Learning english

Top PDF Learning english:

English Phonetics and Phonology: the contributions of the website BBC Learning English to the teaching of pronunciation

English Phonetics and Phonology: the contributions of the website BBC Learning English to the teaching of pronunciation

In the last section there are three radio programs. These programs were produced in 2005 by BBC Learning English as part of the Talk about English series. The programs were made with guest Alan Stanton, a materials’ writer and pronunciation expert. Each program deals with a speciic supra-segmental feature of English. The irst program is about the schwa sound, consonant to vowel linking and vowel to vowel linking. The second one is about sounds and letters, linking “r”, connected speech, sounds twinning (gemination) and sounds disappearance (elision). The third one is only about sound changes (assimilation). As these programs bring lots of information they are not going to be analyzed thoroughly. For our purpose it is just better to notice that the focus is on supra-segmental features.
Mostrar mais

14 Ler mais

A Study of Comparatively Low Achievement Students’ Bilingualized Dictionary Use and their English Learning

A Study of Comparatively Low Achievement Students’ Bilingualized Dictionary Use and their English Learning

The present study examined the dicionary use of comparatively low achievement university students in the research context. In accordance with their English proficiency, LASECD was selected and used in the Level II English Course to help students arrive at better English vocabulary learning in the academic year 2011-12. English teachers guided their students in using this dictionary in the beginning of the fall semester. Students then became familiar with dictionary use through completing learning activities, exercises, and assignments in their English classes. After eight months of dictionary use (four months in semester one and semester two), the questionnaires were distributed to 147 students to generate their opinions of using LASECD and their perceptions towards this dictionary and its helpfulness in learning English. The overall results of this survey suggest that these comparatively low achievement students could benefit from LASECD in learning English and started to build up the habit of dictionary use when looking up English words. Although less than 40% of the students would use it at home, the results suggest that 76.4% of these LASECD users found this dictionary helpful in studying English. It is a given fact that when users gain positive experience and hold positive inclinations towards this reference, they will be more likely to maintain their user habits and consequently expand their bank of English vocabulary. Thus, students’ views on LASECD might correspond to their preferred style of vocabulary learning, which may provide implications for subsequent course design.
Mostrar mais

21 Ler mais

LANGUAGE AND CULTURE FOSTERING PEACE: THE  CONTRIBUTIONS OF CRITICAL EDUCATION

LANGUAGE AND CULTURE FOSTERING PEACE: THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF CRITICAL EDUCATION

For that, I would like to discuss two aspects about languages (in general) and language learning (English). The first one relates to what we mean by knowing a language (or foreign language) and the second one relates to how we learn languages. Hence, what do we mean by knowing a language? If we think about the pedagogies I mentioned in the introduction of this chapter, the traditional pedagogy (critiqued by Freire) will state that knowing a language is knowing its structure (grammar), knowing how to write and knowing the standard (“good”) pronunciation of that language. I argue that the problem with this view is that when we consider language as a set of grammatical rules and only, it becomes a set of correct rules to be memorized and “learned”. This also means that these rules can be controlled by some people - the elite, the linguists and the academics - who will determine the correct or standard language. For example, in Brazil the “accepted/ correct Portuguese” is the one from Academia Brasileira de Letras. So, if you want to pass the university entrance exams (vestibular), go for a job interview or talk to your teachers, you will have to speak the standard Portuguese. However, is there only ONE correct Portuguese? We will see that language in this ONE-vision can bring many problems: linguistic racism, for example, when the Portuguese spoken by the people from the Northeast reagion or the Nordestinos is considered “not good” or “not perfect”; social discrimination when a person does not get a job because he or she speaks Portuguese with North accent (“português com sotaque”). I am not defending that we should put the “official” Portuguese aside and speak the way we want. What I am suggesting is that we should explore our concepts of what is “correct” and what is wrong when we talk about the Portuguese language. We should also consider the contexts in which language is used.
Mostrar mais

12 Ler mais

Rev. bras. linguist. apl.  vol.11 número4

Rev. bras. linguist. apl. vol.11 número4

The contribution of this paper lies in the discussion of how learner- learner interaction can stimulate negotiation and feedback leading to the potential learning of a foreign language. The study focuses on the processes and effects of the collaborative dialogue (SWAIN, 2000) between dyads of Brazilian students learning English as a foreign language at university level, taking into account the occasions when the learners reflect upon the target language by testing hypotheses and reformulating their output. I also refer to the concept of languaging (SWAIN, 2006, p. 89) as “the process of making meaning and shaping knowledge and experience through language”. Languaging takes place when one is doing something with language such as giving explanations to a partner, self-correcting or correcting someone else, or whispering to oneself. Swain et al. (2009) state that languaging is a form of verbalization that can be used to mediate the solutions to complex problems or tasks as part of the process of learning. They further remark that
Mostrar mais

