Jean Carlo da Cunha

253 

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❏❊❆◆ ❈❆❘▲❖ ❉❆ ❈❯◆❍❆

P❘❖❏❊❚❖ ❊ ■▼P▲❊▼❊◆❚❆➬➹❖ ❉❊ ❯▼ ❉❙❚❆❚❈❖▼ ▼❯▲❚■❋❯◆❈■❖◆❆▲ ❈❖◆❚❘❖▲❆❉❖ ❊▼ ❈❖❘❘❊◆❚❊ ❊ ❈❖▼ ▼■❚■●❆➬➹❖ ❉❊ ❍❆❘▼Ô◆■❈❆❙ P❖❘ ❉❊❚❊❈➬➹❖

❉❊ ❚❊◆❙➹❖

❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ❞❡ ▼❡str❛❞♦✱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥✲ t❛❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ r❡q✉✐s✐t♦ ♣❛r❝✐❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ♦❜t❡♥çã♦ ❞♦ ●r❛✉ ❞❡ ▼❡str❡ ❡♠ ❊♥✲ ❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❊❧étr✐❝❛ ♣❡❧❛ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ❊st❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❙❛♥t❛ ❈❛t❛r✐♥❛✱ ♥♦ ❈❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ ❈✐ê♥❝✐❛s ❚❡❝♥♦❧ó❣✐❝❛s✳

❖r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r✿ ❉r✳ ▼❛r❝❡❧❧♦ ▼❡③❛✲ r♦❜❛

❈♦♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r✿ ❉r✳ ❙ér❣✐♦ ❱✐❞❛❧ ●❛r❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❖❧✐✈❡✐r❛

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C972p Cunha, Jean Carlo da

Projeto e implementação de um DSTATCOM multifuncional controlado em corrente e com mitigação de harmônicas por detecção de tensão / Jean Carlo da Cunha. – 2015.

253 p. : il. ; 21 cm

Orientador: Marcello Mezaroba

Coorientador: Sérgio Vidal Garcia de Oliveira Bibliografia: p. 243-250

Dissertação (mestrado) – Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Centro Ciências Tecnológicas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Elétrica, Joinville, 2015.

1. Engenharia elétrica. 2. DSTATCOM. 3. Conversor multifunctional. 4 . Detecção de tensão. I. Mezaroba, Marcelo. II. Oliveira, Sérgio Vidal Garcia de. III. Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Elétrica. IV. Título.

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❆●❘❆❉❊❈■▼❊◆❚❖❙

▼✉✐t❛s ♣❡ss♦❛s ❢❛③❡♠ ♣❛rt❡ ❞❛ ❤✐stór✐❛ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳ ❆❣r❛❞❡ç♦ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛♦s ♠❡✉s ♣❛✐s ♣♦r s✉❛ t❛♠❛♥❤❛ ❣❡♥❡✲ r♦s✐❞❛❞❡✳

❆♦ ♠❡✉ ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r Pr♦❢✳ ❉r✳ ▼❛r❝❡❧❧♦ ▼❡③❛r♦❜❛ ♣♦r ❛❝r❡❞✐✲ t❛r ❡♠ ♠❡✉ ♣♦t❡♥❝✐❛❧ ❡ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛r ♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦s ♠❛✐s ❛❞❡q✉❛❞♦s✳

❆♦ ♠❡✉ ❝♦♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r Pr♦❢✳ ❉r✳ ❙❡r❣✐♦ ❱✳ ●✳ ❖❧✐✈❡✐r❛ ♣❡❧❛s r❡✈✐sõ❡s ❞♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛❞♦s ❡ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳

❆♦ Pr♦❢✳ ❉r✳ ▲❡❛♥❞r♦ ▼✐❝❤❡❧s ♣♦r t♦❞❛ s✉❛ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❛ ❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❡ ❛♦ ❛rt✐❣♦s ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛❞♦s✳

❆♦ Pr♦❢✳ ❉r✳ ❆❞r✐❛♥♦ Pér❡s ♣❡❧❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳ ❆♦ Pr♦❢✳ ❏♦s❡❧✐t♦ ♣♦r ❢♦r♥❡❝❡r ♦ ❝ó❞✐❣♦ ❜❛s❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♥♦ ❉❙P✳ ❆♦ ❝♦❧❡❣❛ ❞❡ ♣ós✲❣r❛❞✉❛çã♦ ❘✉❜❡♥s ❚✳ ❍♦❝❦ ❏✉♥✐♦r ♣❡❧♦ s✉✲ ♣♦rt❡ ♥❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳

❆♦ ❝♦❧❡❣❛ ❞❡ ♠❡str❛❞♦ ❋❡❧✐♣❡ ❏✳ ❩✐♠❛♥♥ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉①í❧✐♦ ♥♦ tr❛t❛✲ ♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛s ✜❣✉r❛s ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳

❆♦s ❝♦❧❡❣❛s ❞❡ ♣ós✲❣r❛❞✉❛çã♦ ●✉st❛✈♦ ▲❛♠❜❡rt✱ ▼❛r❝♦s ❱✳ ❇r❡ss❛♥ ❡ ❘❡♥❛♥ ❙❡❜❡♠ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉①í❧✐♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❡❞✐t♦r ❞❡ t❡①t♦s ▲❛t❡①✳

❆♦s ❜♦❧s✐st❛s ❞❡ ✐♥✐❝✐❛çã♦ ❝✐❡♥tí✜❝❛ ❘♦❜❡rt♦ ❙✳ ▲✐♠❛✱ ❍❡♥r✐q✉❡ ❘✳ ❇r✉♥♦ ❡ ❲❡♥❞❡❧ ❖✳ ❘♦ss✐ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉①í❧✐♦ ❡ ❞❡❞✐❝❛çã♦ ♥❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s s♦❧✐❝✐t❛❞❛s✳

❆ t♦❞♦s ♦s ♠❡♠❜r♦s ❞♦ ◆ú❝❧❡♦ ❞❡ Pr♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❊♥❡r❣✐❛ ❊❧étr✐❝❛ ✭♥P❊❊✮ ♣♦r t♦❞♦ ❛♣♦✐♦ ❡ ❛♠✐③❛❞❡✳

➚s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ❯❉❊❙❈✱ ❈❆P❊❙✱ ❈❡❧❡s❝✱ ❙❯PP▲■❊❘✱ ❋■❚❊❏ ❡ ❋❆P❊❙❈ ♣❡❧♦s r❡❝✉rs♦s ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡st❡ tr❛✲ ❜❛❧❤♦✳

➚ ♠✐♥❤❛ q✉❡r✐❞❛ ▲❛r✐ss❛ ❈✳ ❑r❡ss ♣❡❧♦ s✉♣♦rt❡ ❡ ❛♣♦✐♦ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ❡ss❡ ♣❡r❝✉rs♦✳

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✏◆✐♥❣✉é♠ ♣♦❞❡ s✉❜✐r ❛ ❡s❝❛❞❛ ❞♦ s✉❝❡ss♦ ❝♦♠ ❛s ♠ã♦s ♥♦s ❜♦❧s♦s✳✧

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❘❊❙❯▼❖

❉❆ ❈❯◆❍❆✱ ❏❡❛♥ ❈✳ Pr♦❥❡t♦ ❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❉❙❚❆❚✲ ❈❖▼ ♠✉❧t✐❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❛❞♦ ❡♠ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❡ ❝♦♠ ♠✐t✐❣❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝❛s ♣♦r ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦✳ ❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ❞❡ ▼❡str❛❞♦ ❡♠ ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❊❧étr✐❝❛ ✕ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ❊st❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❙❛♥t❛ ❈❛t❛r✐♥❛✳ ❏♦✐♥✈✐❧❧❡✱ ✷✵✶✺✳

