Ruminal degradability

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Ruminal degradability of brown-midrib sorghum-sudangrass hybrids for cutting and grazing

Ruminal degradability of brown-midrib sorghum-sudangrass hybrids for cutting and grazing

(1988). To determine the soluble fractions (time zero), the bags containing the samples were immersed in water, dried in a forced ventilation oven at 55 ºC for 48h, and weighed. To determine the ruminal degradability of the fractions at 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 h, the bags containing the samples were attached to a nylon rope, 35 cm in length, connected to a 100 g weight, immersed in water, and then inserted into the rumen of the experimental animals via the cannula. For each animal, all treatments from any one incubation period were inserted simultaneously; after 10 days, all the treatments from each incubation period were evaluated in each of the animals. After removal, the bags were immediately immersed in cold water and frozen. After all the treatments for each of the five incubation periods were removed, the bags containing the residues were unfrozen and washed in an automatic washer in three cycles of 5 min each, placed in a forced ventilation oven at 55 ºC for 48 h, and weighed. The incubation residue and the original forage samples were ground in a Wiley mill into one-millimetre particles and used to determine the DM at 105 °C (AOAC, 1995), the NDF (VAN SOEST; ROBERTSON; LEWIS, 1991) with no sodium sulphite or α-amylase, using the ANKOM 200® analyser, and the CP
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RUMINAL DEGRADABILITY OF HARD OR SOFT TEXTURE CORN GRAIN AT THREE MATURITY STAGES

RUMINAL DEGRADABILITY OF HARD OR SOFT TEXTURE CORN GRAIN AT THREE MATURITY STAGES

ABSTRACT: The predominance of vitreous endosperm in hard texture flint corn (Zea mays L.) can decrease ruminal starch digestion comparatively to the farinaceous endosperm of dent corn, reducing energy content of the grain. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of texture and maturity stage on ruminal degradability of corn grain. Two dent and two flint hybrids were harvested at the early dent, half milk line, and black layer stages. The proportion of vitreous endosperm (vitreousness) in dent hybrids was 44.3%, while in flint it was 67.0%. There was a linear increase in vitreousness with advancing maturity. Flint hybrids at the early dent stage were more vitreous than dent at the black layer stage. The increase in vitreousness per maturation day was greater for flint hybrids. Grains were incubated in situ in the rumen of 6 cows. The 24-hour ruminal dry matter degradation was 63.3% for dent corn and 52.4% for flint corn. The 72-hour incubation residues of dent and flint hybrids were 7.6% and 15.6%, respectively. Ruminal degradability was similar between hybrids at the early dent and half milk line stages. There was a marked texture effect on ruminal degradability at the black layer stage (quadratic effect of maturity stage and interaction between texture and maturity stage). Use of dent hybrids, compared to flint hybrids, may result in smaller relative reduction in ruminal starch digestion in situations of late grain harvesting.
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Ruminal degradability in dry and lactating cows, with 70 or 50 of roughage as dry matter diets

Ruminal degradability in dry and lactating cows, with 70 or 50 of roughage as dry matter diets

tas do fluido ruminal para determinar as concentrações de PEG foram feitas à 1h; 3h; 6h; 12h; e 24h após a introdução de 250 g do marcador por animal; nessas coleções também foi medido o pH do fluido ruminal. Amostras do líquido ruminal foram colhi- das em outro dia, em vários intervalos de tempo: zero h; 2h; 4h; 6h; e 24h após refeição matinal, para determinação das concen- trações de N amoniacal. Os sacos de náilon foram introduzidos no rúmen sempre no mesmo horário (8 horas) e retirados con- forme os tempos de incubação predeterminados. Após retirados, foram lavados em água corrente até o líquido de lavagem fluir
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Ruminal degradability of neutral detergent fiber of Cynodon spp. grasses at four regrowth ages

Ruminal degradability of neutral detergent fiber of Cynodon spp. grasses at four regrowth ages

