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A NEW FRAMEWORK FOR GEOSPATIAL SITE SELECTION USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS AS DECISION RULES: A CASE STUDY ON LANDFILL SITES

A NEW FRAMEWORK FOR GEOSPATIAL SITE SELECTION USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS AS DECISION RULES: A CASE STUDY ON LANDFILL SITES

This paper briefly introduced the theory and framework of geospatial site selection (GSS) and discussed the application and framework of artificial neural networks (ANNs). The related literature on the use of ANNs as decision rules in GSS is scarce from 2000 till 2015. As this study found, ANNs are not only adaptable to dynamic changes but also capable of improving the objectivity of acquisition in GSS, reducing time consumption, and providing high validation. ANNs make for a powerful tool for solving geospatial decision- making problems by enabling geospatial decision makers to implement their constraints and imprecise concepts. This tool offers a way to represent and handle uncertainty. Specifically, ANNs are decision rules implemented to enhance conventional GSS frameworks. The main assumption in implementing ANNs in GSS is that the current characteristics of existing sites are indicative of the degree of suitability of new locations with similar characteristics. GSS requires several input criteria that embody specific requirements and the desired site characteristics, which could contribute to geospatial sites. In this study, the proposed framework consists of four stages for implementing ANNs in GSS. A multilayer feed-forward network with a backpropagation algorithm was used to train the networks from prior sites to assess, generalize, and evaluate the outputs on the basis of the inputs for the new sites. Two metrics, namely, confusion matrix and receiver operating characteristic tests, were utilized to achieve high accuracy and validation. Results proved that ANNs provide reasonable and efficient results as an accurate and inexpensive quantitative technique for GSS.
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Retroviral DNA integration: viral and cellular determinants of target-site selection.

Retroviral DNA integration: viral and cellular determinants of target-site selection.

Retroviruses differ in their preferences for sites for viral DNA integration in the chromosomes of infected cells. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) integrates preferentially within active transcription units, whereas murine leukemia virus (MLV) integrates preferentially near transcription start sites and CpG islands. We investigated the viral determinants of integration-site selection using HIV chimeras with MLV genes substituted for their HIV counterparts. We found that transferring the MLV integrase (IN) coding region into HIV (to make HIVmIN) caused the hybrid to integrate with a specificity close to that of MLV. Addition of MLV gag (to make HIVmGagmIN) further increased the similarity of target- site selection to that of MLV. A chimeric virus with MLV Gag only (HIVmGag) displayed targeting preferences different from that of both HIV and MLV, further implicating Gag proteins in targeting as well as IN. We also report a genome- wide analysis indicating that MLV, but not HIV, favors integration near DNase I–hypersensitive sites (i.e., +/– 1 kb), and that HIVmIN and HIVmGagmIN also favored integration near these features. These findings reveal that IN is the principal viral determinant of integration specificity; they also reveal a new role for Gag-derived proteins, and strengthen models for integration targeting based on tethering of viral IN proteins to host proteins.
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Microhabitat Conditions in Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Areas: Effects on Nest Site Selection and Success.

Microhabitat Conditions in Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Areas: Effects on Nest Site Selection and Success.

The purpose of our study was to identify microhabitat characteristics of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) nest site selection and survival to determine the quality of sage-grouse habitat in 5 regions of central and southwest Wyoming associated with Wyom- ing’s Core Area Policy. Wyoming’s Core Area Policy was enacted in 2008 to reduce human disturbance near the greatest densities of sage-grouse. Our analyses aimed to assess sage-grouse nest selection and success at multiple micro-spatial scales. We obtained microhabitat data from 928 sage-grouse nest locations and 819 random microhabitat loca- tions from 2008–2014. Nest success was estimated from 924 nests with survival data. Sage-grouse selected nests with greater sagebrush cover and height, visual obstruction, and number of small gaps between shrubs (gap size 0.5 m and <1.0 m), while selecting for less bare ground and rock. With the exception of more small gaps between shrubs, we did not find any differences in availability of these microhabitat characteristics between loca- tions within and outside of Core Areas. In addition, we found little supporting evidence that sage-grouse were selecting different nest sites in Core Areas relative to areas outside of Core. The Kaplan-Meier nest success estimate for a 27-day incubation period was 42.0% (95% CI: 38.4–45.9%). Risk of nest failure was negatively associated with greater rock and more medium-sized gaps between shrubs (gap size 2.0 m and <3.0 m). Within our study areas, Wyoming’s Core Areas did not have differing microhabitat quality compared to out- side of Core Areas. The close proximity of our locations within and outside of Core Areas likely explained our lack of finding differences in microhabitat quality among locations within these landscapes. However, the Core Area Policy is most likely to conserve high quality habitat at larger spatial scales, which over decades may have cascading effects on micro- habitat quality available between areas within and outside of Core Areas.
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Multi - criteria analysis for site selection for the reuse of reclaimed water and biosolids