❊st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ ❡sq✉❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❈♦♠♣❡♥s❛❞♦r ❊stát✐❝♦ ♣❛r❛ r❡❞❡ ❞❡ ❉✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ✭❉❙❚❆❚❈❖▼✮✱ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ r❡❣✉✲ ❧❛r ❛ ♠❛❣♥✐t✉❞❡ ❞❛ t❡♥sã♦ ♥♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ❛❝♦♣❧❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛ ✭P❆❈✮ ❡ t❛♠❜é♠ ♣♦ss✉✐ ❛ ❢✉♥çã♦ ❞❡ ❡❧✐♠✐♥❛r ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞❛ t❡♥sã♦ ♥♦ P❆❈✳ ❆ r❡❣✉❧❛çã♦ ❞❛ ♠❛❣♥✐t✉❞❡ ❞❛ t❡♥sã♦ é ❡❢❡t✉❛❞❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ✐♥❥❡çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❡♠ q✉❛❞r❛t✉r❛ ♥♦ P❆❈ ❡ ❛ ♠✐✲ t✐❣❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝❛s é ❡❢❡t✉❛❞❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❧❡✐t✉r❛ ❞❛ t❡♥sã♦ ❞♦ P❆❈ ❡ ❣❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡s ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝❛s ❝❛♣❛③❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣❡♥s❛r ❛s ❞✐st♦rçõ❡s ♥❛ t❡♥sã♦ ❞♦ P❆❈✱ s❡♠ ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛ ❧❡✐t✉r❛ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ♦✉ ❞❛ ❝❛r❣❛✳ ❖ r❡❣✉❧❛❞♦r é ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❱❙■ tr✐✲ ❢ás✐❝♦ à q✉❛tr♦ ✜♦s ❝♦♥❡❝t❛❞♦ ❡♠ ♣❛r❛❧❡❧♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ r❡❞❡ ❞❡ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦✳ ❆ ♣♦tê♥❝✐❛ ❛t✐✈❛ ❞r❡♥❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r é s♦♠❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ s✉♣r✐r s✉❛s ♣❡r❞❛s ❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❛r ❛ t❡♥sã♦ ❞♦ ❜❛rr❛♠❡♥t♦ ❈❈✳ ❊st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ♣♦ss✉✐ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❡ s✐♠✉❧❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t♦ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛✐s✳

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❆❇❙❚❘❆❈❚

❉❆ ❈❯◆❍❆✱ ❏❡❛♥ ❈✳ ❉❡s✐❣♥ ❛♥❞ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ ❛ ♠✉❧t✐❢✉♥❝✲ t✐♦♥❛❧ ❝✉rr❡♥t✲❝♦♥tr♦❧❧❡❞ ❉❙❚❆❚❈❖▼ ✇✐t❤ ❤❛r♠♦♥✐❝ ♠✐t✐❣❛✲ t✐♦♥ ❜② ✈♦❧t❛❣❡ ❞❡t❡❝t✐♦♥✳ ▼❛st❡r✬s ❚❤❡s✐s ✐♥ ❊❧❡❝tr✐❝❛❧ ❊♥❣✐♥❡❡r✐♥❣ ✕ ❙❛♥t❛ ❈❛t❛r✐♥❛ ❙t❛t❡ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐t②✳ ❏♦✐♥✈✐❧❧❡✱ ✷✵✶✺✳

❚❤✐s ✇♦r❦ ♣r❡s❡♥ts ❛ ❝♦♥tr♦❧ s❝❤❡♠❡ ❢♦r ❙t❛t✐❝ ❈♦♠♣❡♥s❛t♦rs ❛♣♣❧✐❡❞ ✐♥ ❉✐str✐❜✉t✐♦♥ ❙②st❡♠s ✭❉❙❚❆❚❈❖▼✮✱ t❤❛t ❛r❡ ✉s❡❞ ❢♦r r❡❣✉❧❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ ✈♦❧t❛❣❡ ♠❛❣♥✐t✉❞❡ ❛t P♦✐♥t ♦❢ ❈♦♠♠♦♥ ❈♦✉♣❧✐♥❣ ✭P❈❈✮ ❛♥❞ ✐t ❛❧s♦ ❤❛s t❤❡ ❢✉♥❝t✐♦♥ ♦❢ ❡❧✐♠✐♥❛t✐♥❣ ❤❛r♠♦♥✐❝s ♦❢ ✈♦❧t❛❣❡ t❤r♦✉❣❤ P❈❈✲✈♦❧t❛❣❡✲ ❞❡t❡❝t✐♦♥ ♠❡t❤♦❞✳ ❱♦❧t❛❣❡✲♠❛❣♥✐t✉❞❡ r❡❣✉❧❛t✐♦♥ ✐s ❛❝❝♦♠♣❧✐s❤❡❞ t❤r♦✉❣❤ q✉❛❞r❛t✉r❡✲❝✉rr❡♥t ✐♥❥❡❝t✐♦♥ ❛t P❈❈ ❛♥❞ ❤❛r♠♦♥✐❝ ♠✐t✐❣❛t✐♦♥ ✐s r❡✲ ❧❡❛s❡❞ r❡❛❞✐♥❣ t❤❡ ✈♦❧t❛❣❡ ❛t P❈❈ ❛♥❞ ♣r♦❞✉❝✐♥❣ ❤❛r♠♦♥✐❝ ❝✉rr❡♥ts ❝❛♣❛❜❧❡ ♦❢ ✈♦❧t❛❣❡✲❞✐st♦rt✐♦♥ ❝♦♠♣❡♥s❛t✐♦♥ ❛t P❈❈✳ ❯s✐♥❣ t❤✐s ♠❡t❤♦❞ t❤❡r❡ ✐s ♥♦t ♥❡❝❡ss✐t② ♦❢ s♦✉r❝❡ ♦r ❧♦❛❞✲❝✉rr❡♥t ♠❡❛s✉r❡♠❡♥t✳ ❚❤❡ ✈♦❧t✲ ❛❣❡ r❡❣✉❧❛t♦r ✇❛s ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❡❞ ✉s✐♥❣ ❛ ❢♦✉r✲✇✐r❡ t❤r❡❡✲♣❤❛s❡ s❤✉♥t✲ ❝♦♥♥❡❝t❡❞ ❱❙■✳ ❈♦♥s✉♠♣t✐♦♥ ♦❢ ❛❝t✐✈❡ ♣♦✇❡r ✐s ♥❡❡❞❡❞ t♦ ❝♦♠♣❡♥s❛t❡ ❝♦♥✈❡rt❡r✬s ❧♦ss❡s ❛♥❞ r❡❣✉❧❛t❡ ❞❝✲❧✐♥❦ ✈♦❧t❛❣❡✳ ❙✐♠✉❧❛t✐♦♥ ❛♥❞ ❡①♣❡r✲ ✐♠❡♥t❛❧ r❡s✉❧ts ♦❢ t❤❡ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❡ s②st❡♠ ❛r❡ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡❞ t♦ ❞❡♠♦♥str❛t❡ t❤❡ ❡✛❡❝t✐✈❡♥❡ss ♦❢ t❤❡ s♦❧✉t✐♦♥✳

(14)
(15)