16 Ler mais

Rev. bras. linguist. apl.  vol.13 número2

Rev. bras. linguist. apl. vol.13 número2

After interpreting the 23 narratives of the digital natives in this research, it can be concluded that this complex adaptive system is self-organizing and chaotic. As the literature review shows, self-organization requires the evolution towards a certain attractor. In the current study, the unsatisfactory pedagogical practices reported by learners represent chaotic attractors, and they have triggered a self-organizing behavior of the learning system. It is possible to identify that an autonomous agent (student) self-organizes in a way that the system offers conditions for its survival. Despite the teaching practices that did not serve learners’ needs, they were still able to seek alternative solutions and have a favorable attitude towards the English language. Had it not been for the ‘digital’ nature of the learners, they might not have spontaneously resorted to digital alternatives (self-organization) and hold a positive attitude towards learning English. After all, finding information on the Web is the most convenient way for digital natives, who constantly use multitasking, to produce a positive attitude towards learning.
Mostrar mais

16 Ler mais

Factors Influencing Student Nurses’ Perceptions of Success and Failure in Second Language Writing – A Classroom-based Study

Factors Influencing Student Nurses’ Perceptions of Success and Failure in Second Language Writing – A Classroom-based Study

The other causalities also include: ‘competence in idioms and phrases’ (N=9; 18%), ‘competence in reading’ (N=7; 14%), ‘competence in discourse’ (N=7; 14%), ‘learning from model sentences and compositions’ (N=3; 6%), ‘appropriateness of instruction’ (N=3; 6%), ‘confidence in English ability’ (N=2; 4%), ‘school policy’ (N=2), ‘varieties of topics and interests’ (N=1; 2%), ‘competence in proofread’ (N=1; 2%), ‘speed in drafting compositions’ (N=1; 2%), ‘interest in learning English’ (N=1; 2%), ‘competence in content construction’ (N=1; 2%), and ‘performance in exams’ (N=1; 2%). These causalities answered by not so many students, although not in common patterns, still offer a few valuable teaching strategies. For instance, some learners may need training in the use of English idioms and phrases since they might feel they are efficient in expressing their ideas in just a few words. It is also good to supply more reading materials for the students because they can learn how to write by imitating or observing the writing of others. To help improve the learners’ discourse competence can be considered as well. A few students had realised that discourse ability is crucial for their writing fluency so that they would like to learn more skills to improve their discourse competence. In addition, to teach more model sentences and compositions is worth doing since several pupils believed that model sentences and compositions are useful for them to imitate before building up their own writing styles.
Mostrar mais

41 Ler mais

USING LITERARY TEXTS lN THE ESL CLASSROOM

USING LITERARY TEXTS lN THE ESL CLASSROOM

Learning English as a second language is a discovery process, and the teacher figur es an important character on this journey, for it is the instructor's task to make the l[r]

8 Ler mais

Braz. J. Cardiovasc. Surg.  vol.26 número2 en v26n2a26

Braz. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. vol.26 número2 en v26n2a26

In North American universities it is common for research groups to be helped by specialists in scientific writing, who help them format articles, refine translations, prepare figures and organize references. Emilio Moran, a director at the Anthropological Center for Training and Research in Global Climate Change at the University of Indiana, say that it has been important for the productivity of his group to have the help of a professional who is even responsible for drafting the final version of scientific articles. “She helps on various areas, such as grammar and a review of the English, but it’s common for her to take the researcher’s draft with his general ideas and transform it into a scientific article”, says Moran, who has even shared the services of this writer with the 2009 Nobel prize winner in Economics, Elinor Ostrom, a professor at the University of Indiana. “Those who produce a lot end up not having time to take care of the details of preparing an article.” Support services do not exempt researchers from learning how to write. Moran himself lectures on a subject that, as the final piece of work, demands from post-graduate students an essay on a real project that is to be presented to the funding agencies.
Mostrar mais