The forage cuttings were performed close to the soil (2 cm) in four pre-established dates, at 28 (June 5, 2009), 48 (July 2, 2009), 63 (July 17, 2009) and 79 (August 3, 2009) days of regrowth, with a pruning shears, in a delimited area of 1 x 1 m using a metal frame. After collection, with four replications for each genotype at each cutting age, the material was placed in paper bags, properly identified and taken to the Food Analysis and Animal Nutrition Laboratory, being weighed and then separated into leaf blade and stem (stem + sheath). Subsequently, samples were weighed, identified and placed in a forced ventilation oven at 55° C until constant weight. The material was milled in a knife mill equipped with sieve of 5 mm diameter and packed in glass vials for later study of degradability. Part of the samples were ground again in knife mill with sieve of 1 mm diameter for the determination of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP), according to the methods described by Silva and Queiroz (2006) and Association of Official Agricultural Chemists (AOAC, 1984), respectively. To determine the neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and lignin (LIG), we used the sequential method described by Van Soest et al. (1991). The data of chemical composition can be observed in Table 2 and 3.
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Ruminal fermentation modification of protein and carbohydrate by means of roasted and estimation of microbial protein synthesis

Ruminal fermentation modification of protein and carbohydrate by means of roasted and estimation of microbial protein synthesis

ADF), these complexes may be similar to the Maillard reaction (Goelema et al., 1999, Yu et al 2002a, Andrade- Montemayor, 2005). According to the protein classification Licitra et al. (1996), the B3 protein fraction correspond to the low rumen degradability fraction and can be undegradable fraction, however, not clear whether these fractions can be digested in the intestine or not. One objective of the thermal treatments is reduce the ruminal protein degradability, to avoid losses of nitrogen in the rumen and that this treatment does not affect or alter the digestibility of foods, as well as the decrease in the content and activity of some antinutritional factors, such as lectins and proteases inhibitors, among others, in that sense, Andrade- Montemayor (2005) and Pacheco-López and Alegría-Ríos (2008) observed a decrease in ruminal degradability of protein from legume seeds such as Lupins angustifolium, Vicia faba, Vicia Ervilia and Prosopis laevigata, using dry roasting treatment, to a 150 o C / 45 minutes, presenting a greater or lesser effect depending on the legume seed in question, being the variable formation of complexes between CP and fiber fractions (CP-NDF and CP-ADF). However, in all cases there was no effect in vivo digestibility of the protein. On the other hand, content and activity of antinutritional factors, Pacheco-López and Alegría-Ríos (2008), noted that the roasted pods of mesquite (Prosopis laevigata) had a decrease in the content of proteases inhibitor factors, but an increase in the agglutinating activity of lectins, and in content of condensed tannins, the latter has not been clarified. Furthermore observed an increase in the content of CP-NDF and CP-ADF without affect protein digestibility.
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In situ degradability of dry matter and fibrous fraction of sorghum

In situ degradability of dry matter and fibrous fraction of sorghum

ABSTRACT. This study aimed to evaluate in situ degradability and degradation kinetics of DM, NDF and ADF of silage, with or without tannin in the grains. Two isogenic lines of grain sorghum (CMS-XS 114 with tannin and CMS-XS 165 without tannin) and two sorghum hybrids (BR-700 dual purpose with tannin and BR-601 forage without tannin) were ensiled; dried and ground silage samples were placed in nylon bags and introduced through the fistulas. After incubation for 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, bags were taken for subsequent analysis of fibrous fractions. The experimental design was completely randomized with 4 replicates and 4 treatments and means compared by Tukey’s test at 5% probability. As for the DM degradation rate, silage of CMS-XS 165 without tannin was superior. Silages of genotypes BR 700 and CMS-XS 114 with tannin showed the highest values of indigestible ADF (59.54 and 43.09%). Regarding the NDF, the potential degradation of silage of CMS-XS165 line without tannin was superior. Tannin can reduce ruminal degradability of the dry matter and fibrous fractions.
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A STUDY OF in situ DEGRADABILITY: HETEROGENEITY OF VARIANCES AND CORRELATED ERRORS