▲■❙❚❆ ❉❊ ❋■●❯❘❆❙

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶ ✕ ❊str✉t✉r❛ ●❡r❛❧ ❞♦ ❙✐st❡♠❛✱ ✐❧✉str❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ ♣♦s✲ sí✈❡❧ P♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ❆❝♦♣❧❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❈❛r❣❛ ✭P❆❈✮ ♦♥❞❡ ♦ ❉✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ▼ó✈❡❧ ❘❡❣✉❧❛❞♦r ❞❛ ◗✉❛❧✐✲ ❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❚❡♥sã♦ ✭❉▼❘◗❚✮ é ❝♦♥❡❝t❛❞♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷ ✕ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ♠❡✐❛✲♣♦♥t❡ tr✐❢ás✐❝♦ ❝♦♠ ✜❧tr♦ ▲❈✳ ✳ ✹✽ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸ ✕ ❈✐r❝✉✐t♦ ♠❡✐❛✲♣♦♥t❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹ ✕ ❘❡❣✐õ❡s ❞❡ ♦♣❡r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ♠❡✐❛✲♣♦♥t❡✳ ✺✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺ ✕ ❊t❛♣❛s ❞❡ ♦♣❡r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ♠❡✐❛✲♣♦♥t❡✳ ✳ ✺✸ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻ ✕ Pr✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❢♦r♠❛s ❞❡ ♦♥❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ❜r❛ç♦ ❞♦

❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼ ✕ ❱❛❧♦r ♠é❞✐♦ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞♦ ✐♥t❡rr✉♣t♦r ❡♠ ❢✉♥✲

çã♦ ❞❛ ❞❡❢❛s❛❣❡♠φ❡ ❞♦ í♥❞✐❝❡ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛çã♦ ma✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✼

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✽ ✕ ❱❛❧♦r ❡✜❝❛③ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞♦ ✐♥t❡rr✉♣t♦r ❡♠ ❢✉♥✲ çã♦ ❞❛ ❞❡❢❛s❛❣❡♠φ❡ ❞♦ í♥❞✐❝❡ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛çã♦ ma✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✼

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✾ ✕ ❱❛❧♦r ♠é❞✐♦ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞♦ ❞✐♦❞♦ ❡♠ ❢✉♥çã♦ ❞❛ ❞❡❢❛s❛❣❡♠φ❡ ❞♦ í♥❞✐❝❡ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛çã♦ma✳ ✺✽

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✵ ✕ ❱❛❧♦r ❡✜❝❛③ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞♦ ❞✐♦❞♦ ❡♠ ❢✉♥çã♦ ❞❛ ❞❡❢❛s❛❣❡♠φ❡ ❞♦ í♥❞✐❝❡ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛çã♦ma✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✽ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✶ ✕ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡rr✉♣t♦r❡s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✾ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✷ ✕ ❈✉r✈❛s ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡s ❞✐r❡t❛s ♣❡❧❛s t❡♥sõ❡s ❞✐r❡✲

t❛s✳ ✭❛✮ ♥❛ ❝❤❛✈❡✳ ✭❜✮ ♥♦ ❞✐♦❞♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✵ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✸ ✕ ❊♥❡r❣✐❛ ❛ ❝❛❞❛ ❝♦♠✉t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♣❛r ❝❤❛✈❡✲❞✐♦❞♦✳ ✻✶ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✹ ✕ ◆ú❝❧❡♦ t♦r♦✐❞❛❧✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✺ ✕ ❋❛s❡ ❆ ❞♦ ❝✐r❝✉✐t♦ tr✐❢ás✐❝♦ s✐♠✉❧❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ✈❛✲

❧✐❞❛r ♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ❤❛r❞✇❛r❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✽ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✻ ✕ ■♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❞❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ s✐♠✉❧❛r

♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❛ ❝❤❛✈❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✾ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✼ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❣❡r❛❧ ❞❛s ♠❛❧❤❛s ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✼ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✽ ✕ ❈✐r❝✉✐t♦ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ♣❧❛♥t❛ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✶ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✾ ✕ ❈✐r❝✉✐t♦ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ♣❧❛♥t❛ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ ♥♦ P❆❈ ✽✸ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✵ ✕ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ▼♦❞✉❧❛❞♦r P❲▼ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✶ ✕ ❱❛❧♦r❡s ❞❡ ♣✐❝♦ ❞❛ ♠á①✐♠❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ q✉❡ ♦ ❝♦♥✲

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❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✷ ✕ ▼❛❧❤❛ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✵ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✸ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛s ❞❡ ❜♦❞❡ ❞❛ ❋❚▼❆ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠

✭F C✮ ❡ s❡♠ ✭F✮ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❛❞♦r ❡ ❞♦ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❛❞♦r Ci✳ P❛r❛Zrd❴H ✭❛✮ ▼ó❞✉❧♦✳ ✭❜✮ ❋❛s❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✹ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛s ❞❡ ❜♦❞❡ ❞❛ ❋❚▼❆ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠

✭F C✮ ❡ s❡♠ ✭F✮ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❛❞♦r ❡ ❞♦ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❛❞♦r Ci✳ P❛r❛Zrd❴L✳ ✭❛✮ ▼ó❞✉❧♦✳ ✭❜✮ ❋❛s❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✸ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✺ ✕ ▼❛❧❤❛ ❞❡ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✻ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛s ❞❡ ❜♦❞❡ ❞❛s ❋✉♥çã♦ ❞❡ ❚r❛♥s❢❡rê♥✲

❝✐❛ ❞❡ ▼❛❧❤❛ ❆❜❡rt❛ ✭❋❚▼❆✮ ❞❡ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝❛s ❝♦♠ ✭F C✮ ❡ s❡♠ ✭F✮ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❛❞♦r ❡ ❞♦ ❝♦♥tr♦✲

❧❛❞♦r CV h✳ P❛r❛Zrd❴H✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✼ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✼ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛s ❞❡ ❜♦❞❡ ❞❛s ❋❚▼❆ ❞❡ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝❛s

❝♦♠ ✭F C✮ ❡ s❡♠ ✭F✮ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❛❞♦r ❡ ❞♦ ❝♦♥tr♦✲

❧❛❞♦r CV h✳ P❛r❛Zrd❴L✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✽

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✽ ✕ ▼❛❧❤❛ ❞❡ ✈❛❧♦r ❡✜❝❛③ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ ❞♦ P❆❈✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✾ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✾ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛s ❞❡ ❜♦❞❡ ❞❛s ❋❚▼❆ ❞♦ ✈❛❧♦r ❡✜❝❛③

❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ ❝♦♠ ✭F C✮ ❡ s❡♠ ✭F✮ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❛❞♦r ❡

❞♦ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❛❞♦rCrms✳ P❛r❛Zrd❴H✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✵

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✵ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛s ❞❡ ❜♦❞❡ ❞❛s ❋❚▼❆ ❞♦ ✈❛❧♦r ❡✜❝❛③ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ ❝♦♠ ✭F C✮ ❡ s❡♠ ✭F✮ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❛❞♦r ❡

❞♦ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❛❞♦rCrms✳ P❛r❛Zrd❴L✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✶ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✶ ✕ ▼❛❧❤❛ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ t♦t❛❧ ❞♦ ❜❛rr❛♠❡♥t♦ ❈❈✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✷ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛s ❞❡ ❜♦❞❡ ❞❛s ❋❚▼❆ ❞❛ t❡♥sã♦ t♦t❛❧

❝♦♠ ✭F C✮ ❡ s❡♠ ✭F✮ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❛❞♦r ❡ ❞♦ ❝♦♥tr♦✲

❧❛❞♦r Ctotal✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✸

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✸ ✕ ▼❛❧❤❛ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛❧ ❞♦ ❜❛rr❛♠❡♥t♦ ❈❈✳ ✶✵✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✹ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛s ❞❡ ❜♦❞❡ ❞❛s ❋❚▼❆ ❞❛ t❡♥sã♦ ❞✐❢❡✲

r❡♥❝✐❛❧ ❝♦♠ ✭F C✮ ❡ s❡♠ ✭F✮ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❛❞♦r ❡ ❞♦

❝♦♥tr♦❧❛❞♦r Cdif✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✺ ✕ ▼❛❧❤❛ ❞❡ r❡❞✉çã♦ ❞♦ ✈❛❧♦r ❡✜❝❛③ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡

♥♦s ✐♥❞✉t♦r❡s ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✼ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✻ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡ r❡❛t✐✈❛ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧ ♥♦ ✐♥❞✉t♦r ❡♠

