strategy. Macro strategies based on the mission, vision, goals, values in an industry are selected, generally in the form of one of four defined grand strategy including the integration strategy, focus,

and defensive replacement of course, each of them in their internal surfaces are divided into alternatives. According to the mission, vision and goals of the study are expected in the industry, organizational grand strategy was based strategy focus and this is one of the input parameters in order to begin the second step is considered a model.

4.2.2.Explaining macro strategy in Tehran electricity distribution companies

Macro strategy electric company Business strategy formulation electric company

Identify internal processes power Determining the company's strategic goals

electricity

Process evaluation and selection of key processes

Identify strategic technologies

Capability evaluation technologies Electric Co. company

Assess the attractiveness of technologies Electric Co. Co.

Analysis empowerment dimensions - attractiveness – risk

Strategy formulation technology Electric Company

(8)

Fig.4.The origins of strategic issues in Tehran electricity distribution company

To determine strategies Tehran Electricity Distribution Company, normally four basic origin of Figure 4 were studied. Tehran Electricity Distribution Company as companies that provide goods or public service and non-shared key must meet the expectations of stakeholders. Public service institutions, Tehran Regional Electricity Company, contractors and suppliers of goods and services, Tavanir, social and political authorities of the province, energy suppliers and their expectations of the stakeholders who participate must be considered. The analysis of the company's key stakeholders and expectations of the management of expectations is one of the origins that could be involved in corporate strategy. The second source, the environment in which the company operates well. Environmental factors such as privatization, targeted subsidies, macroeconomic conditions and ... affect the operations of the business. A third factor that

can be effective on firm strategy, capabilities within the organization. Studies in the field of silence, losses, consumption management, peak, service, maintenance and repair, modification and optimization, collection of receivables and cash and... shows the company's strengths and weaknesses. According to this analysis can focus areas in the future to utilize the strengths and improve the weaknesses identified. The fourth source of corporate strategy, a perspective that is considered objectionable. The distance between the current situation and prospects of the company, some of the factors that speed as well as important issues to them in the time horizon to be considered for vision, makes clear. Summary results of analysis of environmental factors, including expectations of stakeholders, an analysis of macroeconomic factors privatization of distribution companies and targeted subsidies are summarized in Figure 5.

Fig.5.The results of the analyzes are validated on strategic issues

Improve enterprise competitiveness

Enhancing stakeholder satisfaction

Management, network optimization, supply and distribution of electric energy is reliable and stable

The company worthy of trust

reduction of casualties Consumption management and

peak shaving Distributed generation with an emphasis on power efficiency Privatization and strengthen their

participation

Reliable and stable powersupply

Smart grid infrastructure The impact of urban policies

The final structure of the strategic issue of Tehran Electricity Distribution Company Reduced cost services

reduction of casualties Financial transparency and

financing needed Improve the quality of services with

smart grid

Debt collection problems arising from the implementation of targeted

subsidies

New methods of financing projects Promote the quality of monitoring

projects

Stakeholder analysis Analysis surroundings St rat egic planning st udies

Vision

Strategic issues Analysis of internal

capabilities Analysis surroundings

(9)

According to the analysis presented is summarized in the figure above, Tehran's most important goals electricity distribution company in order to commercialize or increase the level of competitiveness. Realization of this goal requires addressing major issues such as smart grids, a company with the ability to merit trust, reduce the cost of services and network optimization, management and sustainable supply and distribution of electricity.

4.2.3.Explain the strategic goals of industry This aims at a higher level of operational objectives, but lower than the mission and vision are located. Goals originating from the mission and vision of the industry are different according to each of the strategic objectives and according to a poll of industry management and some of its senior managers; targets were weighted to determine their importance to each other.