5 Ler mais

Rev. Bras. Estud. Pedagog.  vol.97 número247

Rev. Bras. Estud. Pedagog. vol.97 número247

While a national assessment regime was in place before the above actions, the alignment between the standards is now being fully realised. Prior to the development of the national curriculum full population testing of the country’s students in years 3, 5, 7 and 9 was based on prior agreements that had been reached between state and territory officials regarding the scope and nature of test items in literacy and numeracy content. This year sees the direct alignment between the national curriculum learning areas of English and Mathematics and the items to be tested in the National Assessment Program in Literacy and Numeracy (Naplan).
Mostrar mais

9 Ler mais

Habits that contribute to the development of speaking and listening skills in English as a Second Language contexts / Hábitos que contribuem para o desenvolvimento de habilidades de fala e escuta em Inglês como Segunda Língua

Habits that contribute to the development of speaking and listening skills in English as a Second Language contexts / Hábitos que contribuem para o desenvolvimento de habilidades de fala e escuta em Inglês como Segunda Língua

The aim of this study is to discuss habits that contribute to the development of speaking and listening comprehension skills in a group of Brazilian English language students. A theoretical framework within the field of Applied Linguistics concerning language skills development was used as basis for the design of a 23-item survey of evaluation of study and language exposure habits, which was applied to a sample of 201 students divided into groups according to their levels of proficiency, based on feedback provided by 31 teachers. Resulting data matrix was analyzed through descriptive statistics. A ranking of habits considering their usefulness in the perspective of fluent students was obtained. Differences in terms of effectiveness as well as relationships between these habits are discussed. Results also comprise contributions to English language teaching classroom practices and help filter and define study habits debated in the field of Applied Linguistics which are more relevant and effective for local learners.
Mostrar mais

11 Ler mais

Blended Learning Multimedia Development to Support English Training at Bina Nusantara University

Blended Learning Multimedia Development to Support English Training at Bina Nusantara University

In 2011, Bina Nusantara University put developing its people as the irst priority, including developing English language proiciency. This development programs had been carried out since then. Some types of English trainings were given for the lecturers and staffs for some certain of times. Since the time provided for the trainings was limited, it was needed to support their language development by providing an autonomous learning through a website multimedia. This article aims to irst describe the steps and result of the multimedia and second to ind out whether the designed multimedia was useful for learners to develop their English. The multimedia focused on learning tenses which were needed in their ield of work. The process was started by designing the objectives and the level of the target learners’ English proiciency. The process was continued by designing pre-test, the material, and the post test of each tense. To ind out whether the designed multimedia was useful to develop the learners English the multimedia on simple present tense was tested to random respondents. By the end of applying this multimedia, a questionnaire was given to the respondents. The result was then analyzed qualitatively. The result shows that the multimedia on simple present tense is easy to follow and useful to develop their knowledge and skills in English.
Mostrar mais

5 Ler mais

Higher Education Teaching and Learning Support Areas Differences in England and Brazil: A Case Study / Áreas de Apoio ao Ensino e Aprendizagem no Ensino Superior Diferenças na Inglaterra e no Brasil: um estudo de caso

Higher Education Teaching and Learning Support Areas Differences in England and Brazil: A Case Study / Áreas de Apoio ao Ensino e Aprendizagem no Ensino Superior Diferenças na Inglaterra e no Brasil: um estudo de caso

The teachers’ knowledge base should not be concentrated only on their own subject, and include a comprehension of learning theories and knowing how to implement the new skills in practice (Gibson 2009). This is done in primary and secondary education, where the teachers have opportunities to learn how people learn. This has become increasingly clear that this should take place in higher education as well (McAleese 2013). As sir Ken Robinson contended, knowing the contents is essential but not enough (Robinson and Aronica 2015). Many factors can contribute to teaching excellence. The education and experience in the subject matter should be added by the enthusiasm before the students, by the ability to lead to the suitable level for the student to understand, and by taking risks to help the teaching to become learned (Gibson 2009).
Mostrar mais

22 Ler mais

Using the Comfortability-in-Learning Scale to Enhance Positive Classroom Learning Environments

Using the Comfortability-in-Learning Scale to Enhance Positive Classroom Learning Environments

st udy w it h m ult iple pr ogr am s m ay r ev eal differences in how pr ogr am s v iew lear ning env ir onm ent s as a m eans t o incr ease lear ning. I t w ould also be int er est ing t o invest igat e how inst r uctors could im plem ent changes to cour ses based on dat a fr om each adm inist r at ion of t he CLS. Adding open ended quest ions t o t he CLS for st udent s and inst r uct ors m ay shed addit ional insight on learning. St udent s could be ask ed t o descr ibe how t heir com for t abilit y w it h classm at es, inst r uct or , and course cont ent changed t hroughout t he sem est er and inst r uctor s could be asked t o descr ibe how t hey used t he dat a for m t he CLS to infor m t heir t eaching.
Mostrar mais

8 Ler mais

WHICH ASPECTS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE DO DISTANCE LEARNERS FIND DIFFICULT?