❢✉♥çã♦ ❞❛ t❡♥sã♦ ♥♦ P❆❈ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛ ✐♠♣❡❞â♥✲ ❝✐❛ ❞❡ r❡❞❡ ❡ ✉♠❛ ❝❛r❣❛ ❘❡s✐st♦r ■♥❞✉t♦r ✭❘▲✮ ❞❡s❡q✉✐❧✐❜r❛❞❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✽ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✼ ✕ ▼❛❧❤❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣❡♥s❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝❛s ❝♦♠ s❛✲

(17)

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✽ ✕ ❊sq✉❡♠❛ ✉♥✐✜❧❛r ❞♦s ❝✐r❝✉✐t♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♥❛s s✐♠✉❧❛çõ❡s ♥✉♠ér✐❝❛s ❞♦ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ✭❛✮ ◗✉❛♥❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ Zrd ❛rt✐✜❝✐❛❧✳ ✭❜✮ ◗✉❛♥❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦

Zrd r❡❛❧✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✾ ✕ ❚❡♥sã♦ ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ❧❡✈❡✱

s❡♠ ✭◆❈✮ ❡ ❝♦♠ ✭❈✮ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✸ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✵ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ♥❛ r❡❞❡✱ ♥❛ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡ ♥♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ✭✶✵

❆✴❞✐✈✮ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❢❛s❡ ❆ ❝♦♠ ❧❡✈❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✶ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ❞♦ ❜❛rr❛♠❡♥t♦ ❈❈ ❞♦ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✭✷✵✵

❱✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ❧❡✈❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✷ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ❞❛ ❢❛s❡ ❆ ❞♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠

❝❛r❣❛ ♣❡s❛❞❛✱ s❡♠ ✭◆❈✮ ❡ ❝♦♠ ✭❈✮ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ✳ ✶✶✻ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✸ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ♥❛ r❡❞❡✱ ♥❛ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡ ♥♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ✭✷✵

❆✴❞✐✈✮ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❢❛s❡ ❆ ❝♦♠ ♣❡s❛❞❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✼ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✹ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ❞♦ ❜❛rr❛♠❡♥t♦ ❈❈ ❞♦ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✭✷✵✵

❱✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♣❡s❛❞❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✼ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✺ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ❞❡s❡✲

q✉✐❧✐❜r❛❞❛ ❡ s❡♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✽ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✻ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ❞❡s❡✲

q✉✐❧✐❜r❛❞❛ ❡ ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✾ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✼ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ♥♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ✭✹✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛

❞❡s❡q✉✐❧✐❜r❛❞❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✾ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✽ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦

❧✐♥❡❛r ❡ s❡♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✵ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✾ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ♥❛ r❡❞❡ ✭✹✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦

❧✐♥❡❛r ❡ s❡♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✶ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✵ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦

❧✐♥❡❛r ❡ ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✶ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ❞❛ ❢❛s❡ ❆ ❞❛ r❡❞❡✱ ❞❛ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡ ❞♦

❝♦♥✈❡s♦r ✭✹✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✮ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❢❛s❡ ❆ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✷ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ❞♦ ❜❛rr❛♠❡♥t♦ ❈❈ ❞♦ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✭✷✵✵

❱✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✸ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✸ ✕ ❈♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞❡ r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦ ✐♥✲

❞✉t♦r ❞❛ ❢❛s❡ ❆ ✭i∗

Lf❴A✮ ✭✷✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✹ ✕ ❈♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝♦ ❞❛s t❡♥sõ❡s ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭%

(18)

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✺ ✕ ❈♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝♦ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ✭%❞❛ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧✮ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ✭■❊❊❊✳ ✳ ✳✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✱ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r s❡♠ ✭◆❈✮ ❡ ❝♦♠ ✭❈✮ ❉▼❘◗❚✳✶✷✻ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✻ ✕ ❈♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝♦ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ♥❛ r❡❞❡✱ ♥❛

❝❛r❣❛ ❡ ♥♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ✭% ❞❛ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛✮ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♥♦r♠❛ ✭■❊❊❊✳ ✳ ✳✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✱ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✻ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✼ ✕ ❈♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝♦ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r

❡ ❞♦ ✐♥❞✉t♦r ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ✭% ❞❛ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥✲ t❛❧ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛✮ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞❛s ❝♦♠ ✭■❊❊❊✳ ✳ ✳✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✱ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✼ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✽ ✕ ❈♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝♦ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞❛ ❝❛r❣❛ ✭%

❞❛ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛✮ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♥♦r♠❛ ✭■❊❊❊✳ ✳ ✳✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✱ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r✱ s❡♠ ✭◆❈✮ ❡ ❝♦♠ ✭❈✮ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✽ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✾ ✕ ▲✐♠✐t❡ ♠á①✐♠♦ ❞❡ ✐♥❥❡çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❤❛r♠ô✲

♥✐❝❛ ♣❛r❛ r❡❞❡ ❞❡ ❛❧t❛ ✐♠♣❡❞â♥❝✐❛ ✭Lrd= 2mH, rrd= 0,75Ω✮✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✾

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✵ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❜♦❞❡ ❞❛ ❋❚▼❆ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ r❡❞❡ ❞❡ ❛❧t❛ ✐♠♣❡❞â♥❝✐❛ ✭Lrd = 2mH, rrd = 0,75Ω✮✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✵

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✶ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐✲ ♥❡❛r✱ ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ❡ ❝♦♠ s❛t✉r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❤❛r♠ô✲ ♥✐❝❛s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✵ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✷ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ❞❛ ❢❛s❡ ❆ ❞❛ r❡❞❡✱ ❞❛ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡ ❞♦

❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ✭✹✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✮ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❢❛s❡ ❆ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r ❡ ❝♦♠ s❛t✉r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝❛s✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✶ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✸ ✕ ❈♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝♦ ❞❛s t❡♥sõ❡s ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭%

❞❛ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧✮ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♥♦r♠❛ ✭❆◆❊❊▲✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✱ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r✱ s❡♠ ✭◆❈✮✱ ❝♦♠ ✭❈✮ ❉▼❘◗❚ ❡ ❝♦♠ s❛t✉r❛❞♦r ✭❙❆❚✮✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✶ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✹ ✕ ❱❛❧♦r❡s ♣ró①✐♠♦s ❛♦ ♣✐❝♦✱ ❞♦ s❡♠✐❝✐❝❧♦ ♣♦s✐✲

t✐✈♦✱ ❞❛s t❡♥sõ❡s ❞♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✮ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ♦ tr❛♥s✐tór✐♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡♠ ✭✶✱✹ s✮ ❞❡ 50% ♣❛r❛ 100%❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ❈♦♠ r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ ❡♠ ✸✶✶ ❱✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✺ ✕ ❱❛❧♦r ❡✜❝❛③ ❞❛s t❡♥sõ❡s ❞♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✮

(19)

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✻ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ✭✷✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✮ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ♦ tr❛♥s✐tór✐♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡♠ ✶✱✹ s ❞❡50%♣❛r❛100% ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✼ ✕ ❘❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ✭✷✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✮ ❞♦ ❉▼❘◗❚

❞✉r❛♥t❡ ♦ tr❛♥s✐tór✐♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡♠ ✶✱✹ s ❞❡50% ♣❛r❛100% ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✽ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ❞♦ ❜❛rr❛♠❡♥t♦ ❈❈ ✭✷✵✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✮ ❞✉✲

r❛♥t❡ ♦ tr❛♥s✐tór✐♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡♠ ✶✱✹ s ❞❡ 50% ♣❛r❛100%❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✾ ✕ ❱❛❧♦r ❡✜❝❛③ ❞❛s t❡♥sõ❡s ❞♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✮ ❞✉✲

r❛♥t❡ ♦ tr❛♥s✐tór✐♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡♠ ✶✱✹ s ❞❡ 100% ♣❛r❛ 50% ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ❈♦♠ r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ ❡♠ ✷✷✵ ❱✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✻ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼✵ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ✭✷✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✮ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ♦

tr❛♥s✐tór✐♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡♠ ✶✱✹ s ❞❡100%♣❛r❛50% ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✻ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼✶ ✕ ❚❡♥sã♦ ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭vP AC✮ ✭✶✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛

♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r ❡ s❡♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✼ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼✷ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ♥❛ r❡❞❡ ✭✶✺✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦

❧✐♥❡❛r ❡ s❡♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✽ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼✸ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦

❧✐♥❡❛r ❡ ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✾ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼✹ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ❞❛ ❢❛s❡ ❆ ❞❛ r❡❞❡✱ ❞❛ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡ ❞♦

❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ✭✶✺✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✮ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❢❛s❡ ❆ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✾ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼✺ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ❞♦ ❜❛rr❛♠❡♥t♦ ❈❈ ❞♦ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✭✷✵✵

❱✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✵ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼✻ ✕ ❈♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝♦ ❞❛s t❡♥sõ❡s ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭%

❞❛ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧✮ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♥♦r♠❛ ✭❆◆❊❊▲✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✱ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r✱ s❡♠ ✭◆❈✮ ❡ ❝♦♠ ✭❈✮ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✶ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼✼ ✕ ❈♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝♦ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ✭%❞❛

❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧✮ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ✭■❊❊❊✳ ✳ ✳✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✱ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r s❡♠ ✭◆❈✮ ❡ ❝♦♠ ✭❈✮ ❉▼❘◗❚✳✶✹✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼✽ ✕ ❈♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝♦ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ♥❛ r❡❞❡✱ ♥❛

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❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼✾ ✕ ❈♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝♦ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❡ ❞♦ ✐♥❞✉t♦r ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ✭% ❞❛ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥✲ t❛❧ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛✮ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞❛s ❝♦♠ ✭■❊❊❊✳ ✳ ✳✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✱ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✸ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✽✵ ✕ ❈♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝♦ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞❛ ❝❛r❣❛ ✭%

❞❛ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛✮ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♥♦r♠❛ ✭■❊❊❊✳ ✳ ✳✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✱ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r✱ s❡♠ ✭◆❈✮ ❡ ❝♦♠ ✭❈✮ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✸ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✽✶ ✕ ❙♦♠❛tór✐♦ ❞❛s ❝♦rr❡♥t❡s ❞♦s ✐♥❞✉t♦r❡s ❞♦ ❝♦♥✲

✈❡rs♦r ✭✵✱✷ ♣✉✴❞✐✈✮ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ❛ ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛ ❞❡ r❡❢❡✲ rê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ ❡✜❝❛③ ✭❡♠ ✶✱✺ s✮ ♥❛ ♦♣❡r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ❧❡✈❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✽✷ ✕ ❚❡♥sã♦ ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✵✱✵✷ ♣✉✴❞✐✈✮ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ❛ ♠✉✲

❞❛♥ç❛ ❞❡ r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ ❡✜❝❛③ ✭❡♠ ✶✱✺ s✮ ♥❛ ♦♣❡r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ❧❡✈❡✳ ❘❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❡♠ ✶ ♣✉✳✶✹✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✽✸ ✕ ❚❡♥sã♦ ❜❛rr❛♠❡♥t♦ ❈❈ ✭✷✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✮ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ❛

♠✉❞❛♥ç❛ ❞❡ r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ ❡✜❝❛③ ✭❡♠ ✶✱✺ s✮ ♥❛ ♦♣❡r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ❧❡✈❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✻ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✽✹ ✕ ❙♦♠❛tór✐♦ ❞❛s ❝♦rr❡♥t❡s ❞♦s ✐♥❞✉t♦r❡s ❞♦ ❝♦♥✲

✈❡rs♦r ✭✵✱✷ ♣✉✴❞✐✈✮ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ❛ ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛ ❞❡ r❡❢❡✲ rê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ ❡✜❝❛③ ✭❡♠ ✶✱✺ s✮ ♥❛ ♦♣❡r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♣❡s❛❞❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✼ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✽✺ ✕ ❚❡♥sã♦ ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✵✱✵✷ ♣✉✴❞✐✈✮ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ❛ ♠✉✲

❞❛♥ç❛ ❞❡ r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ ❡✜❝❛③ ✭❡♠ ✶✱✺ s✮ ♥❛ ♦♣❡r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♣❡s❛❞❛✳ ❘❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❡♠ ✶ ♣✉✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✼ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✽✻ ✕ ❙♦♠❛tór✐♦ ❞❛s ❝♦rr❡♥t❡s ❞♦s ✐♥❞✉t♦r❡s ❞♦ ❝♦♥✲

✈❡rs♦r ✭✵✱✷ ♣✉✴❞✐✈✮ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ❛ ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛ ❞❡ r❡❢❡✲ rê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ ❡✜❝❛③ ✭❡♠ ✶✱✺ s✮ ♥❛ ♦♣❡r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✽ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✽✼ ✕ ❚❡♥sã♦ ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✵✱✵✷ ♣✉✴❞✐✈✮ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ❛ ♠✉✲

❞❛♥ç❛ ❞❡ r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ ❡✜❝❛③ ✭❡♠ ✶✱✺ s✮ ♥❛ ♦♣❡r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r✳ ❘❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❡♠ ✶ ♣✉✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✾ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✽✽ ✕ ❙♦♠❛tór✐♦ ❞❛s ❝♦rr❡♥t❡s ❞♦s ✐♥❞✉t♦r❡s ❞♦ ❝♦♥✲

(21)

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✽✾ ✕ ❚❡♥sã♦ ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✵✱✵✷ ♣✉✴❞✐✈✮ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ❛ ♠✉✲ ❞❛♥ç❛ ❞❡ r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ ❡✜❝❛③ ✭❡♠ ✶✱✺ s✮ ♥❛ ♦♣❡r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ❞❡s❡q✉✐❧✐❜r❛❞❛✳ ❘❡❢❡✲ rê♥❝✐❛ ❡♠ ✶ ♣✉✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✵ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✾✵ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ 3a ❤❛r♠ô✲

♥✐❝❛ ♥❛ ❢♦♥t❡ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦✱ s❡♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✶ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✾✶ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ 3a ❤❛r♠ô✲

♥✐❝❛ ❢♦♥t❡ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦✱ ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✱ s❡♠ s❛t✉✲ r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✾✷ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡siLf✭✺✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠3a❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝❛ ♥❛

❢♦♥t❡ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦✱ ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✱ s❡♠ s❛t✉r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✾✸ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ 3a ❤❛r♠ô✲

♥✐❝❛ ♥❛ ❢♦♥t❡ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦✱ ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✱ ❝♦♠ s❛t✉r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❡ té❝♥✐❝❛ ❛♥t✐✲✇✐♥❞✉♣✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✸ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✾✹ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡siLf✭✺✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠3a❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝❛ ♥❛

❢♦♥t❡ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦✱ ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✱ ❝♦♠ s❛t✉r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❡ té❝♥✐❝❛ ❛♥t✐✲✇✐♥❞✉♣✳✶✺✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✾✺ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ 3a ❤❛r♠ô✲

♥✐❝❛ ♥❛ ❢♦♥t❡ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦✱ ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✱ ❝♦♠ s❛t✉r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❡ s❡♠ té❝✲ ♥✐❝❛ ❛♥t✐✲✇✐♥❞✉♣✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✾✻ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡siLf✭✺✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠3a❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝❛ ♥❛

❢♦♥t❡ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦✱ ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✱ ❝♦♠ s❛t✉r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❡ s❡♠ té❝♥✐❝❛ ❛♥t✐✲ ✇✐♥❞✉♣✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✾✼ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❡❧❡trô♥✐❝❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞❛✳✶✺✾ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✾✽ ✕ ❈♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❙P❈■❚ ✹✺✵✵✲✻✵✲✶✺ ❝♦♠ ❜❛rr❛♠❡♥t♦

