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Risk factors for vascular catheter-related bloodstream infections in pediatric intensive care units

Risk factors for vascular catheter-related bloodstream infections in pediatric intensive care units

Methods: The study was a prospective cohort study in three hospitals. One of the hospitals is a large metropolitan public hospital with two pediatric intensive care units and a total of nineteen pediatric intensive care unit beds, another is a regional hospital with eight pediatric intensive care unit beds, and the third is a private hospital with fifteen beds. Patients between the ages of 1 month old and 18 years old who used a central venous catheter for over 24 hours were included. We recorded patients’ daily progress. General patient and catheter-related data were collected and used as variables. All the data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), version 13.0, to compare patients with CLABSI with or without risk factors.
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Avoidable causes on the waiting list for admissions to intensive care units

Avoidable causes on the waiting list for admissions to intensive care units

Objective: to evaluate occurrence of avoidable-mortality causes on the waiting list of patients at the intensive care units. Methods: one thousand, two hundred and twelve enrollments of patients from all age groups were analyzed and classified according to the Brazilian Health System for causes of avoidable mortality. Descriptive statistics for simple, relative and mean frequency rates were employed for the comparative analysis of the variables. Results: cases of non-communicable diseases, among the avoidable-mortality causes, occupied more than 80.0% of intensive care unit´s beds. Hospitalizations comprised illnesses of the circulatory and respiratory apparatus, especially in patients over 40 years old, together with the external causes and consequences of pregnancy and puerperium with mortality rates within the 15-39 age group. Conclusion: the high proportion of patients with diseases from avoidable causes on the waiting list for intensive care units hospitalization suggest that improvements in the programs involved with the prevention of diseases, especially non-communicable diseases, are needed.
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Dry Eye Syndrome in Intensive Care Units: a concept analysis

Dry Eye Syndrome in Intensive Care Units: a concept analysis

Purpose: To analyse the concept of Dry Eye Syndrome in patients admitted to Intensive Care Units (ICU). Method: This is a concept analysis, according to Walker’s and Avant’s method, conducted using an integrative review, through search in the database. Science Direct, Scopus, Cinahl, Pubmed, Lilacs, Cochrane and Web of Science. The following keywords were used: “Keratoconjuntivite Sicca”, “Risk Factors”, “Dry eye Syndromes” and “Intensive Care Units”. After selection, 85 articles have been kept. Results: Antecedents found: age, lagophthalmos, environmental factors, use of medications, systemic diseases, mechanical ventilation and eye surgeries. Attributes: Tear Break-up Time < 10 s, Schirmer’s test I < 10 mm, Schirmer’s test II < 5 mm and signs and symptoms. Consequents: eye damage and discomfort; unstable vision. The Model Case and the Contrary Case were used to illustrate it. Conclusion: The research provided clarifi cation of the concept and consequent understanding of the Dry Eye Syndrome, which is preventable especially in ICU.
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Transfusional profile in different types of intensive care units

Transfusional profile in different types of intensive care units

Results: 408 transfusions were analyzed in 71 patients. The mean hemoglobin concentration on admission was 9.7 ± 2.3 g/dL and the pre-transfusional concentration was 6.9 ± 1.1 g/dL. The main indications for transfusion were hemoglobin concentration (49%) and active bleeding (32%). The median number of units transfused per episode was 2 (1---2) and the median storage time was 14 (7---21) days. The number of patients transfused with hemoglobin levels greater than 7 g/dL and the number of bags transfused per episode were significantly different among intensive care units. Patients who received three or more transfusions had longer mechanical ventilation time and intensive care unit stay and higher mortality after 60 days. There was an association of mortality with disease severity but not with transfusional characteristics. Conclusions: the practice of blood products transfusion was partially in agreement with the guidelines recommended, although there are differences in behavior between the different profiles of intensive care units. Transfused patients evolved with unfavorable outcomes. Despite the scarcity of blood in blood banks, the mean storage time of the bags was high.
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Noise Pollution in Intensive Care Units and Emergency Wards

Noise Pollution in Intensive Care Units and Emergency Wards

The improvement of technology has increased noise levels in hospital Wards to higher than international standard levels (35-45 dB). Higher noise levels than the maximum level result in patient’s instability and dissatisfaction. Moreover, it will have serious negative effects on the staff’s health and the quality of their services. The purpose of this survey is to analyze the level of noise in intensive care units and emergency wards of the Imam Reza Teaching Hospital, Mashhad.

