While we did not find a significant correlation between amplitude envelope processing and phonological abilities, as could be expected on the basis of previous correlational research , this was possibly due to a lack of sensitivity in some of our tasks. Indeed what is of interest here is not the global performance on a given task, that would be appropriate in a correlational approach, but the more specific improvement of the performance following music training and its relation to improved phonological abilities. For instance, the task measuring metrical per- ception, adapted from Huss and collaborators , did not show any improvement following music training (nor painting training), thus preventing any possible correlation with improved phonological abilities. Nonetheless, metrical structure is a major determinant of the perception of rhythm, which in turn was the best predictor of phonological awareness. Concerning tap- ping skillsand rise time detection, while they did significantly improve after training, this improvement was not different across training groups. Thus, changes in performance are pos- sibly due to maturation and repetition of the tasks. The finding that the rhythmic reproduction task is the best predictor of phonological abilities may be due to the fact that this task is possibly the most complete (and complex) temporal task that we assessed. Indeed, it requires to pre- cisely process temporal anisochronies, temporal envelops (i.e. durations), beat and metrical structure, to store an auditory temporal representation of sounds as well as to have good senso- rimotor skills allowing a precise reproduction of the internalized representations.
Purpose: this study aimed to perform a systematic review of national and international studies about the relationship between morphological awareness, reading/writing, reading comprehension, and spelling. Research strategies: a search for national and international literature was carried out using databases Medline (via PubMed) and Portal de Periódicos da Capes (Eric, PsycINFO, LILACS, SciELO) from August to September 2015. Selection criteria: the inclusion criteria were: studies that answered the guiding question and addressed the subject matter established by the descriptors and keywords. Studies with animals, laboratories, opinion/expert pieces, case series, case reports and review studies were excluded. Data analysis: the following markers were considered: type and objective of the study, the skills related to morphological awareness (reading, writing, reading comprehension and spelling), tests performed, and their main results. Results: the search carried out in the pre-established databases with descriptors and free terms resulted in 203 articles. The search in PubMed resulted in 81 studies, and in Portal de Periódicos Capes, 122. Of the total, 154 were excluded according to the title and abstract, whereas 39 were excluded upon reading the full text. This allowed for the analysis of 10 articles. Conclusion: children with better scores in the morphological awareness test show better results in readingand writing across all school grades.
Over the past decades, the relation between readingskillsand eye movement behavior has been well documented in English-speaking cohorts. As English and German differ substan- tially with regard to orthographic complexity (i.e. grapheme-phoneme correspondence), we aimed to delineate specific characteristics of how reading speed andreading comprehen- sion interact with eye movements in typically developing German-speaking (Austrian) ado- lescents. Eye movements of 22 participants (14 females; mean age = 13;6 years;months) were tracked while they were performing three tasks, namely silently reading words, texts, and pseudowords. Their readingskills were determined by means of a standardized Ger- man reading speed andreading comprehension assessment (Lesegeschwindigkeits- und -verständnistest für Klassen 6−12). We found that (a) readingskills were associated with various eye movement parameters in each of the three reading tasks; (b) better readingskills were associated with an increased efficiency of eye movements, but were primarily linked to spatial reading parameters, such as the number of fixations per word, the total number of saccades and saccadic amplitudes; (c) reading speed was a more reliable pre- dictor for eye movement parameters than reading comprehension; (d) eye movements were highly correlated across reading tasks, which indicates consistent reading perfor- mances. Contrary to findings in English-speaking cohorts, the readingskills neither consis- tently correlated with temporal eye movement parameters nor with the number or
The irst proile comprises children with delayed language development, phonological disorder or speciic language impairment (expressive and/or receptive), with dificulty in one or more phonological processing skills, who present non-verbal intelligence scores below, appropriate or above average and absence of primary auditory, visual and motor disabilities. The second proile consists of children who present dificulties typical of the irst proile, but with apparently appropriate language development until they are faced with the requirement for segmentation of words into smaller units, thereby presenting dificulties at the beginning of the literacy process, particularly those regarding letter knowledge and sound-letter (phoneme-grapheme) association. In general, these children present phonological disorder history and family history with respect to reading dificulties, have non-verbal intelligence scores below, appropriate or above average, and show no primary auditory, visual and motor impairment. Finally, the third proile refers to children with insuficient experience in preschool, which results in global dificulties in pre-academic skills, with or without phonological disorder history and with history of inadequate exposure to oral language and literacy. These children also present non-verbal intelligence scores below, appropriate or above average and absence of primary auditory, visual and motor disabilities (4) .
