Passionfruit is widely consumed due to its pleasant flavour and aroma acidity, and it is considered very important a source of minerals and vitamins. It is used in many products such as ice-cream, mousses and, especially, juices. However, the processing of passionfruitjuice may modify the composition and biodisponibility of the bioactive compounds. Investigations of the effects of processing on nutritional components in tropical juices are scarce. Frequently, only losses of vitamin C are evaluated. The objective of this paper is to investigate how some operations of passionfruitjuice processing (formulation/homogeneization/thermal treatment) affect this product’s chemical and physicochemical characteristics. The results showed that the chemical and physicochemical characteristics are little affected by the processing although a reduction in vitamin C contents and anthocyanin, large quantities of carotenoids was verified even after the pasteurization stage. Keywords: passionfruitjuice; hot fill process; thermal treatment; vitamin C; carotenoids; industrial processing.
The aim of this study was to use a factorial design approach for developing a palatable and stable soy-based dessert with the addition of Soy Protein (SP), oligofructose, and PassionFruitJuice (PFJ). Panelists (n = 50) used a seven-point hedonic scale to assess the overall liking, degree of liking of creaminess, taste, and color of the desserts. In addition, the samples were submitted to a preference ranking test in order to evaluate the products’ preference. Water Holding Capacity (WHC) and backscattering (BS) measures were also determined to assess the physical stability of the trials. Sample F3 (35% PFJ and 2% SP) was the only one that presented a WHC index of 94.8%; moreover, none of the developed samples had synerisis after 72 hours of storage indicating adequate physical stability of the emulsion process. Samples F2 (25% PFJ, and 3.0% SP), F4 (35% PFJ, and 3.0% SP), and F5 (30% PFJ, and 2.5% SP) presented mean hedonic scores above ‘slightly liked’ for all sensory attributes. The acceptance index of samples varied from 62.50 to 88% showing the great sensory potential of such products.
This study showed that it was possible to alter the distillation time and sample mass in terms of SD 2 analysis using the Monier-Williams method for the analysis of integral passionfruitjuice. These modifications are of great importance, especially for public health laboratories, which use this method as a reference, and where time and the amount of sample available for analysis are critical factors.
According to Fang et al. (1986), 75ºC/40s was sufficient to ensure the microbiological quality of passionfruitjuice, whether stored at room temperature or refrigerated. However, when assessing the microbiological quality of the stored samples by the commercial sterility test, the 75 º C/60s treatment was enough to decrease the microbiological contamination. The bottles with this treatment, stored for 10 days in the BOD chamber, burst on the 7 th or 8 th days, or had an increase in acidity. By direct observation on microscope slides, yeasts and bacterial forms were observed in all the repetitions of the juice pasteurized at 75 º C/60s, which indicated that the binomial used was not sufficient to guarantee the microbiological quality of the juice and that probably the problem was not caused by recontamination after pasteurization as all the replications showed contamination.
products with both physiological functionality and sensory acceptance by the consumers, producers have developed a number of processed Yacon products, such as air-dried tuber slices (Grau and Rea, 1997), unrefined Yacon syrup, which is marketed as a dietetic sweetener (Herman, Freire and Pazos, 1999), sweet pastries, fermented vegetables, and ethanol (Lachman et al., 2003). Yacon juice treated with active carbon powder (Hondo et al., 2000a), Yacon vinegar (Hondo et al., 2000b), chocolate cake (Moscatto et al., 2004), and Yacon juice blended with peach (Silva, 2004), or lemon juice (Granato and Neves, 2005), are some other products that have been developed. In the same context, passionfruitjuice (PFJ) is a relevant species (Souza et al., 2008) that can also be a suitable ingredient to produce other Yacon- based products due to the fact it contains a large quantity of organic acids and carotenoids, recognized compounds that inhibit PPOs activity and confer taste, flavour and a good-looking aspect to the food. For this reason, the current work was aimed to study the influence of PFJ and/or sodium disulphite on the colour of Yacon pulp in order to inhibit the enzymatic browning, and evaluate the sensory attributes of Yacon non- sugar pastes.
Despite these flavor compounds variations, storage time had no effect on the sensory characteristics of passionfruitjuice storage in glass bottles over 120 days storage, as shown by the two-way ANoVA (Table 2). As both sensory attributes (aroma and flavor) did not vary significantly between the beginning and the end of the storage period, the linear regressions were not calculated. This behavior can be explained by the predominance of ethyl butyrate in the sample (additional flavoring), which masked possible subtle sensory variations. Besides, although furfural did increase, it is known that its aroma threshold is rarely exceeded, even in juice that had suffered temperature abuse (Perez-CACHo; rouSeFF, 2008).