A STUDY OF in situ DEGRADABILITY: HETEROGENEITY OF VARIANCES AND CORRELATED ERRORS

This research evaluates the behavior of the pa- rameter estimate for the ruminal degradability model proposed by Mertens & Loften (1980) and obtains ex- pressions for the variance of its parameter estimators, which takes into consideration an autoregressive er- ror structure weighted for the inverse of variance, in this manner, tests for the actual existence of biologi- cally interpretable parameters in the model.

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Solubilidade e degradabilidade ruminal do amido de diferentes alimentos.

Solubilidade e degradabilidade ruminal do amido de diferentes alimentos.

ABSTRACT - The starch solubility in bicarbonate-phosphate buffer (SSB) and the ruminal degradability of starch from some feed by the in situ technique, using three Holstein cows, were evaluated in this study. The feeds were ground through a 2-mm screen for the concentrate and a 5-mm screen for forage and incubated using nylon bag (53mm). The starch concentration in corn, sorghum, cassava scraping, wheat bran, triticale, corn silage, sorghum silage, soybean meal, cottonseed meal and citrus pulp were: 79.3, 83.4, 91.4, 49.1, 65.9, 31.6, 16.1, 5.5, 5.5, and 8.4%, respectively, and SSB were 13.4, 10.7, 14.0, 0.7, 20.8, 18.1, 27.0, 18.4, 68.1 and 63.3%, respectively. The effective degradability (ED) of starch was corrected (EDc) for loss of small particles during the washing process of the nylon bags using SSB values. The corn, sorghum, cassava root, wheat bran, triticale presented starch ED values of 57.8, 67.5, 79.1, 98.8, and 98.4% and EDc of: 55.5, 39.5, 62.7, 90.3, and 91.9% respectively. The observed values for ED and EDc were different only for sorghum and cassava root.
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Different true-protein sources do not modify the metabolism of crossbred Bos taurus x Bos indicus growing heifers

Different true-protein sources do not modify the metabolism of crossbred Bos taurus x Bos indicus growing heifers

No alterations in the intakes of dry matter and nutrients were observed in the animals fed protein sources of different ruminal degradability, due to the similarity in the fibrous and non-fibrous carbohydrate contents of the diets, which enabled the maintenance of the microbial protein synthesis. The results of this study agree with Brito et al. (2007), who observed that cows fed different sources of true protein (soybean, cottonseed and canola meals) did not show differences in feed intake or digestibility. Contrarily, Brito and Broderick (2007) observed lower dry matter intake by cows fed urea than that of cows fed true protein (solvent soybean meal, cottonseed meal, or canola meal). It is possible that release of rumen degradable protein from urea was asynchronously relative to the dietary energy, and degradation of protein from solvent soybean meal, cottonseed meal and canola meal might have been more precisely relative to fermentation of the starch in the diet. The discrepancy between the results may not be simply explained by the source of dietary CP, but rather by the fact that multiple factors such as diet composition, protein levels and type of experiment may affect DMI.
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Ruminal dry matter and fiber fraction degradability from two stylos cultivars

Ruminal dry matter and fiber fraction degradability from two stylos cultivars

Ruminal degradability of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber of cultivars Stylozanthes guianensis (Mineirão) and Stylozanthes spp. (Campo Grande) were evaluated. Two incubations in rumen-fistulated adult bovine females were undertaken. Each incubation comprised of 25 samples of 7.0 g of each cultivar and samples were collected at 0, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 hours after incubation. At a 5%/hour passage rate, Stylozanthes guianensis had 75.70, 59.01 and 76.81% effective degradability for dry matter, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber, respectively, whereas Stylozanthes spp. had 68.39, 51.93 and 58.89% for the same fractions. The lag time was different (P<0.05) only for acid detergent fiber. Stylozanthes guianensis presented higher ruminal degradability in dry matter and fiber fraction when compared to those by Stylozanthes spp. The decision to adopt one or another cultivar depends on studies that take into account the cost of deployment and maintenance of leguminous cultivar and its assets.
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Effects of different sources of protein on digestive characteristics, microbial efficiency, and nutrient flow in dairy goats.

