The study assess the communication method of disseminating agricultural information to rural farmers in Ebonyi State. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select respondents. Data analyzed by statistics such as percentage, frequency distribution table and mean score derived from 4-point likert scale. Result show that only 39 percent of the respondents were aware of ADP extension programme while 61 percent were not aware of their existence. The dominant problem to disseminating agricultural information to rural farmers in the study area are: inadequate formal education, lack of infrastructural facilities, lack of interest and aspiration among farmers, introphilly, unaffordable cost of indigenous communicationand culture. Based on the research findings, ADP should put move effort in disseminating effective information to enable farmers adopt the new farming technologies that would be profitable and less expensive. Government of Ebonyi State should provide adequate infrastructural materials to the rural areas and encourage more the extension agents to enable them provide adequate information to the rural farmers. Keywords: Communication method, agricultural information, indigenous and culture
The computer world is growing with a new approach in software development. Software patent has been recognized and implemented in the United States, while in Indonesia the protection of IPR (Intellectual Property Rights) still encounter problems because of the high rate of piracy of software product. Another approach is the Free Software Foundation, which support the GNU Public License (for software or tools known as GNU), as well as other groups who pioneered copyleft, copywrong, public domain, and the like. Currently, one popular approach is the open source approach, in which the source code of an application or software package may be obtained or viewed by the public, even though the source code is not necessarily public domain. The example of well-known open source software such as the Linux (operating system), Apache (web server), PERL, Java, PHP (application tools), MySQL (database server) and many others.
For countries with tourist attractions, the Internet plays an important role in tourism because with the lower cost for them, it will have the highest profitability. E-mail marketing can be used to gain access to the vast and unlimited information in a way that users with an Internet connection can easily find full information about item at any time of day and night. E-marketing is a separate function that is not limited to selling products and services, but include a management process to manage in internal and external markets the relationships between organizations and customers. The lack of attention to this area may deprive us from the world tourism advantages. The important thing for the tourist attractions is that the Internet could have an important role to play in attracting tourism as it has a low cost and the highest profitability. In fact, the main customers of the advanced countries widely use the Internet to trade and travel. The lack of appropriate infrastructure for utilizing this potential advantage results in the failure in utilizing tourism potential and thus being deprived of the benefits of this industry in the global economy. This study examined the effectiveness of e- marketing with regard to the role of the Internet andinformationandcommunicationtechnology in attracting tourists (a case study of Tehran province); 5 hypotheses were developed. In line with the hypotheses, indicators tailored to theoretical goals and bases were developed and reflected in the questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to 281 persons. Data obtained from the questionnaires were analyzed using the software spss. The mean of individual indicators was addressed in five hypotheses. In the first hypothesis, of the proposedindices, the following indicators had the highest ranks respectively: more proper choice of internet marketing based on time, cost and other services, with mean of 4.27, up-to-date nature and easy access to informationand secure of website with mean of 4.11, using a credit card to purchase products on the website at mean of 4.8, use of online service of tourist websites in buying tourist products with mean of 4.04. In the second hypothesis, the development of the
Information transmission and literacy are essential concerns in establishing an ethical foundation that promotes fair, equitable and responsible practices. Information ethics broadly examines issues related to ownership, access, privacy, security and community. Informationtechnology affects fundamental rights involving copyright protection, intellectual freedom, accountability and security. According to (Tucker, 1991), Computing Curriculum report, Association of Computing Machinery, in conjunction with the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, identified the importance of including a “social and professional context” as part of the core curriculum for all computer science majors. This report highlights the need of students to understand the basic cultural, social, legal and ethical issues inherent in the discipline of computing.