WHICH ASPECTS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE DO DISTANCE LEARNERS FIND DIFFICULT?

The distance learners in this study highlighted that speaking, vocabulary and grammar as aspects they found especially difficult when it comes to learning the English language in the present situation. Based on these findings, the authors would like to make the following recommendations for designers and instructors of language learning courses in distance education: The course designers should 1) be aware of the particular needs of the distance learners especially in terms of speaking 2) increase the number of contact hours via teleconferencing sessions or traveling to regional centres to meet the students and create opportunities for students to learn, interact and seek answers to their queries in the target language 3) guide and motivate the students to spend sufficient time on reading and enriching their vocabulary as well as on practicing their communication skills and learning grammar.
Mostrar mais

9 Ler mais

Rev. bras. linguist. apl.  vol.16 número2

Rev. bras. linguist. apl. vol.16 número2

As Finardi and Porcino (2014) remind us, the teaching of English has always been linked to the use of technology, though after the advent of the Internet, technologies no longer have a role of simple pedagogical support, but rather occupy a central place in the use, teaching and learning of languages. In relation to English teaching and learning through educational software programs, Prebianca, Vieira and Finardi (2014b) analyzed the perceptions of learners of English as a foreign language on the use of the educational software Interchange Arcade in the light of the theory of Structural Cognitive Modiiability (FEURSTEIN, 1994; FEUERSTEIN; FEUERSTEIN, 1997). Data were collected through questionnaires before and after using the software. In general, the qualitative analysis of students’ views showed that the software was seen as an important learning tool, but the ergonomic analysis showed that some human-computer interaction features must be revised to allow a convergence between the pedagogical and ergonomic features of the online platform. Based on the theory of structural cognitive modiiability, the authors concluded that the quality of the software mediation is an important factor in the use of technology to promote the learning of additional languages. The study suggested that factors such as intentionality, transcendence and meaning are not relected in the human-computer interaction characteristics of the software, thus hindering the desired structural cognitive modiication – in this case, the language learning.
Mostrar mais

28 Ler mais

OPTIMIZATION OF WELD PENETRATION PROBLEM IN BUTT WELDED JOINTS USING STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTORS AND STRESS INTENSITY FACTORS

OPTIMIZATION OF WELD PENETRATION PROBLEM IN BUTT WELDED JOINTS USING STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTORS AND STRESS INTENSITY FACTORS

Heuristic and meta-heuristic approaches [1] are preferred in the real world as it is hard to construct the theoretical model required in an MDP formulation. Heuristic refers to experience-based techniques for problem solving, learning, and discovery. Popular Heuristic techniques [10] are Simulated Annealing (SA), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Genetic Algorithms (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Ant Colony (ACO), Stigmergy, Wavelet Theory, Fuzzy Logic (FL) and Tabu Search (TS). Heuristic algorithms do not guarantee to find a solution, but if they do, are likely to do so much faster than deterministic methods. The limitations of Heuristic approaches are that they are inexact methods that produce solutions in a reasonable amount of computer time.
Mostrar mais

7 Ler mais

數位學習領域主題分析之研究 Subject Analysis on the Field of E-Learning Research

數位學習領域主題分析之研究 Subject Analysis on the Field of E-Learning Research

Shih、Feng 與 Tsai(2008)針對 2001 至 2005 年發表在 SSCI 中的五種數位學 習領域國際期刊(即 Computers and Education, British Journal of Educational Tech- nology, Innovations in Education and Teaching International, Educational Technology Research & Development, 與 Journal of Computer Assisted Learning)之數位學習認 知領域相關文獻進行內容分析研究 ,在 1,027 篇文章中有 444 篇被確定為數位學 習認知領域相關 ,從這些文章的發表年份 、期刊來源 、研究主題與引用情況進 行交叉分析。研究顯示教學方法(instructional approaches)、學習環境(learning environment)和後設認知(metacognition)是三個最熱門的研究主題 ,再由被引 用次數分析得知 ,教學方法 、資訊處理(information processing)和動機(motiva- tion)可能會有較多的後續研究。該研究的分析結果 ,有助於教育工作者和研究 人員提昇其對數位學習認知領域研究趨勢的洞察力。廖婉如(2009)則應用書目 計量學方法 ,以「中華民國期刊論文索引」資料庫為研究對象 ,分析我國 1998 年至 2007 年間數位學習期刊論文之特性 ,藉以探討我國數位學習領域之發展情 形。研究樣本計 334 篇期刊論文 ,6,214 筆參考書目 ,研究結果同樣可提供相關 領域研究者參考 ,也有助於了解近幾十年來數位學習期刊文章發表狀況及數位 學習整體趨勢。
Mostrar mais

