From the all modes tested, the Page model seems to be the best model describing the drying characteristics the three marinefishes, as can be seen in the adjustment done in the experimental data showed in Figure 1, and also verified by the highest R 2 value and lowest χ 2 and RMSE values presented in Table 2. However, Midilli model also showed similarity with experimental data and cannot be discarded. Chavan et al. (2008) and Darvishi et al. (2013) also observed similar results [9,10]. Darvishi et al. (2013) evaluated the drying of sardines in microwaves and found that the Midilli model was the one that came closest to the experimental data, but the Page model was also efficient . For Chavan et al. (2008) the Midilli model was the one that came closest to the experimental data during the drying of Rastrilliger kangurta in a solar dryer .
In conclusion, the results presented in this study encouraged new karyotypic studies in the marinefishes since other groups of the non-Perciformes might reveal the tendencies of divergent karyotypic evolution facing the diversity and the inter-specific variability reported here for the karyotyped species. However, the data found in this study might be very useful for the cytotaxonomy of the taxons that have not been solved yet, and also for the karyotypic evolution suggesting again the conservation tendency of the karyotypic macro-structure of the Perciformes and the diversity in the karyotype of the Beloniformes and Mugiliformes species.
A list of the marinefishes of the Azores is presented. The list is based on a review of the literature combined with an examination of selected specimens available from collections of Azorean fishes deposited in museums, including the collection of fish at the Department of Oceanography and Fisheries of the University of the Azores (Horta). Personal information collected over several years is also incorporated. The geographic area considered is the Economic Exclusive Zone of the Azores. The list is organised in Classes, Orders and Families according to Nelson (1994). The scientific names are, for the most part, those used in Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean (FNAM) (Whitehead et al. 1989), and they are organised in alphabetical order within the families. Clofnam numbers (see Hureau & Monod 1979) are included for reference. Information is given if the species is not cited for the Azores in FNAM. Whenever available, vernacular names are presented, both in Portuguese (Azorean names) and in English. Synonyms, misspellings and misidentifications found in the literature in reference to the occurrence of species in the Azores are also quoted. The 460 species listed, belong to 142 families; 12 species are cited for the first time for the Azores. Details are given for 23 other species cited for the first time for the Azores in the Red Book of Portuguese Vertebrates (ICN 1993). Fifty-four ambiguous and/or exceptional occurrences are included in an appendix. A second appendix contains the remaining corrections to the checklist of fish included in ICN (1993). The paper concludes with a synthesis and an annotated indexed bibliography of the marinefishes of the Azores. Most references are available through the library of the Department of Oceanography and Fisheries of the University of the Azores.
The parasitic copepod fauna infesting the commercial fishes are comparatively well studied in India, especially from the southwest coast. The families such as Bomolochidae, Caligidae, Ergasilidae, Lernaeopodidae, Lernanthropidae, Pandaridae, Pennellidae, and Taeniacanthidae are well documented (Gnanamuthu, 1953; Rangnekar, 1960; Sebastian, 1967; Pillai, 1985), while the family Chondracanthidae is less studied. Pillai (1985) recorded five species of chondracanthids, viz., Bactrochondria hoi (Pillai, 1985) (described as Ceratochondria hoi), Heterochondria pillaii Ho, 1970; Medesicaste penetrans Heller, 1868; Protochondracanthus alatus (Heller, 1868) and P. trilobatus (Pillai, 1964). Later Ho et al. (2000) added a new genus and four species including three new species ( viz., Heterochondria petila Ho, Kim and Kumar, 2000, Bactrochondria papilla Ho, Kim and Kumar, 2000, and Acanthochondria zebriae [= Heterchondria zebriae (Ho, Kim and Kumar, 2000); transferred by Tang et al., 2010] and a new genus, Bactrochondria Ho, Kim and Kumar, 2000. Recently Kizhakudan et al. (2015) reported P. alatus from the captive stock of Psettodes erumi (Bleeker and Schneider). The total number of species of chondracanthids thus far recorded from India is only nine.