Fig.6.Strategic objectives and the importance of each of them

4.2.4. Identification of key processes and strategic technology in Tehran electricity distribution companies

The next step is to identify the company's internal processes and models that are compatible with the conditions of the industry SIPOC and it helped to create and deepen the process approach was used. Processes P1: Emergency Management Network, P2: preventive maintenance, P3: monitoring and control network, P4: Control and monitor the implementation of standards and plans and projects ... P52.

The great virtue of the fact that it is often critical and strategic technology firms in strategic processes and most importantly, it is implied, in this initial screening process level, it seems the sensible thing.

To evaluate the effect of the important strategic objectives and selection processes (key) industry, first, a matrix process - goals (P-O) on the relationship between processes and goals were realized then direct effect on the process goals

were measured through a simple weighting method and it was determined that eight key process industry. Finally, measure the indirect effect of the process of strategic objectives, another process was identified as a key process. After identifying key processes, identify strategic technology begins.

Strategic technologies, technologies that are used in key processes or take advantage of them in key processes of potential. As can be seen in Table 1, between 52 processes in the industry, 9 processes as key processes were identified. By drawing activities within each process, a total of 203 activities were identified, among them 67 Activity as activities related technologies were selected and they were for each process of identifying and cataloging. 147 number of strategic technology that due to the similarity of 45 technologies in various processes, totaling 102 mining technology and the final list of strategic technology industry was in accordance with Table 1. Strategic objectives in Tehran electricity

distribution Co.

32% trust worthy company Smart grid distribution 14%

Sustainable electricity supply and distribution, logic and economics 34%.

(10)

Table 1. Key processes and technologies derived from Tehran electricity Distribution Company.

N

o Key process name

No. Proces

s

Proces s value

Numbe r activiti

es

Numbe r of key activiti

es

The total number of

strategic technolog

ies

The number of similar technologie

s

The number of

strategic technologie

s

1 Emergency Network P1 11 31 11 23 5 18

2 Preventive

Maintenance P2 14 29 8 21 7 14

3

Control and monitor the implementation of

plans and projects

P3 8

19 9 19 7 12

4

Control and monitor the implementation of

plans and projects

P4 11 21

6 12 6 6

5 Designing P5 10 29 12 22 6 16

6 Technology and

Standards P6 8 14 7 19 6 13

7 Manufacturers and

suppliers management P7 10 42 9 19 4 15

8 Health and

environmental safety P8 6 11 3 9 3 6

9 Measurement

equipment P9 7 7 2 3 1 2

Total 85 203 67 147 45 102

However, once this step should be to assess the ability, attractiveness and risks of each of the selected strategic technologies and determine their position should be taken into three-dimensional pattern.

4.2.5.Determining technological capabilities

In this stage, to assess the capabilities of each technology is considered strategic. Intrinsic factor is that, first under the control of technological capability factor depends on industry and secondly, it levels compared with other industries or an expected level (ideal) measured [9]. Based on the above, a questionnaire was developed to a level sufficient data to identify the strategic capabilities of each technology to be evaluated.

The questionnaires a total of 80 managers, experts and relevant experts were sent to the quantitative results are summarized in Table 2 below.The minimum level of technological capability (the number 1) and the maximum level of technological capability (with 9) have been identified for each strategic technology.

4.2.6.Determining attractiveness of technologies

(11)

strategic goals and objectives to the higher levels (for example, cross-organizational and national level) and finally criteria that reflect the inherent characteristics (such as technology life cycle, ability to copy the technology, etc.), noted [9]. In this regard, a questionnaire was developed based on the above so as to be able to assess the attractiveness of each technology selected (102 technology) should be taken. The questionnaire for the survey of 80 managers, experts and relevant experts in the previous step in the evaluation of each technology identified technological capability had commented, provided that the results are summarized in Table 2.