The present work aims at illustrating the role of informationtechnology in general and of information systems in particular (Martin & Powell, 1992; Daniels, 1994; Mankin et al, 1996) in the process of organisational innovation. Two distinct frameworks are used, both being extensively based in informationandcommunicationtechnologyand linking the human with the technical aspects of information systems: learning regions (Charles et al, 1999) and learning organisations (Pedler et al, 1989/91; Nadler et al, 1992; Senge, 1990/98/99; Askew et al, 1998; Hofstede, 1994). Some learning theories are briefly described (Sherry, 1996; Seamans, 1990; Streibel, 1991; Savery & Duffy, 1995; Askew & Carnell, 1998) and the semiotics model of organisational morphology (Kecheng, Stamper and Huang, 1997) is presented as the theoretical foundation of this study. The idea is to identify common patterns of behaviour and similar rationales for organisational innovation, when analysed from different perspectives, ranging from an individual and personal level, to teams, organisations, sectors and regions. At regional level, the higher degree of complexity considered, there are common aspects that link the learning organisation’s ideals to the learning region concept.
In a global andtechnology society, new technologies often represent an exclusion factor for the elderly population, unlike what happens with the digital natives. By contrast, young people today are fluent in the language of the new digital technologies. Information Technologies andCommunication (ICT) can be key elements to bring different generations and promote the strengthening of family ties and sharing experiences. In this context, TINA project (InformationTechnology for Grandparents and Grandchildren) whose main aim is to promote family cohesion between grandchildren and grandparents through the ICT including through the Internet. It presents a pilot experiment involving two groups of grandparents and grandchildren in the district of Bragança, Portugal, in 2010. Apart from living promoted by the ICT, participants were trained in basic ICT skills and participated in workshops on the use of communication/interaction technologies between grandparents and grandchildren. The project culminated with the completion of a contest based on webquests before the Grandparents day.
As a response to such changes there has been a change in the organiza- tion of processes within companies, and this had led to the phenomenon of the virtual organization. Such an organization is characterized by the use of both informationand computer technologyand outsourcing.²³ The degree to which one or the other is used varies. Companies use one or the other, or even both simultaneously. As the research shows, the use of both outsourcing and computer andinformationtechnology has increased greatly (Sigala ; Sourenkova and Louvieris ; Lammin- maki ). This study focuses on the tourist sector of the economy, and aims to determine which of the two factor has a greater influence on the degree of virtualization of a company. Directors of selected companies from the area of tourism participated in the study. They were asked to indicate the degree to which each factor contributes to the virtualization of the company. Our conclusions are derived from a number of perspec- tives related to each factor, including: competitiveness and competitive advantage of a company, focussing on key competencies, knowledge and know-how, more efficient use of sources, improved service and greater customer satisfaction, and also fear of unemployment.
Abstract - InformationandCommunicationTechnology (ICT) is the design, development and distribution of data, using computer hardware, software and telecommunication systems. To appreciate the impact of ICT on food insecurity, it is important to engage in technological designs that could provide solutions to enhancing the way people solve their problems. ICT has made it possible for simulations and modelling kits to be applied to the understanding and solution of major scientific and engineering problems. With this strategy, ICT has greatly facilitated communication because handicaps and even the able-bodied men could participate in secured informationcommunication. There should not be any limitation to whatsoever food-related service they want since informationtechnology acts as solution providers by providing ways of interaction for these special groups. For the physically impaired persons, especially the dumb and deaf, this paper, therefore, designs an expert system to assist them communicate in environments where non-audio communication is not possible.
One of the common aspects found was the fact that while eHealth tools can facilitate access to information without visiting the physician, the patient-physician relationship remains important. In addition, in both countries physicians are an important barrier for imple- mentation. Medical schools are often conservative, and physician adaptation to new tools and utilization of new mechanisms of communication with patients are aspects that organizations and government should take into ac- count. As mentioned , “many IT applications require the forging of new relationships between clinicians and institutional providers, which may be slow to develop. For example, some have observed that the deeply ingrained economic distrust and cultural conflict between physicians and hospitals has impeded the adop- tion of IT applications that requires web-based integra- tion ”. Other authors refer to physicians’ reluctance in adopt ICT systems in their daily routine due to criti- cisms regarding the quality and lack of innovativeness of some IT products [23, 22, 2, 24, 4].