rates (up to 27.4 %) of flatfish larvae, Solea senegalensis, at both present (18 °C) and warmer temperatures (+4 °C). Moreover, both warming and hypercapnia increased the heat shock response and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, namely catalase (CAT) and gluta- thione S-transferase (GST), mainly in post-metamorphic larvae (30 dph). The lack of changes in the activity of CAT and GST of pre-metamorphic larvae (10 dph) seems to indi- cate that earlier stages lack a fully-developed antioxidant defense system. Nevertheless, the heat shock and antioxidant responses of post-metamorphic larvae were not enough to avoid the peroxidative damage, which was greatly increased under future environmental conditions. Digestive enzymatic activity of S. senegalensis larvae was also affected by future predictions. Hypercapnic conditions led to a decrease in the activity of digestive enzymes, both pancreatic (up to 26.1 % for trypsin and 74.5 % for amylase) and intestinal enzymes (up to 36.1 % for alkaline phosphatase) in post-metamorphic larvae. Moreover, the impact of ocean acidification and warming on some of these physiological and biochem- ical variables (namely, lower OCR and higher HSP and MDA levels) were translated into lar- vae performance, being significantly correlated with decreased larval growth and survival or increased incidence of skeletal deformities. The increased vulnerability of flatfish early life stages under future ocean conditions is expected to potentially determine recruitment and population dynamics in marine ecosystems.
Although physiological traits are often attributed eco- logical and evolutionary signi ﬁcance, there is a need to inves- tigate trait repeatability in wild ﬁsh populations and whether the temporal stability of traits may be affected by changing environmental conditions. Temporal stability of physio- logical traits, plus a genetic component to the observed intra- speci ﬁc variation, is a prerequisite for a trait to be a target for natural selection. This would in ﬂuence the ability of spe- cies to evolve the trait in response to environmental condi- tions. Changing environments may erode or enhance trait repeatability, possibly changing which traits are under direct and correlated selection. At present, investigation of poten- tial effects of climate change in marine ﬁshes have primarily examined how warming or ocean acidi ﬁcation can inﬂuence population means for variables such as locomotory capacity, metabolism or behaviour (Seebacher et al., 2015; Lefevre, 2016; Nagelkerken and Munday, 2016). The current lack of information about how such environmental disturbances affect trait repeatability is a crucial gap that hinders the abil- ity to predict how populations can cope through evolution- ary responses. Ongoing advances in respirometry and biotelemetry/biologging, in particular, should increase under- standing of trait repeatability in marine ﬁshes and its response to changing environments. The repeatability of traits, and the extent to which this is context dependent, is the topic of a review by Killen et al. (2016a) in this Theme Section, with consideration of the implications for manage- ment and conservation of ﬁsh populations.
Since the early works of Balthazar Osório, at the turn of the century, only few papers have been published on the ichthyofauna of São Tomé island. The papers dealing with these fishes were compilations of previous works or the results of a few scientific expeditions (e.g. "Galathea" and "Calypso"). In this paper, we present the results of several surveys carried out from the island over the last decade, together with an annotated revision of the known bibliography for the area. The result is an inventory of the coastal fish of São Tomé island. Our records (124 species belonging to 59 families) are based on fish captured, photographed or observed whilst diving and also on those landed by local artisanal fishermen. In this paper we report a total of 185 confirmed coastal species and 67 families. Twenty-seven of these are reported for the first time for the area, and three other unidentified species may represent new species to science. The best represented families are Carangidae (14 species), Serranidae (11 species), Gobiidae and Scombridae (8 species each). Despite its proximity to the African Continent, it is clear that these islands harbour a particular fish fauna, including several amphiatlantic species, which, in the eastern Atlantic, occur only around oceanic islands (e.g., Epinephelus ascencionis, Paranthias furcifer, Mulloidychtis martinicus, Bodianus pulchellus, Chromis multilineata, Gnatholepis thomsoni, Melychthis niger). The coastal ichthyodiversity of São Tomé is apparently poorer than that of the adjacent coasts, showing a significant influence of the islands further west, St. Helena and Ascencion.