The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the blends with different levels of lactose-maltodextrin (8:5, 10:5, and 12:5 % w/v) during the spray-drying of the passionfruitjuice. The drying was carried out in a laboratory spray dryer (Pulvis GB 22 model) at two inlet air temperatures (180 and 190 °C), and two air pressures (0.10 and 0.20 MPa). The moisture content, hygroscopicity and vitamin C retention were evaluated in the powder obtained. Response surface plots (p<0.05) showed that the lowest values of the moisture content and hygroscopicity were reached in the temperature range of 188-190 °C and at 12:5 % (w/v) concentration of lactose-maltodextrin; the best vitamin C retention level occurred at 180 °C and 0.2 MPa.
Passionfruitjuice, pure and sucrose sweetened (1:1, w:v), was frozen and stored for 8 months in freezers. The effect of storage time and sucrose addition on physicochemical properties of the juices was evaluated, in the fresh juice, and then every two months in the stored samples. Concentration of soluble solids, organic acids, total and reducing sugars and ascorbic acid, as well as pH were not affected by storage time. Initially sucrose addition modified the juice color, but not during storage time, while the natural juice became more yellow during storage. β- carotene content decreased as a function of storage time, 51.3 % in the pure juice and 29.7 % in the sweetened juice.
A study of different papaya nectar formulations showed an increase in sensory acceptance with increas- ing pulp content (up to 40%) (Mostafa et al., 1997). Mixed nectars of papaya and mango pulps were studied (Mostafa et al., 1997), and products with equal amounts of both pulps and a total of 30% or 40% pulp in the for- mulation were best accepted, as compared to those with lower levels of mango pulp. Another study involving mixed nectar formulations containing papaya pulp and passionfruitjuice showed better sensory acceptance to nectars containing higher proportions of papaya pulp. The products presented an ascorbic acid content varying from 35.4 to 36.8 mg 100 g -1 (Salomon et al., 1977). These au-
By-products or wastes generated by raw material-processing food industries can be used in animal feeding. Brazil is the largest producer and exporter of passionfruitjuice, and the northeast region is the most productive in the country (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística [IBGE], 2015). The main by-products of the passionfruitjuice extraction are the peel and seeds derived from its processing, which account for 65 to 70% of the fruit weight (Oliveira et al., 2002) and which are often not used, becoming a serious environmental problem (Togashi et al., 2007).
Figure 1 shows a schema of the passionfruit breeding program of UENF. In 2002, a larger number of progenies was obtained with the use of appropriate genetic designs, such as the Design I proposed, by Comstock and Robinson (1948). Thus, based on the results of these previous analyses, an intrapopulation recurrent selection program was prepared. Currently, passionfruit breeding program carried out by UENF is in the fourth cycle of recurrent selection.
This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of simultaneous selection (selection indices) using estimated genetic gains in yellow passionfruit and to make a comparison between the methodologies of Mulamba & Mock and Elston. The study was conducted with 26 sib progenies of yellow passionfruit for intrinsic production characteristics including fruit number, fruit mass, fruit length and diameter, and for the fruit characteristics skin thickness, soluble solids and acidity. Two methodologies were applied: first, in the joint analysis of fruit characteristics and of intrinsic production characteristics in a single phase of selection; and second, in the analysis in two phases, in which priority was given to the intrinsic production characteristics in the first phase, and later, in the second phase, the best fruit characteristics were chosen among the progenies of the first phase. The analysis of variance was applied to the data to detect genetic variability among progenies. The Elston’s selection indice was unable to provide distribution of genetic gains consistent with the purposes of the study, as it selected a single progeny of passionfruit. However, the index based on the sum of ranks of Mulamba & Mock was more suitable, as it provided a balanced distribution of gains, selecting a larger number of progenies. The methodology of selection using indices is advantageous in passionfruit, since it contributes to higher genetic gains for all the traits evaluated, and the selection in a single phase was proved efficient for progeny selection.
Abstract-Yield and quality of yellow and sweet passion fruits produced in northern state of São Paulo, Brazil were evaluated, including FB200 Yellow Master, Isla Redondo Amarelo, BRS Rubi do Cerrado, BRS Sol do Cerrado and BRS Gigante Amerelo cultivars, GP09-02, GP09-03, H09- 09, H09-14, HFOP-08 and HFOP-09 intraspecific hybrids, and two selections of sweet passion fruits, BGP-DG and BGP-DP. Experimental design was comprised of randomized blocks with 13 treatments, five replicates and three plants per plot. BGP-DG was the sweet passionfruit selected for fresh fruit market as a result of its higher yield (52.7 t ha -1 ) and fruit size and mass (243 g).