Multi - criteria analysis for site selection for the reuse of reclaimed water and biosolids

Low pH soils with insufficient organic matter can benefit from the application of reclaimed water (RW) and biosolids. The presence of nutrients also aids plant growth. This paper presents the results of two integrated research studies, both carried out in the Beira Interior Region (Covilhã, Portugal); one used RW for irrigation, the other applied paper mill sludge to agricultural land. In both cases, multiple criteria based on GIS tools were used for site selection. In the first study, the characteristics of RW analyzed over 2 years were found suitable for crop irrigation. The RW had moderate organic content, low electrical conductivity (CE), high nutrient content (N, P), and low concentrations of nitrate, metals and phytotoxic elements (Al, B, Cl and Na). The multi-criteria analysis was carried out taking into account environmental, technical and economic criteria and a suitable area of 30.5 ha was found for RW irrigation. In the second work, the paper mill sludge was considered suitable for application to agricultural land. Its concentrations of N, P and heavy metals did not a present risk for soil contamination and were suitable for soil improvement and crop production. A multi-criteria analysis based on similar criteria was conducted and a suitable area of 253 ha was found for sludge application.
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Nest site selection by Kentish plover suggests a trade-off between nest-crypsis and predator detection strategies.

Nest site selection by Kentish plover suggests a trade-off between nest-crypsis and predator detection strategies.

We used the periscope to measure the angle of visibility from the nest, and to determine if birds might be able to detect the presence of a person 1.70 m tall standing 25 m around the nest. Then, this person walked 360u around the nest (25 m radius from the nest, using a rope) and the observer recorded the sum of degrees out of the complete circumference that this person was visible from the nest. The same experiment was performed to estimate the detectability of a medium-sized predator (e.g. a dog) of an average height (0.50 m). Predator visibility was estimated using a red ribbon knotted on the person’s leg. In order to avoid disturbing incubating birds, we recorded the visibility at each nest scrape just following hatching completion. The growth period of the dune vegetation in the study area occurs in winter (from November to February) and the senescence period starts from July. Taking into account that the laying period of the Kentish plover spans from late March-early April to late June, changes in vegetation cover between nest-site selection and hatching completion were negli- gible.
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Nest site selection by Hypsiboas faber (Anura, Hylidae) in southern Brazil

Nest site selection by Hypsiboas faber (Anura, Hylidae) in southern Brazil

ABSTRACT. Male gladiator frogs of Hypsiboas Wagler, 1830 build nests on available substrate surrounding ponds and streams where female spawn eggs during the breeding period. Although gladiator frogs seem to show plasticity in the way they construct their nests, there is no study reporting if these species present preferences about microhabitat conditions for nest-building (mainly under subtropical climate). Predation pressure and environmental conditions have been considered major processes shaping the great diversity of reproductive strategies performed by amphibians, but microhabitat conditions should explain where to build a nest as well as how nest looks. This study aimed to test nest site selection for nest-building by Hypsiboas faber (Wied-Neuwied, 1821), determining which factors are related to nest site selection and nest features. The survey was conducted at margins of two permanent ponds in Southern Brazil. Habitat factors were evaluated in 18 plots with nest and 18 plots in the surrounding without nest (control), describing vegetation structure and heterogeneity, and substrate characteristics. Water temperature was measured inside the nest and in its adjacency. Nest features assessed were area, depth and temperature. Habitat characteristics differed between plots with and without nest. Microhabitat selected for nest-building was characterized by great vegetation cover and height, as well as shallower water and lower cover of organic matter in suspension than in plots without nest. Differences between temperature inside nest and in its adjacency were not observed. No relationship between nest features and habitat descriptors was evidenced. Results revealed that Hypsiboas faber does not build nests anywhere. Males seem to prefer more protected habitats, probably avoiding predation, invasion of conspecific males and inclement weather. Lack of differences between temperature inside- and outside-nest suggest that nest do not improve this condition for eggs and tadpole development. Nest architecture was not related to habitat characteristics, which may be determined by other factors, as nest checking by females before amplexus. Nest site selection should increase offspring survival as well the breeding success of Hypsiboas faber.
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Nest site selection and nutritional provision through excreta: a form of parental care in a tropical endogeic earthworm