4.2.7.Determining Risk of technologies

Given that the distribution network is constantly changing make-up and development, always new pieces are added to the network and the risk to the diffusion of considerable importance and should developing the technology strategy model. The accidents caused by equipment usage in Tehran are considerable distribution network. Statistics events leading to organ failure and even fatal to humans show that all stakeholders are at risk. Therefore, the amount of financial losses and Johnny stakeholders in the use of technology that is attractive nature must be considered. On the other hand, according to the Energy Department's policy of environmental emissions and prioritizing the use of renewable technologies and implementation of obligations in respect of urban furniture, the risk of environmental exploitation determines the angle technology is inevitable. As was seen in the company's overall strategy, the increased satisfaction of stakeholders, especially consumers is of utmost importance. But power outages per common analysis of the index shows that although technology is attractive from the perspective of power industry but the electricity distribution network technology Tehran earlier than standard life becomes outdated equipment. Therefore, the possibility of technology failure or distortion in the lattice structure should also be considered. Another phenomenon in the distribution network structure Tehran theft

technology used in the network and the practice also leads to disruption of the power grid. Statistics stolen equipment such as cable types is very worrying. Another risk is one of the most important factors used in power grid technologies is the cost. According to the company's core mission electricity supply and reliable electricity distribution, the economy is stable. Therefore, risk analysis, operation or use of equipment that also have economic justification shall prevail. Therefore, in this article for reasons mentioned variable technology risk in developing strategy, technology capability and attractive addition to the variables plays an important role. Therefore, by preparing a questionnaire where technical risks, environmental, security, economic and safety terms was sent to managers and experts to act towards its completion.

4.2.8.Add the risk dimension in capability – attractiveness matrix

(12)

the security of a power system demonstrates the ability to respond to disturbances in the power system and disorders is possible. So safety-related system is a system dynamic response can be evaluated through dynamic studies. In other words, the security of the system and the immune

system called transition states after the upheaval in the new work can continue to function without any problems. Power quality can be a problem in several categories, such as deterministic, voltage drop, overvoltage, transients, noise, flicker, harmonics and frequency changes made.

Cut voltage drop

Overvoltage Transient noise

Flickr Harmonic Change frequency

Fig.7.a variety of possible disturbances in power quality

Reliability of equipment that is in the open air is heavily influenced by weather conditions. Temperature, humidity, wind, lightning, snow and ice are very important. Location of different risk creates against the trees, the animals, accidents, and vandalism. Equipment installed indoors is less affected but the equipment is still influenced by temperature, humidity and air conditioning as environmental factors [20]. Operating conditions also influence the failure rate and aging equipment. Perhaps the greatest impact load that seems to be related to transformers, switches and other equipment. For equipment that is used to alternate working hours and cycles are important performance. There harmonics can also affect the failure rate. Maintenance is the last of the factors influencing the failure rate. Almost all external equipment needs to be painted and protection covers are in the open air. Airlines must be subject to pruning operations and equipment combination

requires periodic maintenance, oil changes, lubrication and other measures are maintained. The lack of such repairs and maintenance can affect the reliability [21]. Therefore, risk analysis and implications attractive technologies from the technical, environmental, economic, technical and security services for the realization of its goals, "the company worthy of trust" is very necessary. Moreover, the important dimensions (risk) three-dimensional pattern analysis technology portfolio is considered. (Figure 8)

4.2.8.Assessing results technologies Capability - Attractiveness - Risk

Afterwards, the completed evaluation questionnaires, Capability, attractiveness and risk technologies, results privileges based on power network identification codes of any technology risk appetite helpful to Tehran (L: Low Risk & M: Medium Risk & H: High Risk) are shown in Table 3.