Abstract: Problem statement: Heavy metals constitute one of the most hazardous substances that could be accumulated in biota. Fish populations exploited by man often live in coastal area environments that contain high levels of heavy metals, coming from human activities such as industrial and agricultural wastes. A problem to deal when using fishes as biomonitors of heavy metals is the relationship existing between metal concentration and several intrinsic factors of the fish such as organism size, genetic composition and age of fish. Approach: Concentration of Zn, Cu and Pb were determined in eight commercially valuable fish species, Selaroides leptolepis, Euthynnus affinis, Parastromateus niger, Lutjanius malabaricus, Epinephelus sexfasciatus, Rastrelliger kanagurta, Nemipterus japonicus and Megalaspis cordyla from Pahang coastal water. The concentration was measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The study focuses on the level of Zn, Cu and Pb in order to assess the environmental pollution by using fishes as an indicator. Results: Concentrations of the heavy metals in examined fish species ranged as follow: Zn 19.27 µg g −1 dry weight; Cu 2.88 µg g −1 dry weight and Pb 0.26 µg g −1 dry weight, respectively. The concentrations of Zn, Cu and Pb were found to follow the order: stomach > muscle > gills. Significant correlations were found between fish weight and heavy metals concentration in the fish organs. Conclusion: The estimated values of all metals in muscles of fish in this study were below the established values. Therefore, it can be concluded that the fish from Pahang coastal water are comparatively clean and do not constitute a risk for human health.
A key component of understanding marine ecosystems, and of implementing science-based policy in those ecosystems, is the development of comprehensive environmental monitoring pro- grams. Important attributes of such programs include the ability to assess biodiversity and track the status of indicator species . Examples of current marine monitoring programs along the west coast of the United States include the Partnership for Interdisci- plinary Studies of Coastal Oceans (PISCO; an academic collaboration), California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investi- gations (CalCOFI; a public-private partnership), the nonprofit Reef Check, and programs affiliated with NOAA Fisheries (a federal agency), among others. These provide data on species diversity and community composition using visual surveys, trawls, seines and tissue biopsies. While they are critical sources of data, such monitoring techniques can be expensive, time-consuming, invasive and prone to high false-negative detection rates [2–4]. More efficient, more cost-effective, and more sensitive methods are thus desirable for ecosystem assessments as well as for improving baseline ecological knowledge about marine ecosystems.
Here, we present an extensive account of DNA barcodes for Mediterranean fishes based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). We used a query dataset composed of 486 specimens identified morphologically from the central basin of the Mediterranean Sea. DNA barcodes generated from these speci- mens were then screened against the reference dataset of fish from Portugal, as well as against public databases. There were several reasons to choose a reference library from a different location to our target area. First, the marine ichthyofauna of Portugal and of the extension of the Portuguese Continental Shelf is taxonomically well documented , and widely characterised using molecular genetic approaches , . Specifically, a published reference library for 102 fish species from Portugal, built on COI data was evaluated for taxonomic reliability and attributed to reliability grades . Despite comparing taxa from two differently highly dynamic areas shaped by the confluence of different seas , , our approach derives from the considerable overlap, especially of exploited species, in the ichthyofauna from Portugal and the central Mediterranean (www.fishbase.org) . The connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar underpins considerable taxonomic similar- ity, with more than 50 percent of the Mediterranean taxa being of Atlantic origin , together with ongoing gene flow in some species . Concomitantly, we examine intra-species population divergence, since similar comparisons have revealed considerable lineage divergence or suggested the occurrence of cryptic species . The universality of the DNA barcodes is, in part, based on the typical low within-species divergence regardless of geographic separation (see Kochzius et al. , Ward ). The detection of significant divergence among populations is particularly relevant in the present study, given the clear genetic separation previously reported for several fish species across the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition . It also provides empirical scientific support for conservation measures to tackle biodiversity loss and for sustain- able exploitation of shared marine fishery resources among southern European countries.