Nest site selection and nutritional provision through excreta: a form of parental care in a tropical endogeic earthworm

Most animals, including the majority of invertebrates, do not provide any form of care for their offspring (Smiseth, Kölliker & Royle, 2012). However, some animals make an effort to increase the survival rate of their progeny by protecting them from predators, lack of food, desiccation and other biotic and abiotic threats (Clutton-Brock, 1991; Smiseth, Kölliker & Royle, 2012; Furuichi & Kasuya, 2015). Mammals and birds provide elaborate forms of care by either one or both parents, including: provision of gametes, oviposition-site selection, nest building and burrowing, egg attendance, egg brooding, viviparity, offspring attendance, offspring brooding, food provision and care even after nutritional independence (Gardner & Smiseth, 2011; Trumbo, 2012; Smiseth, Kölliker & Royle, 2012).
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Application of Delphi method in site selection of desalination plants

Application of Delphi method in site selection of desalination plants

et al., 2015a), coral reefs (Koupaei et al., 2015), sea grass (Erftemeijer and Shuail, 2012), seaweed (Mohammadi et al., 2013) and also a variety of marine mammals (Braulik et al., 2010), ish (Daliri et al., 2012) and Sea Turtle (Pilcher et al., 2014). Few studies have been conducted on the site selection for desalination plants in these areas, in western Hormozgan Province (Basereh et al., 2014)and Qeshm Island (Kor et al., 2012). A review of studies conducted across the world indicated a lack of deined frameworks for developing and prioritizing the effective factors (contains criteria and sub-criteria) to Identify suitable locations of desalination plants. The identiication of important criteria and sub-criteria, prioritization of the sub-criteria and the detection of optimal locations for installing while minimizing their destructive environmental impacts appear necessary. The aim of this study was to identify optimal locations for installing desalination plants based on different criteria with application of Delphi method. The study has been carried out in Hormozgan Province during 2015- 2016.
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Warehouse site selection in an international environment

Warehouse site selection in an international environment

The changes that are taking place in the automotive industry have a major impact on export- oriented Slovenian companies. Due to the gradual migration of the upstream and downstream market from west to east, choosing the optimal location for a warehouse, which would ensure the lowest costs, guarantee quality customer supply and serve as a link between the upstream and downstream flows of a company, has become essential. Decisions regarding the right location of a warehouse have become important strategic decisions that every company must start making from the moment it is established, which is why this paper focuses on the most important aspects of warehouse site selection in an international environment.
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Spawning site selection and contingent behavior in Common Snook, Centropomus undecimalis.

Spawning site selection and contingent behavior in Common Snook, Centropomus undecimalis.

Reproductive behavior affects spatial population structure and our ability to manage for sustainability in marine and diadromous fishes. In this study, we used fishery independent capture-based sampling to evaluate where Common Snook occurred in Tampa Bay and if it changed with spawning season, and passive acoustic telemetry to assess fine scale behavior at an inlet spawning site (2007–2009). Snook concentrated in three areas during the spawning season only one of which fell within the expected spawning habitat. Although in lower numbers, they remained in these areas throughout the winter months. Acoustically-tagged snook (n = 31) showed two seasonal patterns at the spawning site: Most fish occurred during the spawning season but several fish displayed more extended residency, supporting the capture-based findings that Common Snook exhibit facultative catadromy. Spawning site selection for iteroparous, multiple-batch spawning fishes occurs at the lifetime, annual, or intra-annual temporal scales. In this study we show colonization of a new spawning site, indicating that lifetime spawning site fidelity of Common Snook is not fixed at this fine spatial scale. However, individuals did exhibit annual and intra-seasonal spawning site fidelity to this new site over the three years studied. The number of fish at the spawning site increased in June and July (peak spawning months) and on new and full lunar phases indicating within population variability in spawning and movement patterns. Intra-seasonal patterns of detection also differed significantly with sex. Common Snook exhibited divergent migration tactics and habitat use at the annual and estuarine scales, with contingents using different overwintering habitat. Migration tactics also varied at the spawning site at the intra-seasonal scale and with sex. These results have important implications for understanding how reproductive behavior affects spatio- temporal patterns of fish abundance and their resilience to disturbance events and fishing pressure.
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Heading for the hills: risk avoidance drives den site selection in African wild dogs.