Table 3: Results score of capability - Attractiveness - technologies risk

No Technology

title

Identific ation Code

Score of capability

(1-9)

Score of attractiv eness

(1-9)

Score of Risk (0-1)

No Technology

title

Identific ation Code

Score of capabilit

y (1-9)

Score of attractiven ess (1-9)

Score of Risk (0-1)

1 Concrete base TL01 5 5.7 0.14 26 Detailed

conversion TM19 8 4 0.5

2 Aluminium TM01 5 4.2 0.38 27 Low-loss

(13)

Air

3 Coated

aluminum wire TM02 4 3.7 0.38 28

Low-voltage

switchboard TM21 8 6.8 0.5

4 Self-retaining

cables TM03 3.5 5.9 0.42 29 Arrester TM22 7 5.1 0.42

5 Consul TL02 6.5 4.2 0.18 30 Cut-out fuse TM23 5 4.8 0.54

6 Insulator TL03 2.5 5.3 0.22 31 Full Pad

Transformer TL06 9 4.6 0.28

7 Clamps TM04 6.5 4 0.38 32 Contactors for

lighting TH03 6.5 4.3 0.61

8 Crimping

referendum TM05 5 4.4 0.42 33 Fuse Base TM24 5 4.7 0.5

9 Air Sksioner TM06 2 6.3 0.46 34 Micro switch TL07 2.5 4.3 0.18

10 Percy Bush TM07 4 4.4 0.42 35

Switches automatic low-voltage

TM25 3 5.4 0.54

11 Riklozr TM08 1.5 4.2 0.34 36 Key typical

fuse TH04 4 4.9 0.58

12 Tablosksionr TM09 4 4.2 0.54 37 Rotary

switches Key TM26 4 5 0.46

13 Section Liser TM10 2 4.6 0.4 38

Compact fuse switch vertical

TM27 2.5 5.1 0.5

14 Error detector

lines TL04 2 6 0.12 39

Dehumidifier

s TL08 5.5 4.6 0.3

15 Autoboastr TM11 2 2.7 0.44 40

Earth connection

system

TM28 8 7.4 0.26

16 Separator airline TM12 2.5 4 0.38 41 Current

transformer TM29 4 5.7 0.46

17 Air-voltage

transformer TL05 2 4.8 0.18 42

Voltage

transformer TM30 4 5.7 0.5

18 20KV Copper

cable TM13 5 1.8 0.42 43

Air Designator

gas TM31 3 5.4 0.54

19 Aluminum

20KV cable TM14 5 7.3 0.56 44

Grounding

transformer TM32 4 8 0.42

20 Internal cable

bushing Heat TH01 8 4 0.7 45 Padded cell TM33 7.5 5.1 0.34

21 Internal cable

bushing bearing TM15 8 2.5 0.42 46

Compact

Framework TM34 2.5 5.1 0.54

22 Single PLUGIN

cable bushing TM16 8 4.6 0.5 47 Skesioenr TM35 4 4.6 0.38

23 Heat aerial cable

bushing TM17 8 4.4 0.54 48 Designator TM36 4 5.6 0.54

24 Detailed thermal

20KV TM18 8 4 0.54 49

Primer relay

TM37 3.5 4.2 0.42

25 Iron detailed TH02 8 4 0.66 50 Capacitor TM38 4.5 6 0.5

51 Building low TM39 9 6.1 0.42 79 Shelter TM57 8.75 5.1 0.46

52 Fuse 20 KV TM40 5 3.6 0.38 80 Modular platform TL14 9 4 0.28

53 Astronomical

Clock TM41 3 5.2 0.42 81

Terminal boards

(14)

