Our systematic review was comprehensive as it had a broad search strategy that bore no language or time restriction. Foreign language articles were partially translated by colleagues who were native speakers of these languages. Study selection was performed by two independent reviewers and discrepancies were adjudicated by a third reviewer. It was likely that only a small number of relevant articles were missed by our search strategy which was generic and based on the intercept of only a few keywords. The bibliographies of included studies were also perused. While only two major electronic databases (Medline and Embase) were examined, it was felt that other search engines, such as Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), would unlikely yield any study of interest given that validationstudies are not designed as randomized controlled trials. The inclusion of unpublished studies might arguably reduce publication bias but expose the review to lower quality studies that potentially lack rigorous statistical techniques of published studies . All 11 included studies captured patient information at the population level with clear case definitions, were validated by reference standards encompassing a broad spectrum of patients and had QUADAS scores over 10. These studies were funded by large research agencies and academic centres (Table S5) with no Figure 4. Crude and adjusted prevalence of diabetes in
The CSPS adaptation consisted of the translation, consensus among judges, back-translation, and semantic validation stages. Execution of these stages enabled the cultural adaptation of the CSPS for Brazilian nurses. The CSPS-PB revealed excellent interpretability and items were considered important and relevant to nurses’ clinical practices. The reliability was satisfactory. Though the internal consistency value not was considered high, it is acceptable for initial validationstudies. The stability was already very good. The initial study showed that CSPS-PB is appropriate to assess compliance with standard precautions among nurses in Brazil. Additional study is needed to evaluate psychometric properties.
Methods: The Bronchial Asthma Self-Knowledge Questionnaire was developed and validationstudies were performed: logical or apparent validity, content validity, construct validity; internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha test), test-retest or reproducibility, in a face-to-face interview with 73 asthmatic patients and 76 non-asthmatic individuals (with a pilot study in 10 patients and 10 healthy controls). Other questionnaires were also applied: Mini Mental State Examination (in individuals over 65 years of age), Depression Scales (CES-D for individuals under 65 and GDS for individuals over 65 years of age), Demographic Questionnaire, BSI, EHLS and the Characterization Questionnaire for bronchial asthma. Results were then analysed using the Software Package for Social Sciences, version 25.0.
Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) for the identification of postpartum depression, for use in clinical and research settings. EPDS is a self-administered, 10-item scale based on previously available scales (Irritability, Depres- sion, and Anxiety Scale – IDA; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale – HAD; and Anxiety and Depression Scale) and on items devised by the authors themselves. The scale was initially com- pared to the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC). The use of EPDS is favored because of the ease and speed of its administration. This has led to its use by health care professionals in commu- nity studies, especially for the investigation of potential cases of depression. The clinical and epidemiological value of the scale have been confirmed by several validationstudies carried out in different countries, with both sensitivity and specificity in the 70-85% range, depending on the cutoff point.
Besides the screening tools evaluated in this review, there are several well-known screening tests for aphasia that are widely used in clinical practice. For the Acute Aphasia Screening Protocol , the Aachen Aphasia Bedside Test , and the Bedside Western Aphasia Bat- tery , strikingly, we were unable to find any peer-re- viewed articles in which these tests were validated in stroke patients with and without aphasia. The Token Test  is one of the first recommended screening tests for the detection of aphasia in patients with neurological damage and, therefore, exists in a lot of variants [30–32]. However, although this test is generally considered very useful in clinical practice, it could not be included, because the etiology of aphasia was too diverse or unspecified in the validationstudies for this test. Finally, general stroke scales quantifying stroke severity in the acute stage contain specific subparts for speech and language, such as the NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) , the Canadian Neurological Scale (CNS) , and the European Stroke Scale (ESS) . These standardized scales are often used in clinical practice to identify stroke patients with aphasia, but have not been systematically validated as such.
