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Open space loss and land inequality in United States' cities, 1990-2000.

Open space loss and land inequality in United States' cities, 1990-2000.

Our results show that patterns of urban growth from 1990 to 2000 are partially the result of contemporary factors and partially the result of historical factors. For instance, our results show that conservation funding and zoning over the decade correlated with patterns of urban growth. More conservation funding is correlated with lower per capita land consumption, an increase in the proportion of houses in dense neighborhoods, and a slight increase in land inequality. Cities with ‘‘Reform’’ style zoning, character- ized by efforts to restrict development and sometimes to channel it to existing urban areas, also have lower per capita land consumption than other zoning styles. Note that correlation does not necessarily imply causation, and other factors might explain the development patterns in conservation friendly cities, such as their relatively fast rate of population growth or relatively high median house value. However, our results suggest that as cities protect land and tighten zoning restrictions, there is proportionally less development in more suburban areas, presumably because more dense residential development is comparatively favored by these actions. This then lowers the per-capita impact of urban residents on open space.
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Equipments and Materials for Tribotesting in Open Space on International Space Lab

Equipments and Materials for Tribotesting in Open Space on International Space Lab

The scheme of experiment is presented in Fig 5. It is planned to test all materials in the open space at the International Space Laboratory. In the same time all samples will be tested on the ground while imitating the space factors in similar test equipment. Ground-based tests will be carried out on extended program with realization all possible loads and velocities and registration of the additional parameters (measurement of wear, vibration and triboacoustic parametrs, analysis of wear debris and surface morphology). The purpose of ground-based tests is the extending parametrical space of experiment and obtaining data on influence space factors on friction and wear modes.
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Open space suitability analysis for emergency shelter after an earthquake

Open space suitability analysis for emergency shelter after an earthquake

qualitative parameters. While the open space suitability indi- cators were developed to be transferable to other urban set- tings, they were arrived at and influenced to some extent by the Kathmandu context. We used an expert-based approach to identify the most important criteria and evaluated the im- portance with the help of group discussions. Besides multi- faceted objectives of different stakeholders and experts, data availability also shapes the selection of certain criteria. Addi- tionally, Chien et al. (2002), for example, found that climate and weather conditions in different seasons influence peoples shelter-seeking behavior. This and other temporally set fac- tors were not taken into consideration so far. We have consid- ered flood, landslide, and fire hazard as part of the suitabil- ity indicators under the environmental considerations cate- gory (see Table 1). By considering at least the distance to critical sources of fire like gas and petrol stations, we aim to avoid exposing people in earthquake shelter to secondary threats. Nevertheless, emergency response services (e.g., fire brigade) in Kathmandu are known to be very limited in per- sonnel and equipment. We would like to highlight the neces- sity to use the most recent available hazard information also considering cascading effects to avoid putting people at risk in designated shelter areas. In general the indicator-based methodology allows for any incorporation of more detailed data (e.g., from flood hazard models) and is transferable to other hazards with respect to shelter placement problems.
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Espaço Aberto Open Space

Espaço Aberto Open Space

2 As Colin Hay (1996) has shown in the case of the rise of Thatcherism in Great Britain in the mid- 1970s, the crisis must be narratively constructed as a diagnosis of the situation and[r]

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Geometry-driven cell organization determines tissue growths in scaffold pores: consequences for fibronectin organization.

Geometry-driven cell organization determines tissue growths in scaffold pores: consequences for fibronectin organization.

relation between the cell number and the according degree of pore closure. Thus, cell number was the only relevant variable and cell proliferation or nutrient transport issues did not have to be taken into account. Cells were considered as static and, aside from geometry, no interaction between cells was considered. The good agreement between the model and the experimental observations for all pore size categories suggests that the organization of fibroblasts as a consequence of a complex process is defined by simple geometrical constraints. Fibroblasts efficiently fill pores by advancing as far into the open space as their spreading size enables them to do (similar to a tensioned chord). For small pore sizes, spreading across the pores leads to a fast closure. For larger pores, the model predicted an initially slow decrease of the open pore area and an accelerated growth towards the end as a consequence of smaller remaining pore diameter and accordingly higher curvatures. The transition from the process of layer on layer growth to a phase where the cell are able to spread over the remaining pore might have consequences on the ECM structure as a consequence of altered cell arrangement and force distribution in the cellular network.
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The City Walls. An Old Theme for New Urban Spaces

The City Walls. An Old Theme for New Urban Spaces

In both cases - Pompeii and Paestum - albeit with great difficulties and constraints, there are thus the conditions for starting a new reasoning on the open space, right on from the specific theme of the ancient walls, which can be divided by sub-themes, from whose deepening some compositional issues of great importance may emerge: from the establishment of new relations between the elements arranged at different levels in elevation, to the reinterpretation of the idea of boundary / border / margin, up to the networking of fragments at a variable distance.