54 Photocell TM42 4.5 4.4 0.34 82

Branching boxes with metal

housing

TM59 9 5.1 0.42

55 Air conditioning

system TM43 8 5 0.5 83

Branching boxes with metal

housing

TM60 6.5 4.4 0.46

56 Anclozher TL09 3.5 4 0.3 84 Crimping

Bi-Metal TM61 3.5 7.2 0.42

57 Copper busbars TL10 8.5 4.4 0.3 85 Lamp Base Metal TM62 4 5.8 0.38

58 Relay Bokhelts TM44 3 4.8 0.38 86 Branches for

light metal base TM63 4 4.8 0.38

59 thermometer TL11 2.5 4.8 0.3 87 Incandescent

lamp TM64 2 2.25 0.38

60

Posts prefabricated

compact

TH05 2.5 4.7 0.68 88 Energy saving

lightbulb TM65 2 3.9 0.46

61 pad like post TH06 3 5.1 0.62 89 Sodium vapor

street lights TM66 2 4.9 0.42

62 Secondary relay TM45 2.5 4.2 0.46 90 Sodium vapor

lights TM67 2 4.5 0.42

63

Ground substation automation

equipment

TM46 1.5 5.5 0.54 91 Glass bubbles TM68 3 4 0.42

64 Smart Lock TM47 2.5 5.6 0.42 92 Sodium vapor

lamp TM69 2 4.9 0.42

65 Board motor TH07 3 5.9 0.62 93 Mercury vapor

lamps TM70 2 4.9 0.5

66 Heat Shrink TM48 2.5 4.4 0.38 94 Ballast TM71 3.5 5 0.42

67

Automatic charging

inverter TM49 2.5 5.2 0.46 95 Eygnitor TM72 3.5 5 0.42

68 Rock TL12 8.75 5.4 0.18 96 Mechanical

Meters TM73 3 6.6 0.42

69 copper wire TM50 5075 5.6 0.42 97 Digital Meters TM74 2.5 7.6 0.46

70

Hanging Clamps self-retaining cables

TM51 6.25 5.5 0.38 98

Box / Panel

Meters TM75 4.5 7.3 0.38

71

Detailed self-sustaining Low Voltage Cables

TH08 8.75 4.3 0.66 99 miniature key TM76 4 5.9 0.42

72

Full containment Low Voltage

TM52 8.75 3.4 0.38 100 Distributed

generation TM77 4 609 0.40

73 Air fuse box TM53 8.75 5 0.42 101 Solar Energy TL15 3.5 7.4 0.26

74 Advance

bracket TM54 9 2.1 0.38 102 Stability TM78 4.8 6.7 0.52

75 Bi-Metal

clamps TM55 5 4.2 0.46

76 Cap

self-retaining cables TL13 5 4.7 0.14

77

Proto-round

PVC cable TM56 5 5.9 0.42

(15)

4.2.9. Devise power company technology strategy

Any technology can be used in three-dimensional space, "Attractiveness - capability - Risk" by a trio regularly (numbers obtained from the

evaluation of attractiveness, competence and strategic technological risk) and with a point to be displayed. These points can be set in the cloud "technologies basket" is called. Figure 8 note.

Fig.8.3D Model (attractiveness - capability - Risk) technology

strategy

At this stage, it is necessary to distribute power appropriate to the situation of technology strategy in each of the areas described twelve matrix.

4.2.9.1. Areas strategy IV, VIII, XII:

In general, strategic technology industry in this region has been found, including 15 technologies that are approximately 14.7 of the total strategic technology in the fall. This technology was attractive and high ability for industry and the important role the industry plays in the realization of strategic objectives. Due to the importance of the technology, industry recognition should be given to technological advances and their actual and potential developments very sensitive and intelligent to monitor these developments. In this regard, creating and technological infrastructure necessary to enable alignment with developments in the industry, is inevitable. According to the innovation, research and development in these

(16)

Innovation Management (research and technology transfer) project performance evaluation of research and development * Continuous innovation * the use of technology overflow out of the industry * Foresight critical technologies. Industrial strategy positions the process of preservation and development. On the other hand, due to the desired power industry with respect to these units should be paid special attention in the following areas:

* Maximum use of these technologies in order to achieve the strategic objectives of brotherhood industry * Continuous performance appraisal of technologies and develop skills necessary to maintain readiness. Technology like steel base Barysk bit (of rust), and the use of technologies such as Medium Risk are entitled arrester. Instant power in two basic forms willow and metal oxide are used. Silicon carbide older and requires an air gap to avoid excessive current during normal operation. Moisture in the air gap can cause corrosion and withstand voltage air gap is reduced. In addition, the thermal expansion of the heat of water vapor into the arrester can create mechanical stress damage and lead to deterioration in the situation becomes normal and overvoltage. Breakdown, exacerbated by heat, breaking stress and cracking under the pressure of the arrester are four other main failure mode.