However, it is noteworthy that students from G2, who were not submitted to a phonological remediation program, showed improvement in post-testing compared to pre-testing, highlighting that the work of teachers in the classroom favored the acquisition and development of the alphabetic principle of the writing system in Portuguese, however, if not carried out systematically and instructionally it can cause delays in the development of cognitive-linguistic skills for reading acqui- sition. What proves this assertion is the fact that students in G1, even after being submitted to a phonological remediation program, could not reach the average performance of students from G2.
People learn to read their irst language (L1) in a wide variety of cir- cumstances. Children are prepared for reading at an early age by listening to stories, being read to, and interacting with adults and others about the stories they hear. When children start to learn to read in their L1, they already have a large vocabulary, good control of the grammar of the language, have had many stories in that language read to them, and know the discourse (Nation, 2009). However, when these children start to read in a foreign language, i.e. L2 (or English in this study), learning to read in an L2 involves a great deal of language learning. Unlike in their L1, in the L2 learning, oral language and literacy com- petencies develop simultaneously. Children need grammatically and lexically controlled texts, a greater amount of pre-reading activities; they have to learn a diferent orthographic system; and they need to process the meaning of words while trying to achieve the same main goal of reading as in L1: text comprehen- sion. All these principles draw on one’s cognitive resources (capacity of working memory) that are limited at any given moment; therefore, by learning to read quickly, accurately, i.e. luently, and not thinking about orthography, vocabu- lary and syntax, suicient mental resources become available for higher-level processes, such as overall reading performance andreading comprehension. Reading luency has been associated with reading comprehension in English L1 contexts (Fuchs, Fuchs, Hosp, & Jenkins, 2001); however, simply applying the indings from L1 research to the case of L2 readers is inadequate. he nature of L2 reading development is diferent from that of L1. L2 reading luency alone does not account for the variance of explaining reading performance in L2. Di- verse abilities reading in one’s own L1, distance between L1 and L2 orthographic systems, L2 vocabulary knowledge, cognitive measures, and metalinguistic awareness afect reading performance in L2 (Koda, 2010). Nonetheless, luency explains signiicant variance in reading ability (Hoover & Gough, 1990) and problems in acquiring word-level and contextual-level reading are the principal diiculties faced by children who encounter reading problems (Grabe, 2009). However, when reading in an L2, the distance between L1 and L2 writing sys- tems also plays a signiicant role in word recognition, and consequently on text comprehension (Koda, 2010).
Since the seminal work of Denckla and Rudel (1976), a large body of research has demonstrated a strong rela- tionship between rapid automatized naming (RAN) and both concurrent and future literacy skills (see Kirby, Georgiou, Martinussen, & Parrila, 2010, and Norton & Wolf, 2012, for reviews). This relationship has been shown in practically every language in which it has been tested, including Portuguese (e.g., Albuquerque, 2012; Justi & Roazzi, 2012), and regardless of variations in other predictors of literacy ability, such as verbal and non-verbal skills, general processing speed, and phono- logical awareness (Kirby et al., 2010). Nonetheless, there has been much disagreement regarding the explanation underlying this relationship. According to one theoretical standpoint (e.g., Wagner & Torgesen, 1987), RAN pre- dicts reading ability because, comparable to phonological awareness (PA), it is an index of phonological process- ing ability. On the other hand, Wolf and her colleagues (e.g., Bowers & Wolf, 1993; Wolf & Bowers 1999) have suggested that RAN indexes processes that are, at least in part, independent of phonology, including attention, visual discrimination, integration of visual information with stored phonological and semantic representations, and access and retrieval of phonological labels. In support of their view, they have shown that deﬁ cits in RAN and PA often dissociate, and that deﬁ cits in RAN can predict literacy difﬁ culties even in the absence of deﬁ cits in PA. Perhaps more importantly for the purpose of the present study, there is evidence that deﬁ cits in both RAN and PA are often associated with more severe and persistent literacy difﬁ culties than isolated deﬁ cits in RAN or PA (Kirby et al., 2010). This may be particularly true of orthographies more consistent than the English orthog- raphy. Indeed, given the claim that PA plays a relatively modest role in the prediction of later literacy skills in more consistent orthographies (e.g., de Jong & van der Leij, 1999; Papadopoulos, Georgiou, & Kendeou, 2009; Wimmer, Mayringer, & Landerl, 2000), it is unlikely
