The objective in this trial was to determine the effects of partial replacement of ground corn by citruspulp or soybean hulls on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot goat kids. Twenty one Boer x Saanen kids (initial BW 15.8 ± 0.7kg), nine males and 12 females, were distributed in a complete randomized block design, according to sex and initial body weight. Treatments were set by replacing 50% of ground corn (DM basis) for citruspulp or soybean hulls; whereas, forage concentrate ratio was of 10:90. Partial replacement of corn by citruspulp or soybean hulls increased dry matter intake, average daily gain and final body weight, but feed efficiency was not affected. There was no difference between citruspulp or soybean hulls. Inclusion of coproducts increased slaughter weight, hot and cold carcass weight and longissimus muscle area, with no difference between citruspulp and soybean hulls. Subcutaneous fat thickness, hot and cold carcass yields, shrink after chilling and body wall thickness were not affected by treatments. Citruspulp and soybean hulls can replace 50% of ground corn (DM basis) increasing dry matter intake and weight gain in goat kids enabling higher slaughter weight at earlier age.
The study of SCFAs, triglycerides and cholesterol can predict the energy metabolism of the animal. Given that in the present study the animals were fed to meet maintenance requirements, energy deposition was not expected, this result was confirmed because the animals maintained their weight during the study, and there was no alteration of lipid metabolism. The stability of these parameters is already an indicator of the possibility of substituting the traditional wheat bran for citruspulp in the diets.
The wet citruspulp has a high content of soluble carbo- hydrates and is potentially a producer of lactic acid, which in turn can lower the ruminal pH (physiological range of about 5.5 to 7.0) (PINZON; WING, 1976; TEIXEIRA et al., 2009). Due to its very acidic pH, this acidity can unbal- ance the ruminal microbiota, inhibiting the thiamine-pro- ducing microorganisms and favoring the growth of thia- minase producers (MENDONÇA JUNIOR et al., 2010), thus predisposing to polioencephalomalacia (SAMPAIO et al., 2015). It is the case in animals with excessive con- centrate consumption, so rumen pH decreases leading to alteration in thiamine metabolism (MAS et al., 2010; CUNHA et al., 2011).
Table 5 and Figure 1 present the performance data (daily feed intake, daily weight gain, and feed:gain ratio), total feed intake, final weight, post-fast weight, fast weight loss and estimated days to reach 130 kg BW, as well as the prediction equations as function of citruspulp levels in experimental diets. Dietary levels of citruspulp did not affect the daily feed intake. In spite of its low palatability (Domínguez, 1995), swine adapted to the new ingredient of the diets even on the highest level of inclusion. It is known that swine increase daily feed intake when a progressive dilution of the ration with inert or indigestible material is done (Chadd, 1990; Lee et al., 2002), this was different the results observed here, where no intake counterbalance occurred. In spite of the presence of substances that decreased the palatability, the high water retention capacity of citruspulp could maintain the physical satiate for longer time, lowering the stimulus to feed (Kyriazakis and Emmans, 1995). However, Chadd (1990), diluting a high digestible energy diet (3500 kcal/kg) with progressive addition of oat to reach 2300 kcal/kg for feeding 120-kg BW swine, observed an increase in feed intake as the level of energy decreased up to 2500 kcal/kg. He concluded that the lowest level of digestible energy promoted a decrease in feed intake without any compensation of this low digestible energy level provided by the bulky diet.
J.J.; HARVEY, J.W.; BRUSS, M.L. (Eds.) Clinical biochemistry of domestic animals. 5.ed. San Diego: Academic, 1997. cap.17, p.441-484. GALHARDO, M., BIRGEL Jr., E.H., SOARES, L.M. et al. Poisoning by Diacetocyscirpenol in cattle fed citruspulp in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci., v.32, p.90- 91, 1997.
Considering the normal range for rectal temperature (38-39.5°C), respiratory rate (15-40 rpm), and heart beat (60 to 120 bpm) of dairy calves (Davis & Drackley 1998), and the lack of effect of the starter composition on phy- siological parameters (Fig.2), it may be concluded that variations observed are related to environmental factors. Only measurements done at 7h00 revealed average rectal temperature and respiratory rate within the normal ran- ge. Measurements done at 12h00 and 19h00 were higher than that (Fig.2). Heart beat rate was also higher at 12h00 and 19h00 than that observed in the morning, but did not exceeded normal range in any of the measurements (Fig.2). Therefore, altered physiological parameters suggest a mild heat stress with the advance of the day, confirmed by the increased THI. Heat stress may increase energy require- ments even more for animals that are already dealing with diarrhea. Even though there was a time effect, there was no interaction between time of day and starter concentrate composition (P>0.05), corroborating that the inclusion of citruspulp did not alter these physiological parameters in diarrheic calves.