With computer andinformationtechnology (ICT) coming to play a greater and more pervasive role in the lives of people around the world, it becomes important to consider the ways in which values and ethical beliefs are embedded in the technology that we use. Software, in particular, with its ability to both act independent from its creation and be reproduced, shared, and transmitted almost infinitely, opens many new ethical questions both in the implications of its immediate use, as well as any future use and the new contexts that such future use can bring. While Floridi’s Information Ethics presents a well developed, general means by which our interactions with ICT (from design to use) may be ethically guided, it provides no specific, proactive guidance for the creative process of design. When confronted with the need for a particular ICT system, or when faced with the opportunity for open-ended innovation, software and systems designers are left on their own to ask what kind of system should be built. Critiquing relevant ethical approaches, a knowledge-oriented ethics of care is presented that addresses the ethical questions of software design, while still allowing for the application of the variety of different ethical approaches necessary for dealing with the high level of complexity involved in building informationcommunication networks. By acknowledging the complex networks of relationships that are engaged in the use and design of informationcommunicationtechnology, a substantial knowledge of the values and ethical positions embedded in technology proves to be necessary if one hopes to be able to properly practice a care-based ethics in the process of technology design.
Stages of Growth Theory (SGT) has been used to describe a wide variety of growth phenomena in diverse study fields, during their formative periods of knowledge, in biological growth, growth of galaxies, in the study of economic development of nations in the 19th century (Nolan, 1973 p. 399), or in the organizational life cycle, product life cycle, assuming that predictable patterns - conceptualized in terms of stages - exist (King & Teo, 1997). These stages (1) are sequential in nature, (2) occur as a hierarchical progression that is not easily reversed, and (3) involve a broad range of organizational activities and structures (Lavoie & Culbert, 1978). According to stage models, organizations progress through a number of successive and identifiable stages - the inability of management to understand its organization development problems can result in a company becoming "frozen" in its present stage of evolution or, ultimately, in failure, regardless of market opportunities (Greiner, 1972, 1998). The concept of Information Systems (IS) maturity dates back to the 1960s based on a report of field research regarding management planning and control of computer-based information systems in organizations, and the influence it was having on the various aspects of the managers´ task (Churchill et al., 1969). The generalizations which were derived from the study - despite being supported by persons involved in this field of study - did not make a valuable contribution, and it was considered just an introductory material to the field study. In the academic field of Management Information Systems (MIS) studies, Nolan´s Stages of Growth Theory (NSGT) first appeared in 1973, and is probably the most well-known and most widespread theoretical framework of the development of MIS for the assimilation of InformationTechnology (IT) in business organizations (Nolan et al., 1993; Mutsaers et al., 1998; Mattia, 2011). Nolan was the first researcher to introduce a structured scheme for explaining the growth of computing in organizations (King & Kraemer, 1984, p. 474), making statements regarding technical and organizational consequences.
Dr.ir. Mariëlle den Hengst was born on June 5th 1971 in Maass- luis, the Netherlands. After graduating from high school, the Scholengemeenschap Spiering- shoek in Schiedam, in 1989, she studied computer science at Delft University of Technology special- izing in information systems. She graduated cum laude in 1994 with a degree in informationtechnology engineering with a final year thesis on a simu- lation environment for eliciting information requirements of employees at the Dutch Railroad Company. Immedi- ately after this, she started her Ph.D. thesis research at Delft University of Technology in association with the Research School for Transport, Infrastructure and Logis- tics. During her research, she presented her work at a number of national and international conferences. She has assisted several master’s students with the completion of their final year theses and she has taught courses on in- formation systems and dynamic modeling. She obtained her Ph.D. from the Delft University of Technology on the subject of 'Interorganizational Coordination in Container Transport; a chain management design' in October of 1999. Her research focused on designing an ICT based system for chain management in container transport. Cur- rently, she is an assistant professor at the faculty of Tech- nology, Policy and Management at Delft University of Technology.
Abstract: Science andtechnology engendered unexpected social, political and health related problems. These included corrupt and dubious utilization of informationandcommunicationtechnology, environmental pollution and protection and depletion of the ozone layer which endangered human health. This sstudy examined the positive and negative implications of science andtechnology in Africa using Nigeria as a case study. This attempt became germane owing to the important place of the scientific and technological enterprise in the entire pattern of human life. The critical and conceptual methods of analysis were employed and the available literatures on the problem provided the background for the study. The study showed the dangers in uncontrolled destructive character of scientific and technological knowledge to human survival and suggested appropriate control measures. The study, therefore, suggested resource control, the control of chemical and biological weapons and the abuse of informationandcommunicationtechnology. Manufacturers of various technologies needed to create subsidiary technologyand put in place necessary mechanisms for curtailing the foreseeable consequences of their products. Indeed, technological civilization should not be blindly embraced.
Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) is a technique that brings the framework of a simple regression model into a weighted regression model. Each parameter in this model is calculated at each point geographical location. The significantly parameter can be used for mapping. In this research GWR model use for mapping InformationandCommunicationTechnology (ICT) indicators which influence on illiteracy. This problem was solved by estimation GWR model. The process was developing optimum bandwidth, weighted by kernel bisquare and parameter estimation. Mapping of ICT indicators was done by P-value. This research use data 29 regencies and 9 cities in East Java Province, Indonesia. GWR model compute the variables that significantly affect on illiteracy (α = 5%) in some locations, such as percent households members with a mobile phone (x 2 ), percent of household
Extended and networked enterprises distribute the design of products, planning of the production process, and manufacturing regionally if not globally. Employees are therefore confronted with collaborative work over remote sites. A cost effective collaboration depends highly on the organization maintaining a common understanding for this kind of work and a suitable support with informationandcommunicationtechnology. The usual face to face work is going to be replaced at least partly if not totally by computer mediated collaboration. Creating and maintaining virtual teams is a challenge to work conditions as well as technology. New developments on cost-effective connections are providing not only vision and auditory perception but also haptic perception. Research results for improving remote collaboration are presented. Individual, social and cultural aspects are considered as new requirements on the employees of networked and extended enterprises.
Personal computer (PC) technical literacy should not have anything to do with everlasting change in operating systems, architectures and applications. Where is the coherency of the informationandcommunication system business? Why doesn’t the PC market take some lessons from game console strategies, in terms of easy of use? Do kids have to get engaged with long lasting training programs to use their game consoles? These are also hi-tech devices, and it is very common to find the latest evolutions of the technology included on these game consoles.
Incorporation of the information- communication technologies into all social spheres evidently changes a hitherto perception of phenomena, processes and spatial relationships, therefore the level of their application becomes ever more a critical threshold for the urban development. The issue is how to characterise and measure such influences in towns, which are the most complex and most dynamic elements in space. The emphasis of this paper is on changes which relate to the functions, structure and territorial organisation as the key.
Nursing, as a discipline attentive to the needs of a changing world and recognizing that the professional- centered, individualized and real-time care model will not be able to provide care effectively and eficiently, has made efforts in human resources training with a view to proper informationandcommunicationtechnology use and research development with new cognitive designs.
In its opening remarks, The Economist declares emphatically that “Paying for a taxi ride using your mobile phone is easier in Nairobi than it is in New York”. There is no denying that InformationandCommunicationTechnology for Development (ICT4D) and its subset, Mobile Communication for Development (M4D) have contributed to developments in many societies. This is particularly more dominant and prevalent in developing countries than in the developed nations. This paper reviews reasons why ICT4D/M4D is viewed as more suitable for developing nations than for developed countries despite their technological advancements and higher mobile technology penetration. The conclusion from this review suggests that, absolute poverty and the desire to emancipate communities in developing countries are the driving force for innovation in ICT4D/M4D.
UNIRIO has a total of 1.800 staff members and 15.000 students across six physical units, five academic units, five dean´s offices for graduate and research, and seven supplementary bodies directly subordinated to the Dean’s Office. The highest deliberative bodies are the high Teaching, Research, and Extension Councils (CONSEPE) and the University Council (CONSUNI), comprised of representatives from all community segments. One hundred and twenty-five courses were offered to the community, including undergradua te, specialization, master’s and doctoral degree courses. UNIRIO reorganized its ICT area in 2010, starting to incorporate the fixed, mobile and VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) telephone systems, with the transformation of the former Data Processing Center (CPD) into the current InformationandCommunicationTechnology Directorship (DTIC). This transformation was the first step in the search for its modernization, which had been playing, hitherto, a predominantly operational role.