Effects of different sources of protein on digestive characteristics, microbial efficiency, and nutrient flow in dairy goats.

ABSTRACT - Diets formulated with protein sources presenting different resistance to ruminal degradation were compared by evaluating ruminal parameters, production and microbial efficiency and nutrients flow to the omasum in goats. Eight rumen cannulated non-lactating, non-pregnant goats were distributed in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with two replicates. Treatments consisted of four diets where different sources of plant protein accounted for the major protein source named soybean meal, source of higher ruminal degradability, and three other sources of higher resistance of degradation: roasted soybean, corn gluten meal, and cottonseed cake. Amounts of rumen protein were similar among rations; however, flows of dry matter, protein and non-fiber carbohydrate to omasum were higher for diets with protein source with reduced rumen degradation rate. Higher values of rumen ammonia were obtained by using ration with soybean meal as major source of protein. Higher values of pH were obtained for rations with roasted soybean e cottonseed cake. Regarding kinetic of transit, similar values were found among rations. Diets with protein sources presenting reduced ruminal degradation increase nutrients flow to the omasum in goats and alter digestive parameters such as pH and ammonia without compromising bacteria growth and efficiency, which grants their use for dairy goats with similar efficiency to rations using more degradable sources of protein.
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 Efficacy of different essential oils in modulating rumen fermentation in vitro using buffalo rumen liquor

Efficacy of different essential oils in modulating rumen fermentation in vitro using buffalo rumen liquor

(ID number 930.15), Organic matter (OM) and ash (ID centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 15 min. True degradability number 942.05) and Crude protein (CP) (N×6.25, ID was estimated after 24 h incubation as per the standard number 954.01), Ether extract (EE) (ID number 920.39), procedure [20]. Truly degradable organic matter in N eutral detergent fibre (NDF) and Acid detergent rumen (TDOMR) was calculated as the amount of fibre (ADF) of concentrate mixture and wheat straw substrate OM incubated minus the amount of substrate were determined by standard procedures [17, 18]. recovered as residue after ND solution treatment, and the partitioning factor (PF) was calculated as the ratio
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Avaliação hemogasométrica, bioquímica e hematológica de ovinos suplementados com melão.

Avaliação hemogasométrica, bioquímica e hematológica de ovinos suplementados com melão.

Além desse tipo supracitado, existe outra categoria mais grave da enfermidade, conhecida como acidose láctica ruminal aguda, em que, além do excesso de ACCs, produzido nos primórdios do quadro, também é gerada grande quantidade de ácido láctico, o qual provoca intensa redução no pH (abaixo de 5,1), devido ao grande potencial de acidez desse composto. Tal acúmulo de ácidos gera um expressivo quadro de anorexia, síndrome desidratação, diarreia, depressão no estado geral, taquicardia, aumento de volume no flanco ventral esquerdo, acidose metabólica, entre outras manifestações (Dunlop, 1972; Ortolani et al., 1980; Owens et al., 1998; Radostits et al., 2007; Enemark, 2008). Ainda são desconhecidas as consequências da ingestão súbita de melão sobre parâmetros sanguíneos de ovinos. Desse modo, objetivou-se avaliar as variáveis hemogasométrica, hematológica e bioquímica de ovinos suplementados com duas diferentes quantidades de melão.
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Bastonetes Gram-negativos aeróbios e anaeróbios facultativos no fluido ruminal de bovinos de corte alimentados em pastagem lignificada e em novilhos com acidose ruminal.

Bastonetes Gram-negativos aeróbios e anaeróbios facultativos no fluido ruminal de bovinos de corte alimentados em pastagem lignificada e em novilhos com acidose ruminal.