No signiﬁcant interaction between the various sources of forage and carbohydrate was observed for daily nutrient intake. However, the dry matter (DMI) and organic matter intake, in kg, were inﬂuenced by the type of roughage and carbohydrate, when considered separately (P<0.05) (Table 3). The observed mean values of DMI were higher for the treatments containing sunﬂower silage (17.40 kg for sunﬂower silage and 15.15 kg for corn silage) and lower for the diets with citruspulp (15.55 kg) relative to the diets containing ground corn (16.9 kg). For NDF intake (kg), the sunﬂower silage provided higher values than the corn silage.
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of diets containing increasing levels of citruspulp on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of horses feces. Five mares, at an average age of 3.5 years old and body weight of 492 ± 44.5 kg were arranged in a 5 x 5 Latin Square. The experimental diet consisted of 60% coast-cross hay and 40 % of concentrate with increasing levels of citruspulp (0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 %). To determine the fecal pH, samples were collected directly from the floor, immediately after defecation, in the first feces of the day at 07:00 a.m., and color and fecal consistency were evaluated. For microbiological analysis, an aliquot was reserved in plastic bags, frozen, and sent to the microbiological laboratory for further analysis. Lactic acid bacteria were counted for Lactobacillus spp. and Streptococcus spp. from fecal samples under anaerobic conditions. The diet produced differences (P <0.05) in feces consistency: 98% of the animals had normal and firm stools, while 2% were loose ruminant-type feces. We observed no difference (P<0.05) for color, verifying 100% of the animals of greenish feces, normal for equines. There was no effect (P>0.05) on pH and on the number of Lactobacillus spp. and Streptococcus spp. The inclusion of up to 28% citruspulp concentrates for horses did not promote change in the physicochemical characteristics and on the population of lactic acid-producing bacteria in feces.
Citruspulp inclusion to the diet did not affect drip losses of the carcasses. Despite the superior results obtained (11.4%) for this characteristic, higher than the desired 5%, this augment should not be attributed to the addition of the citruspulp to the diet since all treatments presented similar values. The amplitude of the values found by Souza et al. (1998) for drip loss was from 4.5 to 10.4%, showing that many factors could influence this meat characteristic, e.g., correct application of electric insensibilization, interval between insensibilization time, bleeding, and carcass refrigeration.
ABSTRACT: Dietary fiber is an important component, which has a direct effect on intake, diges- tion, and absorption of nutrients; and also alters intestinal microbiota and morphology according to solubility. One digestibility trial and one performance experiment were performed to evaluate the effects of sources of fiber in diets for 21 day weaned piglets. The experimental diets used in both trials consisted of a control diet and diets with purified cellulose, soybean hulls or citruspulp as a main source of dietary fiber. To evaluate the digestibility of nutrients (Assay 1), the total fe- ces and urine collection method was used. The fiber sources did not affect nutrient digestibility, except for soluble fiber, which increased with the inclusion of citrus (Citrus sinensis L.) pulp. To evaluate performance, morphophysiology and microbiology of the digestive tract of weaned pig- lets, a total of 32 castrated male piglets was used. Slaughter of animals was implemented at 35 and 50 days of age. The use of soybean (Glycine max L.) hulls and citruspulp in diets increased the number of goblet cells and the density of villi in the jejunum. The viscosities of stomach and cecum contents increased due to the addition of citruspulp. Soybean hulls and the citruspulp included in diets reduced the occurrence of E. coli in the small intestines of piglets slaughtered at 35 days of age. Among the fiber sources, purified cellulose in piglet diets promotes better performance of animals, due to the modulation of the small intestine microbiota, with lower E. coli occurrence resulting in higher villus density.
When the levels of inclusion of citruspulp were supplemented with the enzyme complex, it was observed that the citruspulp level of 7.78% determined the lowest fat/meat ratio. Noblet (1996) justified that the fat deposition is directly correlated to the amount of energy consumed by the animal. Moeser et al. (2002) verified that fibrous foods influence negatively the diet energy use. However, the use of enzyme complexes can increase the digestibility of the nutrients, improving the energy use (Hannas & Pupa, 2003). This can justify the results obtained in the current study for the fat/meat ratio when the enzyme complex was added. More researches with citruspulp would be interesting, since decreasing the levels of oil inclusion in the diets and adding another enzyme complex, with other specific enzymes, could have significant responses in the use of byE products over the performance and carcass characteristics.
