Simulations emphasise the large importance of pack- aging materials and environmental conditions on greenbeans quality retention during thawing. Materials cur- rently used (e.g. polyethylene bags) provide minimal thermal insulation against temperature abuses. The use of thermal isolating packaging materials provides more time before the complete defrost of the greenbeans bulk. Model shows that a good insulation material is capable of making a signiﬁcant decrease on the eﬀect of tem- perature abuses, by increasing thawing times up to 190%. Thawing at high temperatures maximises nutritional retention, but sensory retention is compromised. The use of the (high temperatures–short times) HTST prin- ciple to frozen greenbeans thawing is constrained by quality parameters with high activation energies. Thawing inside the refrigerator produces better reten- tions in terms of colour and ﬂavour, when compared to environmental temperature conditions. Higher quality retentions on the quality proﬁle are obtained by thawing near the melting point temperature, without compro- mising nutritional or microbiological safety.
The studied factors are extremely important to model greenbeans quality loss throughout storage. The studentized effects have distinct patterns for quality loss reactions with high and low Arrhenius activation energy. High activation energy quality loss reactions, such as flavour and colour degradation, are highly influenced by temperature. Thus, thermal insulation, provided by the packaging material, is an important factor to maintain low temperatures during short periods of time, such as temperature abuses. The best/worst
Home storage is at the end of the frozen foods distribution chain, and not much is known how it aﬀects frozen vegetables quality. This research presents a computational evaluation of frozen greenbeans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) quality proﬁle, in terms of ascorbic acid, starch content, chlorophylls a and b, colour (Hunter a and b co-ordinates and total colour diﬀerence) and ﬂavour, at storage temperatures of +5, )6, )12 and )18 C, for respectively, 1, 4, 14, and 60 days. Simulations were set to access the impact of the pre- established after sale dates of the Ôstar dating’ system.
For being a crop with indeterminate growth habit, greenbeans were harvested three times a week. After each harvest, the pods were removed and weighed. In the selection, pods that were curved, malformed (incidence of interocular cavity), unhealthy and with perforations caused by insects were considered as unfit for marketing. Number of marketable pods, marketable production and water use efficiency were evaluated.
For greenbeans, results showed that ozone treatment did not affect the colour, but significantly influenced texture (firmness) and peroxidase inactivation (at 7% significance level). After 40 minutes enzyme activity was reduced approximately 20%. This inactivation was verified for the rest of the sampling times.
Greenbeans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) were obtained from Porto local city market––Portugal, one day after harvesting. They were ﬁrstly sorted, washed and blanched in water for 2 min at 100 C. After blanching, greenbeans were left to cool and dry, and then frozen in a blast freezer, Armﬁeld FT 36. Samples were frozen at an average air temperature of 40 C, until the temper- ature of 35 C was recorded with a thermocouple placed in the centre of a green bean test sample. Approx- imately 500 g of frozen greenbeans were immediately put into polyethylene bags (35 cm· 22 cm) and heat sealed. Packed frozen greenbeans were stored in a lab- oratory refrigerator (Fitotherm, model S550 BT) at the temperature of 30 ± 1 C.
Frozen greenbeans were distributed into three laboratory freezers (Fitotherm, model S550 BT) at the temperatures of -7, -15 and -30°C±1°C. The samples were analysed over a period of 250 days and sampled from random locations inside the freezer. Kinetics of frozen stored greenbeans (Phaseolus vulgaris, l.) quality changes: vitamin C, reduced sugars and starch
Broken greenbeans, produced in Belgium, were pur- chased frozen in a local supermarket and were all pro- vided from the same lot number. The greenbeans were kept frozen until used in the experiments. Immedi- ately before each experiment, the greenbeans were de- frosted under warm tap water (20 °C) for 5 min, and then drained oﬀ during 2 min. Green beansÕ heat pene- tration rate was determined by similar procedures ap- plied to white beans case study. In this case only the retort static mode of operation was used ( A ´ vila, 2001; A ´ vila et al., 1999 ).