ABSTRACT.- Vieira E.A., Abrão F.O., Ribeiro I.CO., Nigri A.C.A., Silva K.F., Careli R.T., Geraseev L.C. & Duarte E.R. 2015. [Aerobes and anaerobe facultative Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria in the ruminal fluid of beef cattle fed lignified pasture and steers with ru- minal acidosis.] Bastonetes Gram-negativos aeróbios e anaeróbios facultativos no fluido ruminal de bovinos de corte alimentados em pastagem lignificada e em novilhos com aci- dose ruminal. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 35(9):811-816. Instituto de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Campus Regional de Montes Claros, Cx. Postal 135, Avenida Universitária 1000, Bairro Universitário, Montes Claros, MG 39404-006, Brazil. E-mail: duartevet@hotmail.com
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Diversidade bacteriana ruminal em bovinos Nelore

Diversidade bacteriana ruminal em bovinos Nelore

Através do sequenciamento pela plataforma Illumina foi possível identificar no conteúdo ruminal bovino 27 filos distintos, número maior do que o verificado por Kim, Morrison e Yu (2011), LI et al. (2012) e Wu et al. (2012) que encontraram 21, 19 e 8 filos respectivamente, aplicando outras técnicas de sequenciamento. Apesar das diferenças nas quantidades de filos encontradas por diversos autores os dois filos identificados em maior proporção em grande parte dos trabalhos se alternam entre Firmicutes e Bacteroidetes (OZUTSUMI et al., 2005; KIM, MORRISON; YU, 2011; WU et al., 2012), filos com grande atividade proteolítica e celulolítica. Estes dados não apenas são conclusivos e corroboram nossos dados, como atestam o potencial da metagenômica no escrutínio de novos táxons microbianos, assim como a futura intervenção na obtenção de novos recursos biotecnológicos, dentre os quais alguns poderão vir a ser empregados na nutrição animal. Foram identificados outros 20 filos com menor representatividade percentual, alguns destes filos ainda não haviam sido descritos para o ambiente ruminal e suas funções no rúmen podem ser tão importantes quanto os filos com maior percentual.
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Cinética de fermentação ruminal de silagens de milheto.

Cinética de fermentação ruminal de silagens de milheto.

A determinação das características de fermentação ruminal de genótipos de milheto é de fundamental importância, pois essas geram informações relativas ao valor nutritivo do alimento e direcionam os programas de melhoramento genético de cultivares a serem utilizadas na dieta de ruminantes. Por meio desses estudos, é possível se avaliar a quantidade de nutrientes que estará disponível para os microrganismos do rúmen e a quantidade de nutrientes que chega ao intestino, parâmetros importantes na avaliação nutricional de alimentos para ruminantes (Nutrient..., 2001).
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Intake, digestibility, ruminal parameters, and microbial protein synthesis in crossbred steers fed diets based on Brachiaria grass silage and sorghum silage

Intake, digestibility, ruminal parameters, and microbial protein synthesis in crossbred steers fed diets based on Brachiaria grass silage and sorghum silage

A trial was carried out with four Holstein x Nellore crossbred steers (225±22kg of BW) fitted with ruminal and abomasal cannulaes in a 4 x 4 Latin Square design to evaluate the intake and the total and partial apparent digestibilities of nutrients, ruminal parameters, and microbial synthesis. Diets consisted of 60% silage and 40% concentrate formulated to be isonitrogenous (12.5% of crude protein, dry matter basis). Treatments consisted of different proportions of Brachiaria brizantha grass silage and sorghum silage: 100:0; 67:33; 33:67, and 0:100%, respectively, on dry matter basis. The intake of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, non-fiber carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients linearly increased (P<0.01) as levels of sorghum silage increased. The total apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber linearly increased with sorghum silage levels (P<0.02). The highest ruminal NH3-N (13.63mg/dL) levels occurred at 2.94h post-feeding whereas the lowest ruminal pH (5.87) was measured at 5.21h post-feeding. Microbial efficiency was not affected (P>0.05) by the treatments. The use of 67% of sorghum silage and 33% of grass silage increased intake and digestibility of nutrients without affecting ruminal pH, ruminal NH3-N, and microbial efficiency.
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Análise bayesiana para modelos de degradabilidade ruminal.