think genetic factors are implicated in the etiology of developmental dyslexia. In acquired dyslexia, acquired readingand writing skills are lost, due to brain damage. Several factors related to the etiology of developmental dyslexia have been under investigation, including cognitive defi ci t s, neurol ogi cal (neuroanat omi cal and neurophysiological) factors, premature birth, low birthweight, genetic and environmental factors. However, external (environmental) factors cannot be dissociated from neurological problems, since aspects such as poor education, emotional disorders, and poor stimuli during childhood may cause differences in the neurological and cognitive development, leading to severe reading disabilities. 41,43,44
consisting of a list of 40 nonwords distributed according to the number of syllables: ten nonwords of two, three, four, and ive syllables. The phonemic sequences of each nonword are in accordance with English phonotactic rules, corresponding to the dominant syllabic pattern in that language to the extension of the item. CNRep was used to evaluate the BG. Results were presented as frequency of correct responses, and the maximum possible score to be achieved was 40 points. Each school child was asked to repeat the nonwords they heard the way they understood. The protocol application order was followed. Correct answers were words repeated clearly and correctly by the child, scoring one point each. Each child had their total score computed;
Purpose: to elaborate a database of high, medium and low frequency words for reading in High School. Methods: the words were extracted from the Portuguese Language didactic content, of São Paulo State Educational material. Only the nouns were selected. The frequency of each word occurrence was com- puted. To classify them by frequency of occurrence, it was employed the distribution tertiles, mean fre- quency and tertiles cutoff point. In order to verify the classiication obtained,134 students were evaluated: G1 (1stgrade, n=44); G2 (2nd grade, n= 44) e G3 (3rd grade, n= 46). The words were presented, for reading out loud, in two sessions: 1st) high and medium-frequency and 2nd) low-frequency. Descriptive analysis.
It is important to bear in mind that, in the screening instrument used in this study, the phono- logical processing component included solely tasks aimed at assessing phonological awareness skills, while those aimed at assessing the abilities to access the lexicon and phonological memory, for instance, were not left aside. It is also important to emphasize that the similarity in performance on these tasks indicates that both groups can be generally considered as being at the same stage of phonological development. Even though the study has not delved into analyzing tasks in comparison to one another, the mean distribution reveals poor performance on the tasks under Exclusion of phonemes, both for 1 st - and 2 nd -grade students.
It is important to note that since the 1980s, even with constant changes to book-centered programs, there has never been such a time gap as the current one, with complete absence of any public initiatives to send literary collections to schools. Since the PNBE was the only pro- gram doing this, it is certain that school libraries are not being supplied. Considering Brazil’s social inequalities, the absence of distribution of collections to schools undoubtedly causes significant impacts affecting not only the book market, but also, and most importantly, the project of building a more just and egalitarian society. In this sense, we cannot but reflect on the ideological issues permeating the termination of this reading promotion program. Literary fiction is, admittedly, a stage for debate, questioning, representations, confrontations on various social or subjective issues. Literature is therefore a fundamental, deeply em- bedded component of the educational process:
Teachers spend a great deal of time gathering information for the purpose of conducting on-going assessments in the classroom. The literacy development of young children should not be determined by one formal (or standardized) assessment tool. Rather, should involve gathering data from multiple instruments, daily observations, and work samples that measure progress. Often, schools have a data-gathering system in place that reflects the child’s growth and development in the area of literacy skills. As a parent of young children, it is important to ensure that your child is enjoying the reading process and at the same time, that the child is developing his literacy/reading/writing skills to maximum potential. Not all children learn the alphabet by a specific age, and children often learn to ‘sing’ their abc’s before they can identify letters in isolation, or tell you what sounds a letter makes, or what words start with a specific letter. It is an on-going developmental process that takes time, and this is why assessment is important in early childhood. We assess to determine how well a child is progressing at a specific time, and to document a specific aspect of learning. Keeping careful progress records helps teachers adapt the curriculum to make it meaningful and child-centered. Furthermore, if assessment is to be effective, parents need to be kept informed in order to help support the child’s learning at home.