❈❈✱ ✐♥t❡rr✉♣t♦r❡s ❡ ❞r✐✈❡rs✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻✵ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✾✾ ✕ ❊sq✉❡♠❛ ❡❧étr✐❝♦ ❞♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❞❡ ♣♦tê♥❝✐❛ ❙P✲

❈■❚ ✹✺✵✵✲✻✵✲✶✺✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✵✵ ✕ ❊sq✉❡♠❛ ❡❧étr✐❝♦ ❞♦s ✐♥❞✉t♦r❡s ❞❡ ✜❧tr♦ ❞❛ ❢❛s❡

❆✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻✸ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✵✶ ✕ ❊sq✉❡♠át✐❝♦ ❞♦ ❝✐r❝✉✐t♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❞✐❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦

❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✵✷ ✕ ❑✐t ❞♦ ❚▼❙✸✷✵❋✷✽✸✸✺ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✵✸ ✕ ❋❧✉①♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❛s ♦♣❡r❛çõ❡s ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞❛s ♣❡❧♦ ❉✐✲

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❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✵✺ ✕ ❊sq✉❡♠át✐❝♦ ♣❛r❝✐❛❧ ❞♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❞❡ ❝♦r✲ r❡♥t❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼✵ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✵✻ ✕ ❈✐r❝✉✐t♦ ❞♦s ❝♦♥tr♦❧❛❞♦r❡s ❞♦ ❜❛rr❛♠❡♥t♦ ❈❈✳ ✶✼✶ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✵✼ ✕ ❋♦t♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦tót✐♣♦ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✵✽ ✕ ❊sq✉❡♠❛ ✉♥✐✜❧❛r ❞♦s ❝✐r❝✉✐t♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♥♦s

❡♥s❛✐♦s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛✐s ❞♦ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ✭❛✮ ◗✉❛♥❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ Zrd ❛rt✐✜❝✐❛❧✳ ✭❜✮ ◗✉❛♥❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦

Zrdr❡❛❧✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✵✾ ✕ ❈♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❧✐♠✐t❡s ❞❡ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝❛s ❞❡

t❡♥sã♦ ♥♦ P❆❈ ❞❡ ✭❆◆❊❊▲✱ ✷✵✶✹✮ ❡ ❞❡ ✭■❊❊❊✳ ✳ ✳✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✶✵ ✕ ▲✐♠✐t❡s ❞❡ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞❛s r❡❝♦✲

♠❡♥❞❛çõ❡s ✭■❊❊❊✳ ✳ ✳✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼✻ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✶✶ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠

❝❛r❣❛ ❧❡✈❡ ❡ s❡♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼✼ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✶✷ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ♥❛ r❡❞❡ ✭ird✮ ✭✷✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮

❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ❧❡✈❡ ❡ s❡♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼✽ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✶✸ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠

❝❛r❣❛ ❧❡✈❡ ❡ ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼✽ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✶✹ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ♥❛ r❡❞❡ ✭✷✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠

❝❛r❣❛ ❧❡✈❡ ❡ ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼✾ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✶✺ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ♥♦ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✭✷✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮

❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ❧❡✈❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼✾ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✶✻ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ❞♦ ❜❛rr❛♠❡♥t♦ ❈❈ ❞♦ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✭✷✵✵

❱✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ❧❡✈❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽✵ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✶✼ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠

❝❛r❣❛ ♣❡s❛❞❛ ❡ s❡♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✶✽ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ♥❛ r❡❞❡ ✭ird✮ ✭✹✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮

❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♣❡s❛❞❛ ❡ s❡♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✶✾ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠

❝❛r❣❛ ♣❡s❛❞❛ ❡ ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽✸ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✷✵ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ♥❛ r❡❞❡ ✭✹✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠

❝❛r❣❛ ♣❡s❛❞❛ ❡ ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽✸ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✷✶ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ♥♦ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✭✹✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮

❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♣❡s❛❞❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✷✷ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ❞♦ ❜❛rr❛♠❡♥t♦ ❈❈ ♥♦ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✭✷✵✵

❱✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♣❡s❛❞❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✷✸ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠

❝❛r❣❛ ❞❡s❡q✉✐❧✐❜r❛❞❛ ❡ s❡♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽✻ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✷✹ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ♥❛ r❡❞❡ ✭✹✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠

(23)

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✷✺ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ❞❡s❡q✉✐❧✐❜r❛❞❛ ❡ ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽✼ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✷✻ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ♥❛ r❡❞❡ ✭✹✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠

❝❛r❣❛ ❞❡s❡q✉✐❧✐❜r❛❞❛ ❡ ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽✽ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✷✼ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ♥♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ✭✹✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮

❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ❞❡s❡q✉✐❧✐❜r❛❞❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽✽ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✷✽ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ❞❡ ❧✐♥❤❛ ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✷✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮

❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ❞❡s❡q✉✐❧✐❜r❛❞❛ ❡ s❡♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽✾ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✷✾ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ❞❡ ❧✐♥❤❛ ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✷✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮

❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ❞❡s❡q✉✐❧✐❜r❛❞❛ ❡ ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾✶ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✸✵ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠

❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r ❡ s❡♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✸✶ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ♥❛ r❡❞❡ ✭✹✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠

❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r ❡ s❡♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✸✷ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠

❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r ❡ ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾✸ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✸✸ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ♥❛ r❡❞❡ ✭✹✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠

❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r ❡ ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾✸ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✸✹ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ♥❛ r❡❞❡✱ ♥❛ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡ ♥♦ ❝♦♥✈❡s♦r ✭✹✵

❆✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❢❛s❡ ❆ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✸✺ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ♥❛ r❡❞❡✱ ♥❛ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡ ♥♦ ❝♦♥✈❡s♦r ✭✹✵

❆✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❢❛s❡ ❇ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✸✻ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ♥❛ r❡❞❡✱ ♥❛ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡ ♥♦ ❝♦♥✈❡s♦r ✭✹✵

❆✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❢❛s❡ ❈ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✸✼ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ❞♦ ❜❛rr❛♠❡♥t♦ ❈❈ ✭✷✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮

❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾✻ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✸✽ ✕ ❈♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦ ❡♠ ❛s t❡♥sõ❡s ❞❛ ❢❛s❡ ❆ ❞♦ P❆❈

✭100 V✴❞✐✈✱ ✷✱✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r✱ ❝♦♠ ✭❈✮ ❡ s❡♠ ✭❙✮ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾✼ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✸✾ ✕ ❈♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞❡ r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦ ✐♥✲

❞✉t♦r ❞❛ ❢❛s❡ ❆ ✭i∗

Lf✮ ✭✷✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾✼ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✹✵ ✕ ❈♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝♦ ❞❛ t❡♥sã♦ ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✪ ❞❛

❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧✮ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♥♦r♠❛ ✭❆◆❊❊▲✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✱ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r ❡ s❡♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✳ ✶✾✾ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✹✶ ✕ ❈♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝♦ ❞❛ t❡♥sã♦ ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✪ ❞❛

(24)

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✹✷ ✕ ❈♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝♦ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ✭✪ ❞❛ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧✮ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ✭■❊❊❊✳ ✳ ✳✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✱ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r ❡ s❡♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵✵ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✹✸ ✕ ❈♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝♦ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ✭✪ ❞❛

❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧✮ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ✭■❊❊❊✳ ✳ ✳✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✱ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r ❡ ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵✶ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✹✹ ✕ ❈♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝♦ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r

✭✪ ❞❛ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛✮ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♥♦r♠❛ ✭■❊❊❊✳ ✳ ✳✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✱ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r ✷✵✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✹✺ ✕ ❈♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝♦ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞♦ ✐♥❞✉t♦r ❞♦

❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ✭✪ ❞❛ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛✮ ❝♦♠♣❛✲ r❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ✭■❊❊❊✳ ✳ ✳✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✱ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r✳ ✷✵✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✹✻ ✕ ❈♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝♦ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞❛ ❝❛r❣❛ ✭✪