As a means of adding to and clarifying the existing literature on the psychometric properties of the OCAI [8,9], the current study examines the factor structure and validity of the current version of the OCAI. Building on the broad approach to sampling across organizational strata by Helfrich et al. , the current study will also address employee perceptions of organizational culture from both an ideal and current culture approach similar to that seen in the Person-Organization (P-O) fit literature (e.g., ). Asking employees to provide details of their ideal and current organiza- tional culture along the OCAI dimensions provides the basis for examining consistencies in culture conceptualisation across employee perspectives. This is one of the areas seemingly assumed but rarely tested according to Jung et al.’s  review of the culture instrumentation literature. None of the previously outlined CFA- based validationstudies examined model invariability across the ideal and current organizational culture perspectives, thereby warranting its inclusion in the validity examination of the OCAI in this study. As Cameron and Quinn’s [8,9] OCAI asks participants to assess current and ideal preferences for culture (the equivalent of perceived organizational and individual preferences respectively), it is an oversight that the model’s adequacy has not been tested across these two data perspectives. Therefore the following model validation aspects of OCAI are proposed for examination: 1a. Using ideal culture data, the OCAI will demonstrate adequate
adolescent drug users. The results showed that these tools are directed at measuring and identifying drug consumption and to the aspects related to treatment for problems resulting from the use of these sub- stances. The ASTEQ-COUNSELOR and DCI-A-SF instruments presented better alpha values for the items individually and together, and therefore are considered the most reliable. However, it should be noted that the instruments were generally not evalu- ated for all their main psychometric properties. This fact limited this review regarding the presentation of the validity and reliability measures that are often verified in validationstudies.
Objetivo: Identificar, na literatura, o uso da Psicometria na área da Fonoaudiologia e os processos utilizados para a busca de evidências de validade dos instrumentos da área. Estratégia de pesquisa: As bases pesquisadas foram MEDLINE (acessado via PubMed), LILACS, Scopus e SciELO. Os descritores foram “Validationstudies”, “Validity of tests”, “Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences” e “Valid” (seguido de elemento de truncagem), em português, inglês e espanhol. Critérios de seleção: Foram incluídos os estudos que realizavam algum tipo de validação de testes referentes a áreas da Fonoaudiologia. Resultados: Foram encontrados 296 artigos e destes, apenas 48 foram incluídos. A maioria dos estudos foi publicada por periódicos internacionais, da área da Fonoaudiologia e com amostra de ampla faixa etária. A principal área avaliada pelos instrumentos foi linguagem (20 estudos), seguida por audiologia (13 estudos). O ano de maior publicação foi 2014 e o principal tipo de busca de evidências de validade foi com base na estru- tura interna. Conclusão: O uso dos princípios de busca de evidências de validade de instrumentos da área fonoaudiológica ainda é escasso. Porém, observa-se que a maior parte dos estudos foi desenvolvida nos últimos anos, demonstrando tendência atual para atenção à necessidade de aprimoramento dos instrumentos.
there is a need to adopt efficient measures, both individually and collectively, so that the team is able to initiate treatment in an early, dynamic and effective way, minimizing the associ- ated mortality. It should be noted that all items with strong evidence of validation in the nurse’s protocol to the septic pa- tient should subsequently be submitted to clinical validationstudies to verify their effectiveness.
The triads method is applied in validationstudies of dietary intake to evaluate the correlation be- tween three measurements (food frequency ques- tionnaire, reference method and biomarker) and the true intake using validity coefficients (ρ). The main advantage of this technique is the inclusion of the biomarker, which presents independent er- rors compared with those of the traditional meth- ods. The method assumes the linearity between the three measurements and the true intake and independence between the three measurement er- rors. Limitations of this technique include the oc- currence of ρ > 1, known as “Heywood case”, and the existence of negative correlations, which do not allow the calculation of ρ. The objective of this review is to present the concept of the method, de- scribe its application and examine the validationstudies of dietary intake that use the triads meth- od. We also conceptualize the “bootstrap” method, used to estimate the confidence intervals of the validity coefficients.
With the aim of contributing to this field, the current thematic issue presents studies on the validation of food frequency questionnaires (FFQ), applications of new food intake data analysis techniques (including comparisons between surveys on household food bal- ance and availability), application of statistical techniques to food pattern analysis, and critical analysis of dietary guidelines for healthy eating, highlighting the proposal for a new food classification based on the extent and purpose of industrial processing. In our opin- ion, the articles illustrate the progress in food and nutritional epidemiology in Brazil since the first publications on FFQ validationstudies 10 years ago and indicate important areas for research in developing methods to estimate food intake, besides pointing to directions for appropriate public health measures.