4.2.9.2. Areas Strategy III, VII, XI:

Strategic technology industry in this region has been found, including 28 technology that approximately 27.3% of the total strategic technology in the fall. In other words, in the field of technology that really was not based on current needs and future and the technological requirements (strategic) it is not considered to be invested. Due to the shift in the company's strategic goals of the smart grid is the best available technology has been transferred out of the industry and demand for the industry in this area from outside the firm. For this reason, we recommend the following strategies:

* Manage the demand to improve capacity building within the firm * Marketing technologies

available * Contribute to the formation of the innovation chain in the domestic manufacturers. Technology such as dehumidifiers and consoles are low risk. Risk technologies such as clamps, crimping average, but technologies such as contactors and detailed high risk are made of cast iron for the following reasons: Aluminium joint water reacts with aluminum free gas emissions that cause joint destruction. In connectors oxide film growth can cause sparks on the contacts. This causes failure is weatherproof and sparks in the air. The agent in oil and gas production could be explosive.

4.2.9.3. Strategy areas II, VI, X:

(17)

knowledge or a combination of them) to identify and then specific measures and actions to resolve these weaknesses to take action. The programs of gradually increasing scientific capabilities and technical technologies that improve the level they should always be the industry's attention. This perspective suggests strategies for this area include: * Inform the development of future technologies attractive to chain planning * required * to technological innovations make plans for a gradual strengthening of scientific-technical (development of technological capability) * Modify the above programs and monitoring their implementation. Industry grand strategy the processes of capability and capacity building through improved choice, this means they have to choose the technology industry to invest more important and enhancing the capability of criteria to consider in prioritizing. These criteria can be subject to the following conditions: * * technologies present attractive levels mean the ability to determine the proximity technologies * the need to develop technologies and customer demands on time, financial resources, personnel, etc. * How to achieve the desired level of development of technology for strategic processes. Thus, it is appropriate to prioritize strategic processes and technology strategic planning, the highest efficiency in promoting the relevant capabilities and thus provide a better service for the industry to be created. The risk later technologies such as capacitor banks in distribution network, there dielectric composite that gets broken. The main capacitor voltage and the drain part of the problem. Overvoltage caused by switching keys painted surface can cause partial discharge in the capacitor dielectric losses.

4.2.9.4. Strategy areas I, V, VIIII:

This area includes 27 technologies strategic technologies that approximately 26.4% of the total strategic technology encompass elected. The overall strategy of the technology industry is meeting the needs of the industry (especially scientific collaborators and partners - industry it).

(18)

* Use external parties * Develop Learning Standards * Classification * Granting financial facilities creators. Statistics now show that damaged the transformer windings and transformer terminals are in operation. In another study external corrosion, aging and oil-insulated transformers are coupled destruction of 37 percent. The operation of the transformer hot spot temperature higher than normal temperature causes a doubling of the rate of heat aging. In addition, key technologies such as conventional switches, mechanical errors related to the shift

mechanism, contacts erosion and leakage of the main reasons for the creation of high risk. Thermal overload and the major causes of failure in conventional switches and keys heat problem for outdoor equipment, which are exacerbated by sunlight.

5. RESULTS

5.1. Technology portfolio strategy

Three-dimensional analysis capabilities - Attractiveness - risk areas identified by codes 12 children are shown in Table 4.