Frozen greenbeans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) thermal conductivity (k) and heat capacity (C p ) were determined experimentally by a one dimensional ﬁnite diﬀerence (transient method) and diﬀerential scanning calorimetry, respectively. Thermal properties were also estimated by the inverse problem methodology (IPM). Heat capacity and thermal conductivity behaviour with temperature were modelled by the Schwartzberg equations and linear relationship, respectively below and above the melting point. These equations were used inside a ﬁnite element model (FEM) to simulate greenbeans phase transition under thawing conditions. The sequential simplex method was used to minimise the error vector of the FEM inverse problem, to estimate thermal capacity and thermal conductivity. The accuracy of thermal-physical properties estimated by the two methodologies was compared with data from lit- erature. The thermo-physical properties estimated by the IPM converged for physically meaningful values. Important conclusions were obtained about errors in model predictions. Furthermore, the IPM thermal properties increased the accuracy of simulations, especially during phase transition.
Greenbeans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) quality losses were previously studied along 250 days of storage at )7, )15 and )30 C (Martins & Silva, 2002, 2003a, 2003b). These studies aimed at recording losses of vitamin C, colour, chlorophylls, starch, reducing sugars and chan- ges in texture versus storage time, at the three diﬀerent temperatures, in order to obtain their degradation kinetics by an Ôisothermal’ method. Flavour diﬀerence kinetics was obtained from Labuza (1982). These studies concluded that there is a large deviation in terms of temperature sensitivity of quality factors degradation kinetics. Nutritional parameters are less retained by low storage temperatures, than sensory parameters that are very well retained at low storage temperatures (e.g. )30 C). Table 1 presents the three most representative quality loss kinetics in terms of temperature sensitivity. Ascorbic acid loss and total vitamin C losses, and ﬂa- vour diﬀerence have, respectively, low, intermediate and high sensitivity to temperature. Therefore, in this study these were considered representative of the quality losses spectrum.
No que respeita à análise efetuada com o intuito de avaliar o posicionamento face ao turismo sustentável por parte do turista português, os resultados foram francamente positivos. Com efeito, atenta-se que cerca de 60% dos respondentes têm em consideração as práticas sustentáveis no agendamento das suas férias e estão dispostos a despender um montante mais elevado por destinos, alojamentos e atividades que considerem padrões de sustentabilidade isso, ao mesmo tempo que 54% já conheciam a marca Green Stays. Esta constatação não pode ser encarada com excessivo otimismo, na medida em que reflete a constituição da amostra considerada no inquérito, em que aproximadamente 64% dos inquiridos são membros da newsletter Green Stays e nesse sentido, apresentam maior propensão para entrar em consideração com as práticas sustentáveis que constituem “marca de água” da empresa. Tal facto é patente na circunstância deste subgrupo corresponder à quase totalidade das respostas afirmativas obtidas nas questões em apreço, verificando-se o contrário por parte dos indivíduos que integram a subamostra de colaboradores das empresas U.DREAM e CHETTO.
Some examples of the potential use of natural compounds as cosmetic ingredients are the gra- pevine pulp muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia Michx 1803) and cassis juice (Ribes nigrum L. 1753) in topical applications of cosmetics to avoid skin hyperpigmentation (Plundrich et al., 2013) and the use of green coffee oil (Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehn. 1897) in formulations of sunscreens, increasing the sun protection factor and perfor- ming satisfactory antioxidant activity (Chiari et al., 2014). Besides that, there are studies that show the increase of skin hydration after two weeks of use of formulations containing different concentrations of
The development of green business in China is the core issue of this study, this paper uses a combination of content analysis and substantial interviews to analyse how is the national five-year policy effect the green business development in China, what is the stage of green business development, and expand to how is it carried out in enterprises especially the resourced-base one regarding the green energy field. To be specifically, the brief analysis includes the identification of the main historically milestones, the current situation, existing guidelines to support green businesses, indicators, achievements. In doing so, the thesis would contextualize the difficulties and problems happen in China and give the suggestion and a definite forecast-for scholar and policymakers who wish to understand the rapidly growing development of green business in China. By extension, this analysis will also help shed light on China’s evolving role in anthropogenic green business development especially in the field of green energy.