The economic importance and identification challenges associ- ated with fishes prompted the launch of an international Fish Barcoding of Life (FISH-BOL) initiative (http://www.fishbol.org/) with the aim of barcoding all fishes. In the context of FISH-BOL and for the first time, we examine whether barcoding captures species boundaries and allows species identification among some of the major orders of primary freshwater fishes. Although COI divergence and species identification success has been previously assessed for some marinefishes , the average divergence found among freshwater fish species is unknown. The Canadian freshwater fish fauna has been subject to intensive taxonomic analysis for decades [33,34,35,36,37]. Thus, this fauna provides an excellent opportunity to test the efficacy of barcoded-based species delimitation and identification of freshwater fishes over a broad geographic range. Moreover, a large number of species from highly endangered and economically important groups such as salmon and sturgeon are found in Canada. Given their high diversity and dramatic phenotypic changes during development, fish species identification is no easy task. Hence, the development of reliable and universal molecular tags constitutes a major requirement for forensic engineering and conservation strategies involving such emblematic species.
RAIA observatory is an extended grid of oceanographic- meteorological automated observations on the continental shelf in the trans-frontier region of Northern Portugal and Galicia (www.marnaraia.org). This ocean observatory integrates platform and coastal oceanographic-meteorological buoys located at the North West Iberian Atlantic margin, an area of high biodiversity and of great economic importance (increasing marine transit, fishing resources). RAIA is based on the monitoring and forecast of the ocean environment through the use of numerical models and the real-time data derived from oceanographic-meteorological platforms. Real- time meteorological, oceanographic and chemical data are measured at 10 min frequency, namely air temperatures, humidity wind, sea temperature, salinity, density and currents at several depths and oxygen concentrations.
Aim of this study was to investigate fungal infections in four species of carps including goldfish, Carassius (C.) auratus L.; silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys (H.) molitrix Richardsons; rahu, Labeo (L.) rohita Hamilton and Ctenopharyngodon (C.) idella Valenciennes. Nine specimens of each species were studied for the presence of fungal infections. Infected fishes showed clinical signs such as fungal growth on skin, fins, eyes, eroded fins and scales, hemorrhages on body surface and abdominal distension. The specimens from infected organs of fish were inoculated on each, malt extract, Sabouraud dextrose and potato dextrose agars. The fungal colonies of white, black, green, grey and brown colors were observed in the agar plates. Slides were prepared and stained with 0.05% Trypan blue in lactophenol. C. auratus showed the highest infection rate (44.4%) followed by H. molitrix and L. rohita (11.1% each). Five fungal species viz. Aspergillus (33.3%), Penicillium (22.2%), Alternaria (27.7%), Blastomyces spp (11.1%) and Rhizopus (5.5%) were isolated. Posterior part of the fish had significantly (P=0.05) higher (62.5%) infection as compared to anterior part (37.5%). The caudal fin with 31.25% infection was the single most affected area. This study showed that most of the fungi isolated from fishes are considered as normal mycoflora, yet many fungi can cause natural infections in ponds and aquarium.