Table 4. Technology portfolio strategy

A

re

a Ability

X ≤ 9

1

Attractiv eness

Y ≤ 9

1

Risk

Z ≤ 1

≤ 0 Identification Code F re q u e n cy

Technology portfolio strategy

1 1≤X < 5 1≤Y < 5 0≤Z < 0.4

TL05-TL07-TL09-TL11 4

Technologies in these areas through the market, outsourcing and supply network we create - using resources outside the industry - Identification of reliable suppliers and graded them - Enabling the use of different sources in order to prevent the

monopolization of activities Using technologies such as

conventional fuse key in Tehran grid structure carries risks for the following reasons: errors related to mechanical shift mechanism - Connect erosion and the formation of leakage

5

X < 5

1 1≤Y < 5

Z ≤ 0.6

≤ 0.4 TM02-TM07-TM08-TM09 TM10TM11TM12TM37TM35 - TM42TM44TM45TM48TM63TM64 - TM65-TM66-TM67-TM68-TM69-TM70 21

9 1≤X < 5 1≤Y < 5 <Z ≤ 1 O.6

TH04-TH05 2

2 1≤X < 5 5≤Y ≤ 9 0≤Z < 0.4 TL04-TL15- TL03 2 Technologies in the areas of research and development, expand domestic as well as joint venture - plans a gradual strengthening of scientific and technical and the allocation of funds to cover the technologies - to identify the owners of technology and the evaluation of their ability - to negotiate with domestic universities and scientific centers

Using technologies such as E-Pad and Panel Tehran engine in the power grid structure carries risks.

6

X < 5

1

Y ≤ 9

5

Z ≤ 0.6

≤ 0.4 TM03-TM06- TM20- TM25-TM26-TM27- TM32-TM34-TM36- TM38-TM41-TM46- TM47-TM49-TM61- TM62-TM71-TM72- TM73-TM74-TM75-TM76-TM77-TM78 27

10 1≤X < 5 5≤Y ≤ 9 <Z ≤ 1 O.6

TH07- TH06 2

3 5≤X ≤ 9 1≤Y < 5 0≤Z < 0.4

TL02-TL08-TL06-TL10- TL14-TL13 6

Technologies in the areas of research and development joint venture develops internally as well as technology transfer between

organizational - Marketing in order to sell the technology to other industries using technologies such as contactors and joint power grid iron structure 7

X ≤ 9

5

1≤Y < 5

Z ≤ 0.6

(19)

11 5≤X ≤ 9 1≤Y < 5 <Z ≤ 1 O.6

TH01 TH02 -- TH03

TH08-TH09 5

Tehran carries risks for the following reasons: The growth of the oxide film can cause sparks on the contacts. iron water penetration The interactions between free gas emissions that are causing failures.

4 5≤X ≤ 9 5≤Y ≤ 9 0≤Z < 0.4 TL01- TL12 2 Through internal research and development of technologies in these areas should be developed within the company Dodd maintain and develop the ability to transfer technologies outside the industry - following the development in these

Technologies using technologies such as arrester grid structure Tehran has medium risk is for the following reasons: broken, the heat intensified, breaking stress and cracking under the pressure of four fashion corrupted.

8 5≤X ≤ 9 5≤Y ≤ 9 Z ≤ 0.6

0.4

TM21-TM22-TM28-

TM14-TM33-TM39-TM43-TM57-TM59

- TM50-TM51-TM53-TM56

13

12 5≤X ≤ 9 5≤Y ≤ 9 <Z ≤ 1 O.6

- 0

6.DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

The main findings of this study can be summarized as follows: * scientific achievements investigation could, identify different attitudes in developing the technology strategy, and analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the models presented. * Explain and describe the characteristics of an appropriate model for strategy formulation and manufacturing technology to select the desired pattern. * Vision and mission to analyze the factors affecting the industries studied, including its strategic objectives and ultimately the strategic goals industry * Set the desired time horizon industrial business plans in order to clarify and explain the business-oriented industry and its specific operational plans. * Identify internal processes based on the model industry SIPOC (52 process), the identification and evaluation of key processes and activities associated with them * Strategic technology to determine key processes identified, assess the attractiveness - capability - each of them analyzed the risk of different regions template * Determine the direction of future industrial investments. * approach to consensus building and technology strategy one distinctive results of this study, the role of industry and its importance in developing the technology strategy