There was no positive correlation between MA and seiz- ure type, seizure frequency, the number of AEDs or the dis- ease duration, so the clinical variables of epilepsy were not related to more specific difficulties in mathematics, which reinforces the hypothesis that epilepsy and dyscalculia are disorders with a common neurobiological basis and one is not the result from the other. Of course, our sample were of patients with well controlled epilepsy on monotherapy. We know that those variables must worsen cognitive func- tion in many aspects 5 and, probably, mathematical abilities.
situation. Previous literature has documented that test anxiety impacts learners’ proficiency profoundly (Naveh-Benjamin et al., 1987). Though the majority of the previous studies revealed that test anxiety at a higher level is associated with proficiency impairment in a test situation, the cause-and-effect relationship between the two has to be understood in more depth (Benjamin et al., 1981; Saito and Samimy, 1996; Scovel, 1978). Students with high levels of test anxiety tend to show symptoms or manifest certain behaviors to cope with the situation (Musch and Broeder, 1999; Zeidner, 1998). They may encounter problems with encoding and storage processes, which results in inadequate conceptual representations of the content (Benjamin et al., 1981; Naveh-Benjamin, 1991). They are more susceptible to procrastination (Cassady and Johnson, 2002), the selection of surface-level processing strategies (Sarason, 1980) and engagement in repetitive memorization strategies (Benjamin et al., 1981). Students with higher test anxiety spend more time preparing for tests than those with low levels of test anxiety (Culler and Hollohan, 1980). Test anxiety is reported to be correlated with a significant performance decrement in students’ grade point averages (Carrier and Jewell, 1966). In comparison to their peers with lower test anxiety, students with higher test anxiety did much poorly (Cassady and Johnson, 2002). Children with higher test anxiety are easily distracted than those who with lower test anxiety (Nottelmann and Hill, 1977). Simply put, when anxiety reaches a certain level, it becomes disorder and disturbs the ability to concentrate. For example, he who is prone to anxiety may know the answer but “freeze up” biologically on a test, failing to demonstrate the information that he has learned.
)t continues the presentation of the heritage of this family, a great commissioner of artworks. A mischievous reader might be tempted to say: residences! estates! hmm!, but reading the book carefully sheds light on the social role played by this family, who were founders of religious and social institutions hospitals and schools , of cultural institutions libraries , of economic enterprises model farms and agricultural holdings, as well as agro-industrial or pharmaceutical companies, carpentry workshops, weaving mills, etc. , where there were hundreds and hundreds of employees. Patriotic and deter-mined in their actions, the members of this family assiduously promoted Romanian products and Romanian creations. They were the authors of a genuine social project! The present-day status of some institutions, such as the Brătianu Foundations, suggests the imperative necessity of finding solutions for their use after their sorely needed restoration from the ground up. Romania would be much richer if these treasures were brought back into the cultural and social circuit.
In composing subtitles, there are relevant factors for reading comprehension, which should be analyzed in the subtitling process. However this doesn't currently seem to be taken into account considering the difficulties currently faced by the spectators in the syntactical analysis of the subtitle texts. As such, a barrier for the comprehension of mobile text is raised, hampering the effective performance analysis of such readers regarding this textual format21.