Análise bayesiana para modelos de degradabilidade ruminal.

REIS, S.T. dos. Valor nutricional de gramíneas tropicais em diferentes idades de corte. 2000. 99f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Zootecnia) – Curso de Pós-graduação em Zootecnia, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras, MG. ROSA, G.J.M. Análise Bayesiana de modelos lineares mistos robustos via Amostrador de Gibbs. 1998. 57f. Tese (Doutorado em Estatística e Experimentação Agronômica) – Curso de Pós-graduação em Estatística e Experimentação Agronômica, Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba, SP. SAVIAN, T.V. et al . Degradability study of neutral detergent fiber of coast cross (Cynodon dactylon x Cynodon nlemfunensis). Ciência e Agrotecnologia, Lavras, v. 31, n. 4, p. 1184-1190. 2007a. Disponível em <http://www.scielo.br/ s c i e l o . p h p ? s c r i p t = s c i _ a r t t e x t & p i d = S 1 4 1 3 - 70542007000400035&lng=pt&nrm=iso>. Acesso em: 12 maio 2009. doi: 10.1590/S1413-70542007000400035.
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Matheus Pinheiro Diniz Resende2

Matheus Pinheiro Diniz Resende2

The flow of mic N represented, on average, 70.33 g/100 g of omasal flow of NAN and 69.85 g/100 g of total N flow in the different treatments. No effect was observed also on the degradability of the diets (Table 3). Similar results were reported by Berchielli et al. (1995b), who studied diets with different roughage:concentrate ratios and, among them, the 80:20, similar to that used in this study (75:25). According to Clark et al. (1992), a reduction in the flow of microbial protein to the small intestine may occur when diets with a high roughage inclusion are used, which may be attributed to the deficiency of readily available energy and to the increase of nitrogen-compounds recycling by rumen microorganisms. The average value of mic N, expressed compared with the NAN in the omasum of the present study, was close to the 75.57 and 73.25 g/100 g reported by Rode et al. (1985) and Klusmeyer et al. (1990), respectively.
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Effects of different lipid levels on protozoa population, microbial protein synthesis and rumen degradability in cattle

Effects of different lipid levels on protozoa population, microbial protein synthesis and rumen degradability in cattle

RESUMO. Avaliaram-se a população de protozoários, a eficiência de síntese microbiana e a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca e da fibra em detergente neutro, em bovinos que consumiram dietas contendo diferentes teores de lipídeos. Foram utilizados nove novilhos da raça Nelore, canulados no rúmen e duodeno, com idade inicial 16 meses e 232 ± 35 kg de peso corporal. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi quadrado latino 3 x 3 triplicado, sendo os tratamentos: 2; 4 e 6% de lipídeos na dieta. A degradabilidade “in situ” foi avaliada por meio da incubação ruminal da silagem de milho, soja grão, farelo de soja e polpa cítrica por 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 e 96h. O fluxo de nitrogênio microbiano e a eficiência de síntese microbiana não foram (p > 0,05) influenciados pela inclusão de teores de lipídeos nas dietas. Quando os animais receberam 4% de lipídeo na dieta ocorreu redução (p < 0,05) da degradação potencial e efetiva da matéria seca da silagem de milho (64,10 e 55,04%, respectivamente), farelo de soja (94,55 e 60,83%, respectivamente) e soja grão (98,45 e 76,44%, respectivamente). Teores 4 e 6% de lipídeos na dieta podem ser utilizados sem alterar os parâmetros de degradação ruminal da fibra.
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