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A cellular approach to Net-Zero energy cities

A cellular approach to Net-Zero energy cities

The urban form offers a great percent of open space area and, thus, fewer shading effects from the surrounding buildings. According to the geographic location and solar access conditions in Portugal, the best building roof and façade orientation for PV systems is south [53]. Considering this factor and the analysis of Table 3, it is possible to verify that the ratio between buildings with predominantly south facing orientations and with mixed flat and pitched roof typologies provides good conditions for solar potential implementation. On the other hand, the year of construction is determinant for understanding the quality of the materials, design, and state of preservation of the buildings, constituting an important parameter that affects the energy consumption.
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Numerical evaluation of an air- to-air missile radar cross section signature at X-band

Numerical evaluation of an air- to-air missile radar cross section signature at X-band

The missile material is considered as being made out of a perfect electric conductor (without losses). The boundary conditions are set to open space. Figure 4 depicts the [r]

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Involving users to successfully meet the challenges of the digital library: a 30 year personal reflection

Involving users to successfully meet the challenges of the digital library: a 30 year personal reflection

What do you like about the Library’s SLS?:: Open and spacious./ / Open plan layout/ There is a lot of space available to work. / Open and plenty of space/ Open and plenty of space/ Spacious group study rooms/ Big space /Its spacious Spacious./ Spacious/ amount of personal space/ The open space/ amount of workspace/ Open plan – feels more spacious/ Nice open space/ open space/ Spacious/ More space to work./ Spacious/ Lots more space/ Good work

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Architecture faculty with students'creativity center in former textile factory in Covilhã: architectural project of rehabilitation

Architecture faculty with students'creativity center in former textile factory in Covilhã: architectural project of rehabilitation

Lecture Rooms are situated above the performance space of culture center. They are situated on the +4 floor (See picture 37). This Floor originally didn’t have any pillars inside because the roof was supported on the lattice hanging on external walls. Not to close this wide open space I decided to deform vertically the main wall separating the lecture rooms from the bright public space outside, utilized as lounge spaces and places for work. Between all the rooms, there is one using the inclination of the Performance Hall below it. It’s a little auditory room, rotated a little bit from the others, following the order from the first level, like a delicate response to the deformation below.
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Dez anos da revista da rede de enfermagem do nordeste — Rev. Rene : do sonho à realidade

Dez anos da revista da rede de enfermagem do nordeste — Rev. Rene : do sonho à realidade

The aim was to analyze the historical memory of the Rene Journal along a decade of its existence, highlighting its organization, scientific production and the achievements with regard to its indexing in databases. Phenomenological study whose data were collected through a form submitted to free associations and interpreted in accordance with “The poetics of space”. The nuclei were: Federal University of Ceará (FUC) — The home of Rev Rene; the Rev Rene-nest — an open space for researchers in Health and related areas; Poetics of the drawers, safe and cupboards — the scientific capital of the journal at the readers’ disposal; The Rev Rene-shell — a poetic homology; The Rev Rene is round — Goals and actions for projection on the national and international scene. The Rev Rene transposed the dimension of the dream and has consolidated itself as a locus of science.
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Interior-exterior connection in architectural design based on the incorporation of spatial in between layers. Study of four architectural projects

Interior-exterior connection in architectural design based on the incorporation of spatial in between layers. Study of four architectural projects

is most apparent in the project of House N, but the same element circulates through all four projects (Figure 9). The existence of an external border is always present as a physical element that defines the total volume of an architectural composition. It has the role of separating the gravity space of the inhabitants from the external urban environment. In a way it creates an enclosure inside which the composition develops. Although it is always present, the enclosure differs depending on the degree of its transparency. Villa Le Lac allows the surrounding landscape to penetrate inside the open space of its green garden through the openings in the external wall, and even further, through the large running windows to the central space of the house. The wall is interrupted by clearly specified spots. Openings bring part of the landscape to the composition, making nature a part of it. By inserting the surrounding environment, a unique relationship is created between the location and its nature. Solar House is semi-transparent. The central core is massive and made of solid materials. It is a real, traditional house that hides inside other layers and conserves its privacy. Each layer, going from the centre to the streets, becomes more transparent (solid layer, glass layer, wooden skeleton, plants and trees). These layers work as membranes that do not totally block the views to the surrounding area, but provide a certain dose of privacy. House N gives the impression of simultaneous closeness and openness. Its shells work like strong armour that closes and strictly limit the volumes in all three directions. Perforated parts allow, on the other hand, the nature to come inside the defined area. Rain, snow, sun, wind, clouds, the sky ... all these elements become part of everyday life inside the boxes. Guerrero House has a totally opposite approach. It
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Street Music. A case study of three European cities: Vienna, Warsaw and Wroclaw