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A RAPID ANALYTICAL METHOD BY HPLC FOR DETERMINATION OF NIMESULIDE IN RELEASE STUDIES. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for a rapid determination of nimesulide in dissolution studies. Nimesulide was analyzed using 5 µm Lichrospher® RP-18 column (125 x 4 mm i.d.) and mobile phase acetonitrile: phosphate buffer pH=6.0 (55:45) at a flow-rate of 1.0 mL min -1 . Detection was carried out
Chromatographic method validation After establishing the chromatographic conditions, the method has been validated by observing the following parameters: linearity, working range, precision, accuracy, limit of detection, limit of quantification, specificity and system compliance, using ICH guide.
predicted) below 70%. Moreover, selected patients are generally those with sufficient motivation and time to participate in a trial, and most likely to comply with medication and regular appoint- ments. It is questionable whether the results of such RCTs can be extrapolated to all patients with COPD [5,6]. However, reliable judgments about the external validity of RCTs are essential if treatments are to be used correctly in as many patients as possible in routine clinical practice . Recent GOLD guidelines acknowledge this limited generalizability in COPD studies and state some considerations related to the results of these trials .
and evaluation rules for scientiﬁc papers in major special- ized journals. Some critical points should be considered to eliminate any potential deviations that may interfere with and/or produce false results and affect the reliability, quality and reproducibility of the results of non-clinical studies, such as: i) sanitary quality of experimental ani- mals; ii) animal distribution in the different experimental groups; iii) sample size calculation; iv) management of experiments; v) appropriate statistical analysis; vi) correct data handling; vii) quality of the reagents; and viii) need for negative and positive control groups (77–79). In order to reach high quality in non-clinical studies, it is imperative that the institution works in accordance with the institutional Good Scientiﬁc Practice, which is analogous to the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). The GLP principles are a quality program related to organiza- tional processes and experimental conditions, required for a non-clinical study to be accepted in the main interna- tional regulatory agencies (80). More recently, guidelines of a document named ARRIVE (Animals in Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments) were developed, in con- sultation with the scientiﬁc community, as part of an NC3Rs initiative to improve the standard of reporting research using animals. It is a 20-item checklist, contain- ing key information necessary to describe a study compre- hensively and transparently. To date, these guidelines
Objective: to validate the content and appearance of a serial album for children aged from 7 to 10 years addressing the topic of prevention and control of body weight. Method: methodological study with descriptive nature. The validation process was attended by 33 specialists in educational technologies and/or in excess of infantile weight. The agreement index of 80% was the minimum considered to guarantee the validation of the material. Results: most of the specialists had a doctoral degree and a graduate degree in nursing. Regarding content, illustrations, layout and relevance, all items were validated and 69.7% of the experts considered the album as great. The overall agreement validation index for the educational technology was 0.88. Only the script- sheet 3 did not reach the cutoff point of the content validation index. Changes were made to the material, such as title change, inclusion of the school context and insertion of nutritionist and physical educator in the story narrated in the album. Conclusion: the proposed serial album was considered valid by experts regarding content and appearance, suggesting that this technology has the potential to contribute in health education by promoting healthy weight in the age group of 7 to 10 years.
minimizing the training error, i.e. error measured using a training set (loss is a good measure of this error), and, on the other side, the way to minimize the generalization error relies on regularization methods . The test set is a precious resource that should only be used once, in the end, when the DL algorithm performance cannot be further improved. Therefore, the test error can only be quantified in the end. To avoid reaching the test phase without having the best model, i.e. the one that has the best performance, as possible, the regularization error is calculated from the validation set. It is important to keep in mind that the regularization error will always be greater than the training one and, in the best- case scenario, they will be equal, and the relationship between these two errors must reflect 2 properties: (1) the training error must be as low as possible and (2) the gap between the training and regularization errors should be as small as possible. When these conditions are not achieved by the DL algorithm performance, 2 scenarios can occur: underfitting and overfitting. Underfitting happens when the training error is not the lowest, i.e. property (1) is not fulfilled, and overfitting occurs when the gap between both errors is too large, i.e. property (2) is not fulfilled (Figure 2.7).
Validation of Time-Correction Technique. Validation of the time-correction technique was performed using a mathematically constructed semi-ellipsoid surface grown in time at dif- ferent rates along each axis. The resulting surface grew in a non-linear manner to resemble thrombus growth. The growing ellipsoid was sampled by taking sequential z-slices, moving upwards, as the ellipsoid grows, i.e. sampling the growing surface in the same way the z-stack of a growing thrombus is acquired by confocal imaging. The volume of the ellipse grew by 12% during the time the z-stack was acquired, mimicking thrombus growth. The ellipsoid surface was reconstructed in two ways: first, without correction directly from the z-stack and second, using the time correction technique to acquire an instantaneous time-corrected surface at a timepoint at the centre of the z-stack time. The results are shown in Fig 3A & 3B) where the left half surface is without correction, the right half surface is the time-corrected instantaneous surface and the dashed red line is the mathematically constructed surface at the same timepoint as the instantaneous surface. As expected, the uncorrected surface is smaller at the bottom and larger at the top demonstrating the growth that occurs during the z-stack acquisition, while the time-corrected surface corresponds well with the mathematical surface.