6 Maintainable reactions to economic and climate problems can help to solve social problems, such as being poverty and traffic congestion. Regardless, green spaces can also facilitate social interaction, integration, and the development of community cohesion (Forest Research , 2010). According to the Institute of Public Health reduced access to the natural environment can result in social isolation, obesity, and chronic stress. Consequently, access to green space is a significant predictor of increased physical activity (“active living”) and reduced risk of obesity (Heinze, 2011). Therefore, if Green infrastructures are related to parks, they play an essential role in helping physical activity in minority societies. it has been confirmed that people walking around parks shous a reduced stress rate across a broad spectrum of individuals (Hartig, Davis, Jamner, & Jamner, 2003).
and this generation was evaluated during the winter (June to September) at Embrapa Rice and Beans. These two experiments were conducted using a 12 9 12 triple lattice experimental design with three replicates and two-row parcels that were 4 m wide. These experiments also included the CNFM 7875 and Laranja genitors and the BRS Requinte and BRS Pontal outgroups. Two replicates that contained samples of 25 common bean grains were used for the cooking time analysis for each experimental plot of the F 2:4 (Santo Antoˆnio de Goia´s) and F 2:5 generations (Ponta Grossa and Santo Antoˆnio de Goia´s). Prior to cooking, grain samples were soaked in distilled water for 18 h at 25°C, and the water absorption ratio of grains from generation F 2:5 was estimated by the proportional difference in the mass of the beans before and after water soaking, which occasionally doubled bean mass (shown as a percentage). After absorption, each sample (25 hydrated bean grains) was placed in a 25-plunger Mattson cooker (Proctor and Watts 1987). This cooker utilized 25 stainless steel, cylindrical, piercing tip rods in contact with the surface of the bean. The cooker was then placed into a 2 l-beaker
Na f´ısica te´orica tem-se diversas classes de fun¸c˜oes de Green [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]. A diferen¸ca est´a na forma de tomarmos os valores m´edios dos produtos de operadores que aparecem. Se a m´edia for tomada no estado fundamental do istema, tem-se as fun¸c˜oes de Green de teoria de campos [10, 11]. Se a m´edia for tomada sobre um ensemble estat´ıstico, tem-se as fun¸c˜oes de Green da mecˆanica estat´ıstica ou termodinˆamica. Destacamos que na maioria dos casos basta considerar as fun¸c˜oes que dependem de dois tempos, tanto retardadas como avan¸cadas.
Na análise de mercado ou externa, analisam-se os fatores políticos, económicos, sociais e tecnológicos, apresentam-se as forças competitivas do sector e, em conclusão, as oportunidades e ameaças para o projeto. Na análise interna, são avaliados os traços de estrutura, cultura e recursos, definidas a localização, o dimensionamento e, por fim, os pontos fortes e fracos para o negócio. Chegando a este ponto, é possível definir a melhor forma de colocar a empresa na sua envolvente, quer a nível da estratégia a seguir, desafios, restrições, avisos e riscos, quer a nível da análise da concorrência de primeiro grau do Green Resort.
Nesta seção apresentaremos duas soluções em ordem crescente de desenvolvi- mento da teoria básica de EDPs: Para a primeira solução (a mais simples) usaremos apenas a noção básica de EDOs; Para a segunda aplicaremos o método das solu- ções radiais. Depois aplicaremos a função de Green do disco unitário junto com a solução de (6.10) para determinar o valor da integral para x 6= 0