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The Social Representations of Patients’ Relatives in Intensive Care Units: The Implications to Self-Caring          /          Representações Sociais de Familiares de Pacientes em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva: Implicações no Cuidado de Si

The Social Representations of Patients’ Relatives in Intensive Care Units: The Implications to Self-Caring / Representações Sociais de Familiares de Pacientes em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva: Implicações no Cuidado de Si

Therefore, it is evident the relevance in revealing the social representations of the relatives of patients hospitalized in intensive care units and the intensive care unit, because only through this knowledge will it be possible to implement health care that value the quality of the life of the caregiver and his or her family caregiver. Consequently, understanding the social representations of family members of inpatients in intensive care units and the intensive care unit will contribute to nursing care practices, which might offer care based on the actual needs of their clients, considering that the familiar member is also the target of health care, and minimize the gaps in their mentality.
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Brazilian nursing dissertations and theses conducted in intensive care units

Brazilian nursing dissertations and theses conducted in intensive care units

Descriptors: Intensive Care Units; Nursing Research; Nursing; Bibliometrics; Education, Nursing, Graduate. Objetivo: analisar a produção científica brasileira de dissertações e teses de enfermagem acerca da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Adulto. Métodos: estudo bibliométrico realizado a partir do acesso eletrônico ao Centro de Estudos e Pesquisas em Enfermagem da Associação Brasileira de Enfermagem, com amostra composta por 123 dissertações e 27 teses. Resultados: houve aumento na quantidade de estudos no decorrer dos anos, 54,6% foram oriundos das regiões Sudeste e 26,0% da região Sul. Em relação ao tipo de estudo, 70,0% foram descritivos e 59,3% quantitativos. Quanto à temática mais investigada, 43,3% abordou os cuidados de enfermagem e 38,0% contemplou o paciente crítico como população-alvo da investigação científica. Conclusão: as dissertações e teses brasileiras de enfermagem acerca da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Adulto foram constituídas, predominantemente, por estudos descritivos, quantitativos, oriundos das regiões Sudeste e Sul e que versaram sobre os cuidados de enfermagem aos pacientes.
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Bacterial diversity in two Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs).

Bacterial diversity in two Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs).

Low Birth Weight and Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) infants in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs) are typically immunocompromised, and therefore susceptible to hospital- acquired infections [1,2]. Infants admitted to NICUs, especially ones who have undergone surgery or have congenital abnormal- ities, are also often at high risk for developing nosocomial infections [2,3]. An analysis of ELBW infant registry data from 1993–2001 by Stoll et al. (2004) illustrated the problems of NICU- acquired infections. This study found high infection rates, high mortality rates, and significantly increased risks of developing severe neuro-developmental disorders among infection survivors [4]. Specifically, Stoll et al. found that 65% (3932/6093) of ELBW infants contracted at least one infection during hospitalization; 38% had sepsis; 27% died from a hospital infection; surviving infected ELBW infants were significantly more likely than
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Nurses Empathy and Family Needs in the Intensive Care Units

Nurses Empathy and Family Needs in the Intensive Care Units

Introduction: The patients’ families in intensive care units (ICUs) experience excessive stress which may disrupt their performance in daily life. Empathy is basic to the nursing role and has been found to be associated with improved patient outcomes and greater satisfaction with care in patient and his/her family. However, few studies have investigated the nursing empathy with ICU patients. This study aimed to assess nursing empathy and its relationship with the needs, from the perspective of families of patients in ICU.

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Developmental Care: assistance of nurses from Neonatal Intensive Care Units

Developmental Care: assistance of nurses from Neonatal Intensive Care Units

Objective: to analyze the Developmental Care in nursing care for Newborns in critical Neonatal Intensive Care Units. Method: a qualitative study with 11 nurses from Neonatal Intensive Care Units of a city in the State of São Paulo countryside, based on the Developmental Care. Data collection was based on non-participant observation, documentary research in medical records and semi-structured interviews. The Symbolic Interactionism was adopted as theoretical framework, and the Bardin Content Analysis, as method of analysis. Results: nurses have knowledge about Developmental Care; however, there are dissonances with doing them. The analysis is presented from two thematic categories: “Nurses’ performance in the Developmental Care” and “Nurse, Family and Developmental Care”. Final considerations: it is necessary to encourage refl ections on the care of nurses regarding Developmental Care, and to foster sensitivity and perception in relation to the executed and registered.
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Compliance with handwashing at two intensive care units in São Paulo

Compliance with handwashing at two intensive care units in São Paulo

Handwashing compliance was compared at two medical- surgical intensive care units (ICUs) of a teaching and a non-teaching hospital. The mean compliance was 22.2% and 42.6%, respectively. Respiratory therapists at the non-teaching hospital had the best handwashing compliance (52.6%). Nursing assistants at the teaching hospital had the worst compliance (11.5%). Nursing assistant was the only health-care worker category with a significant difference between the two ICUs (odds ratio = 6.0; 95% confidence interval = 3.83-9.43; p< 0.001).