37 Ler mais

An Overview of Language Teaching Methods and Approaches Marianne CelCe-MurCia

An Overview of Language Teaching Methods and Approaches Marianne CelCe-MurCia

The direct method. The swinging of the pendulum continued. By the end of the nine- teenth century, the direct method, which once more stressed as its goal the ability to use rather than to analyze a language, had begun to func- tion as a viable alternative to grammar-translation. François Gouin, a Frenchman, began to publish his work on the direct method in 1880. 3 He advocated exclusive use of the target language in the class- room, having been influenced by an older friend, the German philosopher-scientist Alexander von Humboldt, who had espoused the notion that a language cannot be taught, that one can only create conditions for learning to take place (Kelly, 1969). The direct method became very popular in France and Germany, and even today it has enthusiastic followers among language teachers in many countries (as does the grammar-translation approach). Key features of the direct method are:
Mostrar mais

14 Ler mais

DELTA  vol.26 número1

DELTA vol.26 número1

Linguística da Paz?? é a pergunta que me fazem as pessoas, surpresas com o surgimento de uma área emergente, assim chamada. Imediatamente sugiro que acessem o termo no Google, em português e em inglês (Peace Linguistics). Essa maneira humanizadora de fazer Linguística Aplicada tem seu início documentado em 1999, com a publicação do verbete Peace Lin- guistics no Penguin Dictionary of Language and Languages, de David Crystal (pp.254-255). Oito anos depois, publica-se este volume de uma linguista brasileira, radicada nos Estados Unidos, docente pesquisadora em Arizona State University. Lembraria que Friedrich fez sua graduação na USP. Muito versátil, organizou, recentemente um volume sobre produção de textos acadêmicos (Teaching academic writing), publicado pela Continuum (2008). O livro que resenho concisamente contém 3 Figures (Peace and Language Studies, Adding the Peace dimension to the communicative competence model, The concentric circles of English), 1 Table, uma Introduction (3p.), 7 capítulos, um Glossary (21termos), References (5 p.) e um Appendix: texto integral da Universal Declaration of Linguistic Rights (proclamada em Barcelona em 6 de junho de 1996).
Mostrar mais

2 Ler mais

ATTITUDES AND ACHIEVEMENT ORIENTATIONS OF STUDENTS TOWARDS LEARNING OF SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS IN ENGLISH

ATTITUDES AND ACHIEVEMENT ORIENTATIONS OF STUDENTS TOWARDS LEARNING OF SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS IN ENGLISH

Table 5 illustrates that students with good UPSR English grades have better attitudes than students with average and poor UPSR English grades towards learning of science and mathematics. Findings from interviews have revealed that the grasp of the language medium is a hotly debated issue among interviewees. One teacher puts it succinctly, “The whole policy of teaching science and mathematics in English is a flop. Students are hampered by the lack of competency in English as most of them do not come from English speaking family. As such, the language medium has become a barrier to them”. It is important to note here that even the attitudes of students with good UPSR English achievement grades are slightly negative towards learning of science and mathematics in English as indicated by their mean scores of 3.4776 for mathematics and 3.2090 for science. While the students’ attitudes towards learning of science and mathematics may also be influenced by other factors, there is no doubt that many students in this sample face the problem of inadequate grasp of the language medium, especially in learning of science. Apparently, the levels of English proficiency acquired by them through learning of English as a subject at the primary schools are inadequate for them to use English as an effective tool for learning. The adverse impacts of such problem on the students’ learning processes have been well documented by Macnamara (1966, 1967), Cummins (1978) and Baker (1993). It has to be stressed here that the language used in science is often context-reduced. This brings to the fore the importance of cognitive-academic language proficiency (CALP), which includes the ability to engage in abstract thought in cognitively highly demanding circumstances (Ovando & Collier, 1985). It seems that most students in this sample do not have the required CALP of English to enable them to study science effectively. At best, they could only manage to acquire the basic interpersonal communicative skills (BICS), i.e., context-embedded and cognitively undemanding face-to- face communication skills.
Mostrar mais

25 Ler mais

Show all 4141 documents...