❞❛ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛✮ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♥♦r♠❛ ✭■❊❊❊✳ ✳ ✳✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✱ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r ❡ ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵✸ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✹✼ ✕ ❱❛❧♦r❡s ♣ró①✐♠♦s ❛♦ ♣✐❝♦✱ ❞♦ s❡♠✐❝✐❝❧♦ ♣♦s✐✲

t✐✈♦✱ ❞❛s t❡♥sõ❡s ❞♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✱ ✷✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ♦ tr❛♥s✐tór✐♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡♠ ✭✶✮ ❞❡ 50% ♣❛r❛ 100% ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ❈♦♠ r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ ❡♠ ✸✶✶ ❱✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✹✽ ✕ ❱❛❧♦r ❡✜❝❛③ ❞❛s t❡♥sõ❡s ❞♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✱ ✷✺

♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ♦ tr❛♥s✐tór✐♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡♠ ✭✶✮ ❞❡ 50% ♣❛r❛ 100% ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ❈♦♠ r❡❢❡✲ rê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ ❡♠ ✷✷✵ ❱✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✹✾ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ✭✹✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱ ✷✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❞✉✲

r❛♥t❡ ♦ tr❛♥s✐tór✐♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡♠ ✭✶✮ ❞❡50%♣❛r❛ 100%❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✺✵ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ✭✹✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱ ✷✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮

❞✉r❛♥t❡ ♦ tr❛♥s✐tór✐♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡♠ ✭✶✮ ❞❡ 50% ♣❛r❛100%❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✺✶ ✕ ❘❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ✭✹✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱ ✷✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮

❞♦ ❉▼❘◗❚ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ♦ tr❛♥s✐tór✐♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡♠ ✭✶✮ ❞❡50% ♣❛r❛100% ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵✻ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✺✷ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ❞♦ ❜❛rr❛♠❡♥t♦ ❈❈ ✭✷✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✱ ✷✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮

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❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✺✸ ✕ ❱❛❧♦r❡s ♣ró①✐♠♦s ❛♦ ♣✐❝♦✱ ❞♦ s❡♠✐❝✐❝❧♦ ♣♦s✐✲ t✐✈♦✱ ❞❛s t❡♥sõ❡s ❞♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✱ ✷✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ♦ tr❛♥s✐tór✐♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡♠ ✭✶✮ ❞❡100% ♣❛r❛ 50% ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ❈♦♠ r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❡♠ ✸✶✶ ❱✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵✽ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✺✹ ✕ ❱❛❧♦r ❡✜❝❛③ ❞❛s t❡♥sõ❡s ❞♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✱ ✷✺

♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ♦ tr❛♥s✐tór✐♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡♠ ✭✶✮ ❞❡ 100% ♣❛r❛ 50% ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ❈♦♠ r❡❢❡✲ rê♥❝✐❛ ❡♠ ✷✷✵ ❱✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵✽ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✺✺ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ✭✹✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱ ✷✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❞✉✲

r❛♥t❡ ♦ tr❛♥s✐tór✐♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡♠ ✭✶✮ ❞❡ 100% ♣❛r❛50%❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵✾ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✺✻ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ✭✹✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱ ✷✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮

❞✉r❛♥t❡ ♦ tr❛♥s✐tór✐♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡♠ ✭✶✮ ❞❡100% ♣❛r❛50%✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✶✵ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✺✼ ✕ ❘❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ✭✹✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱ ✷✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮

❞✉r❛♥t❡ ♦ tr❛♥s✐tór✐♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡♠ ✭✶✮ ❞❡100% ♣❛r❛50%❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✶✵ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✺✽ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ❞♦ ❜❛rr❛♠❡♥t♦ ❈❈ ✭✷✵✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱ ✷✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮

❞✉r❛♥t❡ ♦ tr❛♥s✐tór✐♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡♠ ✭✶✮ ❞❡100% ♣❛r❛50%❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✶✶ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✺✾ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ♥♦ ❇❛rr❛♠❡♥t♦ ❈❈ ✭✷✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✱ ✺✵✵

♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ s✉❛ ❝♦♥❡①ã♦ ❛♦ P❆❈ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✶✸ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✻✵ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ✭✼✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱ ✺✵✵ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮

❞✉r❛♥t❡ s✉❛ ❝♦♥❡①ã♦ ❛♦ P❆❈✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✶✸ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✻✶ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠

❝❛r❣❛ ❧❡✈❡ ❡ s❡♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✶✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✻✷ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ♥♦ r❛♠♦ ❡♠ t❡st❡ ✭✺✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱

✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ❧❡✈❡ ❡ s❡♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✶✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✻✸ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠

❝❛r❣❛ ❧❡✈❡ ❡ ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✶✻ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✻✹ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ♥♦ r❛♠♦ ❡♠ t❡st❡ ✭✺✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱

✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ❧❡✈❡ ❡ ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✶✻ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✻✺ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ♥♦ r❛♠♦ ❡♠ t❡st❡ ✭✺✵

❆✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ❧❡✈❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✶✼ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✻✻ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠

❝❛r❣❛ ♣❡s❛❞❛ ❡ s❡♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✶✽ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✻✼ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ♥♦ r❛♠♦ ❡♠ t❡st❡ ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ✭✺✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱

✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♣❡s❛❞❛ ❡ s❡♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ✳ ✷✶✾ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✻✽ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠

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❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✻✾ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ♥♦ r❛♠♦ ❡♠ t❡st❡ ✭✺✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♣❡s❛❞❛ ❡ ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✷✷✵ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✼✵ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ♥♦ r❛♠♦ ❡♠ t❡st❡ ✭✺✵

❆✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♣❡s❛❞❛ ❡ ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✷✷✶ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✼✶ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠

❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r ❡ s❡♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✷✸ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✼✷ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ♥♦ r❛♠♦ ❡♠ t❡st❡ ✭✷✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱

✷✵ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r ❡ s❡♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✷✷✸ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✼✸ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠

❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r ❡ ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✷✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✼✹ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ♥♦ r❛♠♦ ❡♠ t❡st❡ ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ✭✺✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱

✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r ❡ ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✷✷✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✼✺ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ✭✺✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮

❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r ❡ ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✷✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✼✻ ✕ ❈♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦ ❡♠ ❛s t❡♥sõ❡s ❞❛ ❢❛s❡ ❆ ❞♦ P❆❈

✭✶✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✱ ✷✱✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r✱ ❝♦♠ ✭❈✮ ❡ s❡♠ ✭❙✮ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✷✻ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✼✼ ✕ ❈♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝♦ ❞❛ t❡♥sã♦ ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✪ ❞❛

❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧✮ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♥♦r♠❛ ✭❆◆❊❊▲✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✱ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r ❡ s❡♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ✳ ✷✷✻ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✼✽ ✕ ❈♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝♦ ❞❛ t❡♥sã♦ ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✪ ❞❛

❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧✮ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♥♦r♠❛ ✭❆◆❊❊▲✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✱ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r ❡ ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✷✷✼ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✼✾ ✕ ❈♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝♦ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ✭✪ ❞❛

❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧✮ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ✭■❊❊❊✳ ✳ ✳✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✱ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r ❡ s❡♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✷✽ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✽✵ ✕ ❈♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝♦ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ✭✪ ❞❛

❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧✮ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ✭■❊❊❊✳ ✳ ✳✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✱ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r ❡ ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✷✽ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✽✶ ✕ ❈♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝♦ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r

✭✪ ❞❛ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛✮ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ✭■❊❊❊✳ ✳ ✳✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✱ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✷✾ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✽✷ ✕ ❈♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝♦ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ♥♦ ✐♥❞✉t♦rLf

✭✪ ❞❛ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛✮ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♥♦r♠❛ ✭■❊❊❊✳ ✳ ✳✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✱ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r✳ ✷✷✾ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✽✸ ✕ ❈♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❤❛r♠ô♥✐❝♦ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞❛ ❝❛r❣❛ ✭✪