salt concentration. Carbon filtration was used during oxygen treatment, but was removed upon Stresscoat treatment. Tanks were treated with 0.026% Stresscoat one day prior to fish ar- rival, and were aerated with pure oxygen for four days after arrival, and carbon filtration re- sumed seven days post trawl. Water temperatures were maintained between 3 and 6°C. All tanks were maintained in refrigerated dark rooms and were illuminated indirectly by dim red light (Sunbeam 40 W red light bulb) when necessary for observation, fish selection, and tank maintenance. Water quality (pH, temperature, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, and oxygen concen- tration) was monitored twice daily for the first 2 weeks, daily for weeks 3 and 4, and twice weekly thereafter. Feeding was initiated 48 hours after arrival and fishes were provided frozen mysis, with kiyi and siscowet supplemented with live mysis and shiner minnows when
( 6 ) Citing Fanny D OUVERE and Charles N. E HLER : “Many different «ecosystem approaches» exist. The ecosystem approach developed in the context of the Convention on Biological Diversity, the ecosystem approach to fisheries and integrated marine and coastal area management […] represent three useful tools for making progress towards a more inte- grated and holistic management of ocean spaces and resources. Both ecosystem mana- gement and integrated coastal and ocean management adopt a holistic, integrated approach covering both the environmental and socio-economic dimensions, and are basically simi- lar. However, the scale and level of management intervention might vary with respect to geographical scale”, in “The International Perspective: Lessons from Recent European Experience with Marine Spatial Planning”, Paper presented at the “Symposium on Mana- gement for Spatial and Temporal Complexity in Ocean Ecosystems in the 21 st Century”, at
A main question about the extra chromosomes de- scribed here in different characiform fishes might be if they have or not a common origin. Undoubtedly, they came from different events, even though the mechanisms of ori- gin of most of these extra chromosomes might be the same. Among Characiformes they appear to spring up several times, since they are morphologically and probably func- tionally diverse. Their frequencies also seem different among all species studied. In Leporinus, Cyphocharax and Characidium, for instance, the apparent rare occurrence of extra chromosomes might indicate recent events with incipient fixation in the populations. On the other hand, the morphologically similar small heterochromatic acro- centrics detected in three Leporinus species suggest an earlier and unique origin of this chromosome in this ge- nus. In this case, their probably rare occurrence in the popu- lations might indicate a selective disadvantage. In curimatids, previous studies in different populations of Cyphocharax modesta had also shown an extra chromo- some, morphologically similar to that here reported (Venere and Galetti, 1985; Martins et al., 1996). This might sug-
Particular concern must be placed to the region’s fish biodiversity that is faced to serious treats, notably due to overfishing, introduction of non-native species, and habitat loss (Lana et al. 2001, Vitule et al. 2006, Caires et al. 2007), and a full check-list of species may be an important tool in impact assessments. For instance, dredgings and buildings of ports result in large impact and an ecosystem scale check-list may serve as a parameter against which the potentially affected pattern of the fish fauna may be compared, thus helping to assess the strength of impact (Sheaves 2006, Barletta et al. 2010). The objective of the present work is, therefore, to present an updated checklist of the currently known fishes in the PEC. Additionally, we provided comments on conservation status for the treated species.
Numerous methods are currently employed for ω-3 PUFA concen- tration; however, only few are suitable for large-scale production. A single separation/puri ﬁcation method is not often feasible, because the raw material is usually too heterogeneous with relatively high contents of undesirable compounds. Nowadays, PUFA are mainly recovered as free fatty acids, after chemical or enzymatic hydrolysis of marine oil, followed by puri ﬁcation. Depending on the desired yield, available methods include distillation ( Chang, Bao, & Pelura, 1989; Shahidi & Wanasundara, 1998 ), enzymatic splitting ( Camacho-Páez, Robles- Medina, Camacho, González-Moreno, & Molina-Grima, 2002; Halldors- son, Kristinsson, & Haraldsson, 2004 ), low-temperature crystallization ( Harris et al., 2007; Shahidi & Wanasundara, 1998 ), supercritical ﬂuid extraction ( Catchpole, Grey, & Noemark, 2000 ) coupled or not with nano ﬁltration ( Sarrade, Rios, & Carles, 1998 ), urea complexation ( Chakraborty & Raj, 2007; Gámez-Meza et al., 2003 ), and argentation chromatography ( Chakraborty & Raj, 2007; Mondello et al., 2006 ). Each technique has its own advantages and drawbacks and leads to ω-3 PUFA concentrates in different forms. Chromatography, crystallization and urea complexation are useful techniques for collecting PUFA as free fatty acids ( Chakraborty & Raj, 2007; Gámez-Meza et al., 2003 ) whereas supercritical ﬂuid extraction, distillation and also urea complexation, are suitable techniques for the recovery of PUFA as fatty acids esters ( Perretti et al., 2007; Shahidi & Wanasundara, 1998 ). PUFA as acylglycerols can be obtained by enzymatic methods ( Halldorsson et al., 2004; Shimada, Sugihara, & Tominaga, 2001 ).