Street Music. A case study of three European cities: Vienna, Warsaw and Wroclaw

“niedźwiednicy”. Niedźwiednik was often portrayed as a Romanian man who used a drum to make a bear dance - bears were trained to perform (Baranowski 1986: 99). Another animal which was broadly used in public performances is the parrot. A parrot or a monkey 20 were the most popular, almost iconic companions of barrel piano players. Today, in the open-space of the Polish capital you can still meet a barrel-piano player who is performing with a parrot. As he performs all year long, he uses an artifical one in cold, Winter times (Grygier 2011: 142). While the performative aspects of street musician's work is close to the beggar's methodology, the similarities and differences are a riveting topic yet to be fully explored.
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Agricultural Use of Untreated Urban Wastewater in Pakistan

Agricultural Use of Untreated Urban Wastewater in Pakistan

The value of wastewater irrigation should not only be seen from the perspective of livelihood support, employment, and income generation given that the actual (sometimes small) numbers of open-space farmers might not attract the attention of municipal authorities. The overall (aggregate) benefit to the city should also be highlighted. An example is the dependence of the city on irrigated urban vegetable production. Due to the lack of refrigerated transport and storage, the supply of perishable vegetables to urban dwellers depends significantly on this kind of agriculture (Nugent, 2000). In Senegal, for
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J. Aerosp. Technol. Manag.  vol.3 número3

J. Aerosp. Technol. Manag. vol.3 número3

The missile material is considered as being made out of a perfect electric conductor (without losses). The boundary conditions are set to open space. Figure 4 depicts the [r]

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Desde o acolhimento até à avaliação de desempenho, numa empresa de formação e soluções empresariais

Desde o acolhimento até à avaliação de desempenho, numa empresa de formação e soluções empresariais

A Open Space é certificada como entidade formadora pela DGERT desde o dia 26 de fevereiro de 2014 em diversas áreas de educação e formação, tais como: desenvolvimento pessoal, formação de professores e formadores de áreas tecnológicas, audiovisuais e produção dos media, comércio, contabilidade e fiscalidade, gestão e administração, secretariado e trabalho administrativo, enquadramento na organização/empresa, ciências informáticas, metalurgia e metalomecânica, eletricidade e energia, indústrias alimentares, saúde – programas não classificados noutra área de formação, serviços de apoio a crianças e jovens, trabalho social e orientação, turismo e lazer, serviços de transporte, segurança e higiene no trabalho. Desde o dia 7 de julho de 2015 passou também a ser certificada na área de produção agrícola e animal e do dia 27 de janeiro de 2016 em indústrias do têxtil, vestuário, calçado e couro, desporto e proteção de pessoas e bens.
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Study of risk factors that influence visual fatigue and musculoskeletal stress in an open office

Study of risk factors that influence visual fatigue and musculoskeletal stress in an open office

(i) The main objective of this study is to identify and evaluate the main risk factors for musculoskeletal and visual stress in an Open Space, considering the physical space and light[r]

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Uma conversa sobre liderança

Uma conversa sobre liderança

O Open Space Technology (Tecnologia do Espaço Aberto), metodologia utilizada no fórum, vem sendo aplicado, em todo o mundo, tanto para reuniões de cinco pessoas como para encontros com dois mil partici- pantes. Ele busca conferir a maior liberdade possível para que os participantes se organizem por si próprios, falem o mais abertamente possível – como se estivessem em um coffee break – e procurem envolver-se na solução da questão proposta.

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On the Existence of Pure-Strategy Equilibria in Large Games

On the Existence of Pure-Strategy Equilibria in Large Games

The proof of our main results, Theorems 1 — 3, relies on three lemmas which have some interest in their own right. The first provides a characterization of equilibrium distributions in terms of approximate equilibria of games with a large, but finite number of players. Lemma 2 provides sufficient conditions for the existence of finite- valued approximate equilibria in games with a continuum of players. Finally, Lemma 3 presents a representation result which implies that, in games with a super-atomless space of players, every equilibrium distribution is the inverse image of a Nash equi- librium and the function describing the game. These lemmas are stated and proved in Subsections 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3, respectively, while the proofs of Theorems 1, 3 and 2 are presented in Subsections 4.4, 4.5 and 4.6, respectively.
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Determinants and Consequences of   the Website Perceived Value

Determinants and Consequences of the Website Perceived Value

In their study on catalog and Internet shopping, Mathwick, Malhotra and Rigdon (2001) showed that the dimensions of perceived value (visual appeal, entertainment value, intrinsic enjo[r]

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