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❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✽✹ ✕ ❱❛❧♦r❡s ♣ró①✐♠♦s ❛♦ ♣✐❝♦✱ ❞♦ s❡♠✐❝✐❝❧♦ ♣♦s✐✲ t✐✈♦✱ ❞❛s t❡♥sõ❡s ❞♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✱ ✷✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ♦ tr❛♥s✐tór✐♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡♠ ✭✶✮ ❞❡ 50% ♣❛r❛ 100% ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ❈♦♠ r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ ❡♠ ✸✶✶ ❱✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸✶ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✽✺ ✕ ❱❛❧♦r ❡✜❝❛③ ❞❛s t❡♥sõ❡s ❞♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✱ ✷✺

♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ♦ tr❛♥s✐tór✐♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡♠ ✭✶✮ ❞❡ 50% ♣❛r❛ 100% ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ❈♦♠ r❡❢❡✲ rê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ ❡♠ ✷✷✵ ❱✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸✶ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✽✻ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ✭✺✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱ ✷✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❞✉✲

r❛♥t❡ ♦ tr❛♥s✐tór✐♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡♠ ✭✶✮ ❞❡50%♣❛r❛ 100%❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✽✼ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ♥♦ ❇❛rr❛♠❡♥t♦ ❈❈ ✭✷✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮

❞✉r❛♥t❡ ♦ tr❛♥s✐tór✐♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡♠ ✭✶✮ ❞❡ 50% ♣❛r❛100%✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✽✽ ✕ ❱❛❧♦r❡s ♣ró①✐♠♦s ❛♦ ♣✐❝♦✱ ❞♦ s❡♠✐❝✐❝❧♦ ♣♦s✐✲

t✐✈♦✱ ❞❛s t❡♥sõ❡s ❞♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✱ ✷✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ♦ tr❛♥s✐tór✐♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡♠ ✭✶✮ ❞❡100% ♣❛r❛ 50% ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ❈♦♠ r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ ❡♠ ✸✶✶ ❱✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸✸ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✽✾ ✕ ❱❛❧♦r ❡✜❝❛③ ❞❛s t❡♥sõ❡s ❞♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✱ ✷✺

♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ♦ tr❛♥s✐tór✐♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡♠ ✭✶✮ ❞❡ 100% ♣❛r❛ 50% ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ❈♦♠ r❡❢❡✲ rê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ ❡♠ ✷✷✵ ❱✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸✸ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✾✵ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ✭✺✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱ ✷✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❞✉✲

r❛♥t❡ ♦ tr❛♥s✐tór✐♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡♠ ✭✶✮ ❞❡ 100% ♣❛r❛50%❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✾✶ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ♥♦ ❇❛rr❛♠❡♥t♦ ❈❈ ✭✷✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮

❞✉r❛♥t❡ ♦ tr❛♥s✐tór✐♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡♠ ✭✶✮ ❞❡100% ♣❛r❛50%✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✾✷ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵✵ ❱✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠

❝❛r❣❛ ♣❡s❛❞❛ ❡ s❡♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ❡♠ ♣♦tê♥❝✐❛ ♥♦✲ ♠✐♥❛❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✾✸ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ♥♦ r❛♠♦ ❡♠ t❡st❡ ✭✶✵✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱

✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♣❡s❛❞❛ ❡ s❡♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✳ ✷✸✻ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✾✹ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ♥♦ P❆❈ ✭✶✵✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠

❝❛r❣❛ ♣❡s❛❞❛ ❡ ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚ ❡♠ ♣♦tê♥❝✐❛ ♥♦✲ ♠✐♥❛❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸✻ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✾✺ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ♥♦ r❛♠♦ ❡♠ t❡st❡ ✭✶✵✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱

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❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✾✻ ✕ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡s ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ♥♦ r❛♠♦ ❡♠ t❡st❡ ✭✶✵✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♣❡s❛❞❛ ❡ ❝♦♠ ❉▼❘◗❚✷✸✼ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✾✼ ✕ ❚❡♥sõ❡s ♥♦ ❇❛rr❛♠❡♥t♦ ❈❈ ✭✷✵✵ ❆✴❞✐✈✱ ✺ ♠s✴❞✐✈✮

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▲■❙❚❆ ❉❊ ❚❆❇❊▲❆❙

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶ ✕ ▲✐♠✐t❡s ❞❡ ❚❆ ✲ P❘❖❉■❙❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✷ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷ ✕ ❊s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❞♦ ❉❙❚❆❚❈❖▼ ✳ ✳ ✹✾ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✸ ✕ ❘❡q✉✐s✐t♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦s s❡♠✐❝♦♥❞✉t♦r❡s ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ✺✾ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✹ ✕ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ r❡s✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❡ t❡♥sã♦ ❞♦s ✐♥t❡r✲

r✉♣t♦r❡s ❡ ❞✐♦❞♦s ❞♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❙❑▼✷✵✵●❇✶✷❚✹ ✻✵ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✺ ✕ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞♦ ❝❛♣❛❝✐t♦r ❇✹✸✽✼✺ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✸ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✻ ✕ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❞♦ ✐♥❞✉t♦r ❞❡ ✜❧tr♦

❞❡ s❛í❞❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✹ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✼ ✕ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞♦ ♥ú❝❧❡♦ ▼▼❚❙✷✻❚✼✼✶✻ ❞♦ ❢❛✲

❜r✐❝❛♥t❡ ▼❛❣♠❛tt❡❝ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✹ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✽ ✕ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞♦ ✐♥❞✉t♦r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✺ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✾ ✕ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞♦ ❝❛♣❛❝✐t♦r ❞❡ ✜❧tr♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✼ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✵ ✕ ❈♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❝❛❧❝✉❧❛❞♦s ❡ ✈❛✲

❧♦r❡s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ♣♦r s✐♠✉❧❛çã♦ ♥✉♠ér✐❝❛ à ❚❡♠✲ ♣❡r❛t✉r❛ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✭Tamb✮ ❂50◦C✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✵

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✶ ✕ ❊s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛çõ❡s ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ❞❡ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✼ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✷ ✕ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♥♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❞♦s ❝♦♥tr♦❧❛✲

❞♦r❡s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✾ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✸ ✕ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ❝♦♠ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❉▼❘◗❚

✲ ❈❛r❣❛ ❧❡✈❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✹ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✹ ✕ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ❝♦♠ ❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦

❉▼❘◗❚ ✲ ❈❛r❣❛ ♣❡s❛❞❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✻ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✺ ✕ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ❝♦♠ ❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦

❉▼❘◗❚ ✲ ❈❛r❣❛ ❞❡s❡q✉✐❧✐❜r❛❞❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✵ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✻ ✕ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ❝♦♠ ❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦

❉▼❘◗❚ ✲ ❈❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✸ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✼ ✕ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ❝♦♠ ❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦

❉▼❘◗❚ ✲ ❈❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✽ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✽ ✕ ❉❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❞♦s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❞♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❞❡ ♣♦✲

tê♥❝✐❛ ❙P❈■❚ ✹✺✵✵✲✻✵✲✶✺✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻✶ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✾ ✕ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ❝♦♠ ❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦

❉▼❘◗❚ ✲ ❈❛r❣❛ ❧❡✈❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽✶ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✵ ✕ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ❝♦♠ ❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦

(30)

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✶ ✕ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ❝♦♠ ❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❉▼❘◗❚ ✲ ❈❛r❣❛ ❞❡s❡q✉✐❧✐❜r❛❞❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾✵ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✷ ✕ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ❝♦♠ ❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦

❉▼❘◗❚ ✲ ❈❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾✽ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✸ ✕ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ❝♦♠ ❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦

❉▼❘◗❚ ✲ ❈❛r❣❛ ❧✐♥❡❛r ❧❡✈❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✶✼ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✹ ✕ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ❝♦♠ ❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦

❉▼❘◗❚ ✲ ❈❛r❣❛ ❧✐♥❡❛r ♣❡s❛❞❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✷✵ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✺ ✕ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ❝♦♠ ❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦

❉▼❘◗❚ ✲ ❈❛r❣❛ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✷✷ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✻ ✕ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ❝♦♠ ❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦

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