ABSTRACT: High-wet roughages with low content of soluble carbohydrates, such as tropical grasses, should be inappropriate for producing silages of adequate quality. This study aimed to evaluate the fermentative and microbiological profiles of Marandu-grass ensilaged with pelleted citric pulp (PCP). Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst ex. A. Rich) Stapf cv. Marandu with 58 days of vegetative growth was harvested for producing experimental silages in PVC silos provided with Bünsen valves and density capacity of 900 kg m -3 . Treatments were three PCP levels (0, 50 and 100 g kg -1
There is also an important effect of the nutrient digestion sites in the animal. The starch in the corn may partially escape the rumen fermentation for enzymatic digestion to glucose in the intestine, while the carbohydrate in the citruspulp can only be used by microbial fermentation. Similarly, the advantage of soybean meal is that it can also partially escape the rumen fermentation for subsequent enzymatic digestion to amino acids. By contrast, ammonia from urea is exclusively a nutrient for rumen bacteria. These differences need to be evaluated comparing buffalo and cattle since the digestion physiology may differ according to diverse feeding and environmental systems. The averages of volatile fatty acids concentrations obtained with all the diets in the all sampling times showed that the buffaloes produced less acetic acid (58.7 vs. 61.6 mol/100 mol) and more propionic acid (27.4 vs. 23.6 mol/100 mol) than the cattle. No difference was observed in butyric acid production between the buffaloes (13.6 mol/100 mol) and cattle (14.8 mol/100 mol),
When sheep receive concentrate-rich diets, they spent longer periods ruminating during the day, regardless of the experimental group, and spent time resting more during the night, thus showing a tendency to spend time eating during the day. These data differ from what was found for cattle (Mendes Neto et al., 2007) that were fed with different percentages of citruspulp. Analysis of the rumination data according to the diet provided showed that the concentrate-rich diets led the sheep to ruminate more during the day, in a similar way to what has been observed among cattle and goats (Beauchemin, 1991; Desnoyers et al., 2009), and inversely to what has been observed among grazing sheep, which mainly ruminate and rest during darkness (Lin et al. 2011). Despite our experimental conditions, with artificial illumination, the control diet presented behaviour similar to grazing sheep and spent more time ruminating during the night time.
ABSTRACT - This trial had the objective of characterizing the microbial population and evaluating the aerobic stability of Marandu grass silages with pelleted citruspulp (PCP). The collected forage was submitted to the following treatments: Silage of Marandu grass; silage of Marandu grass + 50 g/kg PCP and silage of Marandu grass + 100 g/kg PCP on natural matter basis. Metal cylindrical containers with 80 cm of height and 50 cm of diameter were used as silos during assays of microbiological dynamics and chemical changes of silages in anaerobiosis. Evaluations were performed on days 0, 2, 4 and 6 after silos were opened. The aerobic stability was evaluated by change in temperature, using approximately three kilograms of silage inside styrofoam boxes that were placed inside a climatic chamber. A completely randomized experimental design and split plot arrangement were used in the two assays, with five replications. Treatments were the plots and time was the subplots. Bacillus and enterobacteria were present on the Marandu grass silages with 0 g/kg PCP, which also showed pH increase
MUDD, A. et al. The chemical basis for the use of citruspulp as a fungus garden substrate by the leaf-cutting ants Atta cephalotes (L.) and Acromyrmex octospinosus (Reich) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, v.68, p.673-685, 1978. Available from: <http://journals.cambridge.org/ action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=2378632>. Accessed: Mar 24, 2011. doi: 10.1017/S0007485300009639. NAGAMOTO, N.S. et al. Method for the evaluation of insecticidal activity over time in Atta sexdens rubropilosa workers (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology, v.44, n.2, p.413-431, 2004. Available from: <http://cat.inist.fr/ ?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=16079204>. Accessed: Mar 24, 2011.
Agroindustry residues were obtained in the North and Northwest regions of the state of Paraná, collected only once. The co-products used were the coffee hulls (CH); pelleted citruspulp (PCP); grape residue (GR); soybean hulls (SH); cottonseed (CS); cassava foliage (CF); and conventional foods such as corn silage (CSIL); and ground corn grain concentrate (GCG). The samples of co-products and foods were ground in a knife mill with a sieve of 1mm and used for determination of dry matter (DM, method 934.01), crude protein (CP, method 990.03), ether extract (EE, method 920.39), gross energy (GE, method 962.09), lignin (LIG, method 921.91) and ash (CT; method 942.05), in accordance with Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC, 1998) recommendations, in duplicate. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) analyses were performed in duplicate according to the methodology described by Van Soest, Robertson, and Lewis (1991). NDF and ADF values were corrected for ash. The chemical composition of the co-products evaluated is found in Table 1.
At year 2000 prices, the period when the experi- ment was carried out, the addition of 25% citruspulp or coffee hulls as replacements for corn reduced the cost per kg of concentrate by 8% and 19%, respectively (Table 1). If corn and citruspulp prices were higher than those ob- served during that period, replacing this grain with NFFS would be even more advantageous. In this simulation, coffee hulls was assumed to have a zero cost. This con- dition would hold true if the production of this feed oc- curred at the site where animals were fed as it was pro- duced, eliminating, as a consequence, transportation and processing costs. Simulations in this study considered that both production and use of coffee hulls for animal feed- ing occurred in the same farm, characterizing the analy- sis of a specific situation, quite typical in the southern part of the State of Minas Gerais.
Obtaining β-glucan + mannan from brewer’s yeast was done according to the methodology described by Matiazi (2006) and Chaud et al., (2007), with some modifications. The flaxseed mucilage was obtained from whole grain flaxseed in aqueous medium, having the experimental methodology described by Goulart et al., (2013) as basis. Pectin was isolated from citruspulp in aqueous media, according to the methodology described by Calliari (2004).