(20)

timing of selected technologies and the development and utilization of them (according to the subtleties of them) * The annual review of developed technology strategy and modify it according to the development of new technological changes, changes in strategic goals. * Develop other technologies studied industrial operation * Regarding the implementation of technology strategy and does not ignore the issue of the grounds for the formulation, implementation and continuous improvements in technology strategy * key factors, solutions and methods to avoid problems in the implementation of technology strategy.

7. REFERENCES

1. Hax, A., C, Majluf, N., S., "The Strategy Concept and Process: A Pragmatic Approach", Prentice Hall, (1996)

2. Sharif ,N., (1989) , Management of Technology Transfer and Development, APCTT

3. Danila, N., "Strategic Evaluation and Selection of R&D Projects", R&D Management, Vol. 19, No. 1, (1989)

4. www.TBTB.IR

5. "IEEE Recommended Practice for Reliable Industrial and Commercial Power Systems," IEEE Std.493-1997, 2011

6. "IEEE guide for electric power distribution quality power indices (IEEE Std 1366-2003)," The IEEE Inc., USA, 2004.

7. R. Billinton, R. N. Allan, and R. N. Allan, Reliability evaluation of power systems vol. 2: Plenum press New York, 1984

8. Porter M., "Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance", Free Press,(1985)

9. Araasti , M.R. (1380), Selecting Appropriate Model of Technology Development Strategy in Iran Electrification Industry.

10.Hax, A.C. and Majluf, N.S., 1996, "The Strategy Concept and Process: A Pragmatic Approach",Prentice-Hall.(1996)

11.Chapelet B., Tovstiga G., "Development of a Research Methology for Assessing a Firm's Business process-Related Technologies". Journal of technology management, vol, 15. No. (1998)

12.Little, A. D., "The strategic management of technology", European Management Forum, Davos, (1981)

13.BoozAllen & Hamilton, " The strategic management of technology", outlook, falLwinter, (1981)

14.Foster, R.N., 1986, "Timing Technological Transitions", in Horwich M., “Technology in the Modern Corporation: A Strategic Perspective”, Pergamon Press.

15.D'Aveni, R. A., "Hypercompetitive rivalries-competing in highly dynamic environments", free press, new york, (1994)

16.Itami, H. and Numagami,T., "Dynamic interaction between strategy and technology", Strategy Management Journal, vol 13, (1992) 17.Chiesa, V., 2001, "R&D Strategy and

Organization", Imperial College Press.

18.Burgelman, R.A., Maidique, M.A. and Wheelwright, S.C., 2001, "Strategic Management of Technology and Innovation", McGraw-Hill.

19.Richard E. Brown, ” Electric Power Distribution Reliability” 2nd Edition, CRC Press,2009

20."A review of the reliability of electric distribution system components: EPRI White Paper," Technical Report 1001873. Electrical Power Research Institute, 2001.

Imagem

Table 1. Key processes and technologies derived from Tehran electricity Distribution Company

Table 1.

Key processes and technologies derived from Tehran electricity Distribution Company p.10
Table 3: Results score of capability - Attractiveness - technologies risk  No  Technology  title  Identification Code  Score of  capability  (1-9)  Score of attractiveness  (1-9)  Score of Risk (0-1)  No  Technology title  Identification Code  Score of cap

Table 3:

Results score of capability - Attractiveness - technologies risk No Technology title Identification Code Score of capability (1-9) Score of attractiveness (1-9) Score of Risk (0-1) No Technology title Identification Code Score of cap p.12
Table 4. Technology portfolio strategy

Table 4.

Technology portfolio strategy p.18

Referências