Heading for the hills: risk avoidance drives den site selection in African wild dogs.

Compared to their main competitors, African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) have inferior competitive abilities and interspecific competition is a serious fitness-limiting factor. Lions (Panthera leo) are the dominant large carnivore in African savannah ecosystems and wild dogs avoid them both spatially and temporally. Wild dog young are particularly vulnerable and suffer high rates of mortality from lions. Since lions do not utilize all parts of the landscape with an equal intensity, spatial variation in lion densities can be exploited by wild dogs both during their general ranging behaviour, but more specifically when they are confined to a den with vulnerable young. Since patches of rugged terrain are associated with lower lion densities, we hypothesized that these comparatively safe habitats should be selected by wild dogs for denning. We investigated the relationship between the distribution of 100 wild dog den sites and the occurrence of rugged terrain in four wild dog populations located in Tanzania, Zimbabwe and South Africa. A terrain ruggedness index was derived from a 90 m digital elevation model and used to map terrain ruggedness at each site. We compared characteristics of actual and potential (random) den sites to determine how wild dogs select den sites. The distributions of wild dog dens were strongly associated with rugged terrain and wild dogs actively selected terrain that was more rugged than that available on average. The likelihood of encountering lions is reduced in these habitats, minimizing the risk to both adults and pups. Our findings have important implications for the conservation management of the species, especially when assessing habitat suitability for potential reintroductions. The simple technique used to assess terrain ruggedness may be useful to investigate habitat suitability, and even predict highly suitable denning areas, across large landscapes.
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A single acidic residue can guide binding site selection but does not govern QacR cationic-drug affinity.

A single acidic residue can guide binding site selection but does not govern QacR cationic-drug affinity.

factors (Figure S6B, Table S1). In this QacR(E90Q)-Et complex, Et is angled at 120 u relative to its wt orientation and shifted toward the R6G sub-pocket, hence overlapping the Et and R6G sub- pockets and taking a position that is comparable to that occupied by MG (Figure 4). From this location Et now interacts with a new complement of residues distinct from that observed in the wt QacR-Et complex, with a number of drug contacts gained and lost. Lost are van der Waals contacts with the side chains of I99 and I100 and aromatic stacking interactions with F162 9 and Y103, the latter residue shifting from a position that would have clashed with Et in the QacR(E90Q)-Et structure. Nevertheless, Et gains stacking interactions with W61 and van der Waals contacts with S86, M116 and N154. Further, the drug maintains contacts with the side chains of residues Q96, E120, Y123 and N157, although the nature of these interactions, in some instances, is altered dramatically. Indeed, in the QacR(E90Q)-Et structure, the side chain of E120, despite remaining within 4 A ˚ of the Et phenanthridinium ring system, is repositioned to avoid a clash with the drug, shifting by 3.0 A ˚ so that it is no longer available to charge complement the Et N5 nitrogen atom (E120-N5 distance = 4.0 A ˚ in the wt QacR-Et complex and 7.0 A ˚ in the QacR(E90Q)-Et complex). This lost interaction is replaced by a cation-p interaction with Y123 which now stacks with Et. Additionally, the side chain of E90Q swings further into the binding pocket to a position comparable to that observed in the QacR(E90Q)-Dq structure (Figures 2A–B). Thus, relocation of Et in the binding pocket of QacR(E90Q)-Et is apparently, although somewhat enigmatically, driven by the QacR mutation E90Q and subsequent reorientation of the side chains of E90Q, Y103 and E120. Despite the loss of interaction with E90 and employing an almost entirely new complement of QacR residues, this new binding site in the QacR(E90Q)-Et complex exhibited binding affinity and induction capabilities for Et essentially the same as wt QacR (Tables 1 and 2).
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Does foraging performance change with age in female little penguins (Eudyptula minor)?

Does foraging performance change with age in female little penguins (Eudyptula minor)?

Age-related changes in breeding performance are known to be the result of experience accumulated over time in several aspects of breeding in birds i.e. laying date, nest site selection, foraging [8]. The improvement in breeding success is likely to be mediated through improvement in individual foraging ability, which would correspond to an enhanced capacity to provide for the offspring [9]. Foraging involves a hierarchical process of decision-making [10], including choosing appropriate habitat/patch; searching for or/and recognizing suitable prey; and capturing them. At each of these stages, young individuals may experience deficiencies, i.e. less or lower energetic food supply to their offspring. Improved foraging performance at older ages has been explained by an increase in foraging efficiency with experience in birds [11], related to improvements in foraging ability [12], diet choice [13] and access to better foraging territories [14].
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Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) resource selection in the Northern Bering Sea.

Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) resource selection in the Northern Bering Sea.

Areas with high average predicted walrus site selection (western, northern, and northeastern parts of our study area) generally coincided with areas of high organic carbon input from higher productivity associated with Anadyr water flowing eastward immediately south of St. Lawrence Island. Ecosystem studies in this region indicate early spring ice edge primary production in the area south of the St. Lawrence Island polynya with a high degree of sedimentation to the benthos [25,26,27,28]. The area west (and south) of the polynya is high in benthic biomass due to high export of production to the benthos in this region [18,20]. The slight dissimilarities in average predicted site selection between 2008 and 2009 (Fig. 6) must have been entirely due to differences in daily sea ice concentration, because the same estimates of caloric biomass of macroinfaunal taxa were used in the predictions for both of these years; in contrast, different ice concentrations and macroinfaunal caloric biomass estimates were used to predict selection in 2006.
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ECOLOGY, BEHAVIOR AND BIONOMICS Nesting Ecology of a Neotropical Solitary Wasp (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) in Panamá

ECOLOGY, BEHAVIOR AND BIONOMICS Nesting Ecology of a Neotropical Solitary Wasp (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) in Panamá

Cerceris is a very interesting genus, providing species living in all continents (Bohart & Menke 1976, Amarante 2002). Data about it belong mainly to species living in temperate regions and we lack information about the tropical ones. The high number of species and their distribution suggest peculiar adaptations that should be analyzed deeper. In the Neotropics there are about 250 species (Amarante 2002). Cerceris binodis Spinola nests from South America to Mexico (Callan 1990). There are only two brief notes about its prey: from Mexico (Evans 1971) and Trinidad (Callan 1990). No details about the nest structure and nest site selection were provided by these authors. I observed this species in a protected area in Panamá. During a long term study, I recorded nesting behavior and prey, using and comparing different methods of data collection. I will discuss a) the peculiar nest structure and location, and b) prey collection, both related to the ecological conditions of the tropical environment in which this species lives.
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Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab  vol.53 número6

Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab vol.53 número6

joining of the exons (12) (Figure 2). The spliceosome catalyzes the two transesterification steps of the splic- ing reaction. In the first step, the 2’-hydroxyl group of a special “A” (adenine) residue at the branch-point attacks the phosphate at the 5’ splice site. This leads to cleavage of the 5’-exon from the intron and the con- certed ligation of the intron 5’-end to the branch-point 2’-hydroxyl. This step produces two reaction interme- diates, a detached 5’-exon and an intron/3’-exon frag- ment in a lariat configuration containing a branched “A” nucleotide at the branch-point (12). The second transesterification step is the attack on the phosphate at the 3’-end of the intron by the 3’-hydroxyl of the de- tached exon. This ligates the two exons and releases the intron, still in the form of a lariat (7,12). The mecha- nism of splice site selection in constitutive and alterna- tive splicing are closely connected, since components of the splicing machinery, essential for constitutive splicing, also have a role in the regulation of alternative splicing (13).
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Research on the localization method of protecting traditional village landscape: a case study on Tangyin

Research on the localization method of protecting traditional village landscape: a case study on Tangyin

Common Activities (Picture source: self-photographing) 5.3.3 rural settlement and architecture landscape Site selection of the villages reflects the Chinese traditional theo[r]

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Lower Timiş River (Banat, Romania) - Special area for conservation (Natura 2000 site) for <i>Gobio albipinnatus</i> Lukasch, 1933

Lower Timiş River (Banat, Romania) - Special area for conservation (Natura 2000 site) for <i>Gobio albipinnatus</i> Lukasch, 1933

According to the European Natura 2000 initiative the following site selection criteria were used: well preserved fish (of Community interest - oCi) populations; stable fish (oCi) populations; healthy fish (oCi) populations; typical natural habitats (oCi); lowest (as possible) human impact presence; favorable geographical position (possibility of species spreading in more than one hydrographic watersheds); best option for species/habitat (oCi) in relation with the needed future Natura 2000 areas management.

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988b; Gochre!d and Burger 1988: RamO and del Nev

988b; Gochre!d and Burger 1988: RamO and del Nev

Nest-Site Selection by Roseate Terns Breeding on Arlde Island, Seychelles.. JAlME A. EKob Supe-rior ~riria. Camf)\n de Santa Apol6nia.[r]

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