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COMMUNICATION NO VERBAL IN INTENSIVE CARE UNITS: PERCEPTION OF NURSES

COMMUNICATION NO VERBAL IN INTENSIVE CARE UNITS: PERCEPTION OF NURSES

Objective: To understand the significance of nonverbal communication in caring for patients on mechanical ventilation in the perception of a group of nurses. Method: Qualitative research, conducted in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a public hospital in Minas Gerais with a group of seven nurses. Results: Five categories emerged: 1) Presence of family: bond in nonverbal communication promoting the humanization of care and patient recovery. 2) Nursing staff in the process of nonverbal communication in the ICU: problems and progress; 3) The feelings of the patient who is unable to communicate verbally, 4) The search for new forms of communication by the patient and caregivers, 5) Underestimating the understanding of communication nonverbal team. Conclusion: The study demonstrated the importance of nonverbal communication in ICUs, but highlights the difficulties of that situation and that staff often underestimate the non-verbal complaints, says the family has a key role in this process and that new advances in the forms of nonverbal communication, these units need to be worked to favor the recovery of the patient, through an integral and humanized. Descriptors: Nonverbal communication, Communication barriers, Intensive care units, Nursing Care.
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The challenge of neuro intensive care units

The challenge of neuro intensive care units

Patients with neurological pathologies or severe neurosurgeries, have always received care in general intensive care units. However, with the need for intensive care in patients during postoper- ative craniotomies and spinal surgery, neurosurgical intensive care units began to emerge. Because of this characteristic of caring for the neurosurgical patient, other patients were hospitalized with diagnoses of cerebral trauma, spinal cord injury, cerebral vascular accident, poor epileptic condition, encephalitis, and severe neuromuscular disease.
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Knowledge and attitudes of health care workers from intensive care units regarding nosocomial transmission of influenza: a study on the immediate pre-pandemic period

Knowledge and attitudes of health care workers from intensive care units regarding nosocomial transmission of influenza: a study on the immediate pre-pandemic period

he transmission of inluenza within health services is extensively documented in the medical literature (1). Outbreaks have been reported in hospitals and nursing homes, even before the 2009-2010 pandemic wave (2-5). Furthermore, it is estimated that at least 20% of health care workers (HCWs) are infected with inluenza virus every year, during autumn and winter months (6). Unfortunately, most HCWs continue to work during their illness. his is particularly worrisome in intensive care units (ICUs), where patients with severe underlying conditions may acquire inluenza from infected staf – a phenomenom that has great impact on mortality (7).
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Humanização do cuidado nas unidades de terapia intensiva: revisão integrativa     Humanization care in intensive care units: integrative review

Humanização do cuidado nas unidades de terapia intensiva: revisão integrativa Humanization care in intensive care units: integrative review

Thus, the guiding question of the study was firstly defined as: what has the national scientific literature addressed about humanized care in Intensive Care Units in Brazil? To search articles, we used terms selected from Descriptors in Health Sciences (DeCS). We selected the descriptors in Portuguese "Humanization of care" and "Intensive Care Unit". For the tracking of articles, the Boolean operator "AND" was used between these.

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Revisiting Unplanned Endotracheal Extubation and Disease Severity in Intensive Care Units.

Revisiting Unplanned Endotracheal Extubation and Disease Severity in Intensive Care Units.

Unplanned endotracheal extubation (UE) is an indicator of the quality of care in intensive care units (ICUs) [1,2] and is reported to cause subsequent complications[1,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11]. The risk factors for UE include prolonged use of mechanical ventilatory support (MVS) [2,7,8,12], oral route of intubation [4,5], clearer consciousness [13,14], frequent use of physical restraint [3,13,15,16], and others [3,4,5,6,13]. However, some controversy exists with regards to a higher incidence of UE during sedation leading to paradoxical excitation[17], the non-use of physical restraints[18], the oral route for intubation not being a risk factor[12], and increases in in-ICU and in-hospital mortality[1,7].
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa in intensive care units in

Pseudomonas aeruginosa in intensive care units in

Infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa has spread worldwide, with limited options for treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate metallo-β-lactamase-producing P. aeruginosa strains and compare their genetic profile using samples collected from patients in intensive care units. Forty P. aeruginosa strains were isolated from two public hospitals in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul State, from January 1 st , 2007 to June 31 st , 2008. Profiles of antimicrobial susceptibility were deter-

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Organization of rehabilitation care in Portuguese intensive care units

Organization of rehabilitation care in Portuguese intensive care units

Foram identificados três modelos de organização dos cuidados de reabilitação (Figura 1): um modelo interno, em que a prestação de cuidados era feita pela equipa da própria UCI (22,9%)[r]

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Risk factors for the development of hospital infections in the intensive care units

Risk factors for the development of hospital infections in the intensive care units

Cilj rada bio je da se sagleda uestalost bolni- kih infekcija u jedinicama intenzivne nege Opšte bolnice Užice i utvrde faktori rizika za njihov nastanak.. Prospektivnim nadzorom nad bol[r]

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The practice of dentistry in intensive care units in Brazil

The practice of dentistry in intensive care units in Brazil

Professionals from different fields (medicine, nursing, dentistry, physical therapy, speech therapy, nutrition and psychology) with direct connections to professional practice in intensive therapy participated in the cooperation network. The questionnaires were sent to all the professionals in the network. Contact was made using personal e-mails and cell phone text messages to direct participants to a questionnaire hosted on the

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