It is possible that, beyond task demand and its interaction with lexical dynamics, the extent to which the reading strategies (lexical and sublexical) are engaged could per se modulate the N1 specialization (see e.g., Maurer et al., 2010; Ben-Shachar et al., 2011; Zhao et al., 2014). Experimental manipulations involving familiar words (emphasizing whole-word, lexical processing) and pseudowords (requiring letter-by-letter decoding; as predicted by dual-route models; e.g., Coltheart et al., 2001) are commonly used in reading research. But yet, in prior studies, we cannot rule out the possibility that due to shallow task demands (e.g., visual recognition in n-back), the participants processed these stimuli likewise, without recruiting different reading subprocesses (e.g., processing pseudowords as actual words, basing their decisions on “wordlikness”). The originality of the present study stands on the methodological control it offered, ensuring that the processing of the word and pseudoword stimuli is qualitatively distinct as based on external markers collected in an independent eye-tracking study (see method) and a blocked lists design (see e.g., Lima and Castro, 2010). Overall, our data add that, in the adult expert state, early print tuning disengages from reading strategies modulation, and therefore, the effect of stimulus type was null in explicit reading (where one would expect the effects of the reading strategies to be especially exacerbated). However, we support the notion that initial access to the linguistic system is influenced by task-driven top-down processes according to the behavioral goals that are relevant to specific tasks (Balota and Yap, 2006), either the intention to overt speech or not. This main outcome is at odds with the traditional view according to which any influence comes into play during late (post-) decision processes (e.g., Nobre et al., 1998; Bentin et al., 1999), while the observed effects can be accounted for in a number of ways within visual word recognition models (but which our study cannot truly disentangle). In principle, the evidence favors the assertion that some degree of feedback occurs in the system during visual word recognition, modulating early ERP markers. In an “interactive account” of reading, higher-level top-down (e.g., phonological) and visual bottom-up orthographic information interacts reciprocally and in an automatic fashion for visual word recognition (Price and Devlin, 2011). Accordingly, prior studies have provided evidence supporting early-top down effects from the lexical to the abstract orthographic/letter level of encoding (e.g., case match effects at around 200 ms interacted with lexicality in an identity priming paradigm: Vergara-Martínez et al., 2015).
Level III was more difficult than all the others for the participants. At this level, the texts are more complex and the orthographic difficulty requires integration of different linguistic analyses, such as semantic and morphosyntactic aspects. Moreover, the Cloze technique at this level was built without support under the blanks, with a box containing all the words deleted at the end of the texts. Thus, filling in the gaps required more attention, memory, and more complex processing of visual information, with many options presented together. The sessions at this level were the most time-consuming and tiring. Six individuals (54.54%) failed to advance to the next level.
But what should we make of this? Not all interpreters of Anscombe’s paper agree on this point. Under one particular reading of it – probably the most common one – Anscombe’s paper is considered a seminal text in the revival of virtue ethics. Seen thus, it implies that modern moral philosophy is deep- ly misguided and an alternative account should be developed, one not revolv- ing around the definition of what is the (morally) right thing to do and not focusing on concepts such as ‘moral ought’ or ‘moral obligation’. Indeed, Anscombe states that these concepts are no longer necessary for modern ethics, and she argues that they have even become harmful and should accord- ingly be abandoned: ‘the concepts of obligation, and duty – moral obligation and moral duty, that is to say – and of what is morally right and wrong, and of the moral sense of “ought”, ought to be jettisoned’ (Anscombe, 1958: 1). That is, when used in this special moral sense, the concepts of ‘obligation’ and ‘ought’ should be jettisoned since they are misleading – they invoke a normative force or authority that currently has no referent, no recognizable source. The problem with modern moral theories, according to Anscombe, is that they retain the figure of the legislator while losing sight of the only entity that could legis- late. In Anscombe’s own words, ‘It is as if the notion “criminal” were to remain when criminal law and criminal courts had been abolished and forgotten’ (Anscombe, 1958: 6). Used in this special moral sense, those concepts imply that we are forcefully obliged to act (or not to act) in certain ways, as if we were obliged or bound by law. ‘Morally wrong’ is equated with ‘illicit’. But this ‘law conception of ethics’, as Anscombe calls it, is outdated and no longer makes sense because we no longer acknowledge an authority from which moral rules could be derived. This legalist conception of ethics is completely shallow if there is no such thing as a recognisable legislator, precisely the case in mod-