Initially, for easy viewing of the juice formulation sensory acceptance and to correlated with the physicochemical parameters, a 3-way external preference map obtained by PARAFAC (Nunes et al., 2012a) was elaborated using the SensoMaker software, version 1.6. A 3-way array was arranged from matrices of i rows (i samples) and j + m columns (j consumers + m physicochemical measurements). These matrices were stacked according to k consumer attributes (color, taste, consistency, and overall liking), resulting in the 3 way array with i, j + m, and k. The individual i × j + m matrices of the consumer acceptance attributes were previously standardized (correlation matrix). The i × m portion was the same for each i × j portion of the individual matrices (Nunes et al., 2012a). The PARAFAC model was optimized using the value of Core Consistency Diagnostics (CDRCDNDIA) to choose the number of factors (Bro, 1997; Nunes et al., 2011). PARAFAC procedures and the construction of a 3-way preference map and 3-way external preference map were previously reported in detail (Nunes et al., 2011, 2012a). For a first view of the nutritional characteristics correlation with the different juice formulations, the physicochemical and texture data were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). Data were arranged in a matrix of 7 lines (samples) and 4 columns (bioactive compounds and antioxidant). Data were standardized (correlation matrix) and PCA was applied. Lastly, the predicted equation for the physicochemical characteristics, nutritional parameters and consumer acceptance was obtained using regression analysis. Based on the predicted model equation, a contour plot of the overall liking was generated and the optimum region for sensory acceptance obtained. Also based on nutritional characteristics, the optimized mixed juice formulation was determined. Both the analyses of variance used to examine the significance of the data fit to the model and the triangular contour plots generated from the polynomial
solution was applied around the stems of the plants. The first application was made 15 days after seedlings were transplanted. In total, three applications were made at 15-day intervals. The pots that constituted the control treatment received water in the same amount. After the final application, the plants were subjected to analyses of gas exchange, anatomical changes, and ultrastructural characteristics. The use of silicon promotes anatomical changes in passionfruit seedlings, such as increased adaxial epidermis thickness, reduced palisade parenchyma, and increased polar diameter/equatorial diameter ratio, which is related to stomata functionality. The concentrations of 0.55 and 0.83 g silicon per pot provide higher rates of photosynthesis, of transpiration, and stomatal conductance. The concentration of 0.83 g silicon per pot results in the greatest deposition of silicon in the abaxial epidermis of leaf surface.
The objective of this study was to determine the sample size required to evaluate physical and chemical characters of Passiflora foetida fruits. A hundred and fifty fruits were randomly harvested from plants grown in a greenhouse. In the laboratory, these fruits were measured for 12 characters (length, equatorial diameter, fruit mass, bark mass, pulp mass, pulp yield, seed weight per fruit, number of seeds per fruit, seed mass per fruit, titratable acidity, soluble solids, and ratio) and the measures of central tendency and dispersion were calculated and checked for normality. The bootstrap percentile confidence interval was determined, from the simulation of 4,000, for 150 sample sizes (1, 2, ..., 150 fruits) measured for each character. The physical and chemical characteristics evaluated in mature fruits of P. foetida exhibit different experimental accuracies and require different sample sizes. To measure only the longitudinal length, equatorial diameter and the relationship among these six fruits are sufficient to estimate the average estimation error with a 5% average. If we consider all the physical and chemical characters of ripe fruit in this work, at least 39 fruits are required, assuming 10% error of the estimated average.
During germination, both varieties exhibited salt tolerance up to certain water electrical conductivity levels, with a performance in BRS RC seeds superior to the BRS GA1. However, increased salt levels inhibited germination in both varieties. The germination results in this study corroborate those reported by Cavalcante et al. (2002) and Oliveira et al. (2015), who studied the possibility of using salt water in the production of passionfruit seedlings and observed a decreased germination with a rise in salt levels. A decline in germination indices and rates caused by salinity was also reported by Sá et al. (2016). The shoot dry weight reached a maximum of 0.110 g in both passionfruit varieties, with estimated water electrical conductivity of 1.96 dS m -1 and
In addition to disease resistance, the breeding of passionfruit is also aimed at meeting the demands of the consumer market, especially in terms of fruit production and quality, requiring the use of more-accurate selection procedures (Freitas et al. 2016). In this context, the mixed models methodology emerges as an optimal procedure for plant selection. This methodology involves the estimation of variance components by the Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) method and prediction of genotypic values by the Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP), resulting in a selection process of greater accuracy. The use of BLUP in the selection of genotypes is highly advantageous in that it predicts genetic values free of environmental effects (Resende 2002, Viana & Resende 2014).
The fungus was isolated from infected passionfruit leaves (ALFENAS; MAFIA, 2007), collected from a commercial orchard in Rio Paranaíba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. To prepare the inoculum, the fungus was grown on PDA for 15 days at 25°C in a BOD incubator. Conidia were harvested by adding 5 mL of sterile distilled water to each dish and scraping the culture surface with a glass rod. The suspension was then filtered through cheesecloth. Conidia concentration was determined using a hemacytometer and a light microscope, adjusted to 1x10 6 conidia mL -1 .
The yellow passionfruit plant had threelobed leaves; from each lobe were taken three discs of leaf blade of 0.785 cm², using a circular leaker. The 50 SPAD readingswere obtained from the mean of three lobules with three leaf discs in each one (Figure 01). After the SPAD reading, the discs of each lobule were immersed into 5 ml of DMSO under dark conditions. The bottles were sealed and kept at 25 o C ± 2 for 30 hours. After