Despite the limitations mentioned, this article has brought important contributions by revealing, for the first time, reported sexual violenceagainstchildren and adolescents in Brazilian schools. These findings are a valuable tool for planning and developing intersectorial actions to prevent violence and provide assistance to students. The results presented here can be used to guide actions that contribute to improving the monitoring and prevention of cases of sexual violenceagainstchildren and adolescents at school, supporting the provision of assistance to victims and the implementation of measures for monitoring and accountability of perpetrators.
Foi realizado um levantamento de estudos publicados sobre a relação entre violência infantil e odontologia. Realizou-se levantamento bibliográfico por meio de estratégia de busca com base nos termos: “Child Abuse”, “Child Abuse, Sexual’’, “Child Maltreatment”, “Child Mistreatment”, “Child Molestation”, “Child Sexual Abuse”, “Child Neglect”, “Dentistry”, “Pediatric Dentistry”, “Dentistry for Children”, “Forensic Dentistry” e “Pediatric Dentistry”. A estratégia de busca foi adaptada para as bases de dados como LILACS, PUBMED, SCOPUS e WEB OF SCIENCE. Além disso, buscas específicas sobre o tema na legislação federal foram realizadas.
the characteristics of sexual abuse against chil- dren including the profiles of the victims and the perpetrators, and associated factors notified in a health service of reference with the database of the Brazilian Case Registry Database, in a city in the south of Brazil. Categorical variables are present- ed in prevalence with 95% confidence intervals. There were 489 notifications from 2008 to 2014 of confirmed or suspected child sexual abuse. The majority was related to female victims, but the repeated abuse was reported mainly with male victims. In most cases, the abuse took place at the victims’ or perpetrators’ homes and the main perpetrators of abuse were male and acquainted with the victims. Twelve victims have contracted sexually transmitted infections; pregnancies were six, five of them legally terminated. This study highlights that the child sexual abuse profiles were similar in almost all of Brazilian regions, showing that it is possible to have a coordinated national action to prevent this offence.
As a result of adults’ self-interest or their interpretation of children’s interests, children are subject to relationships of power and control that are expressed in terms of obligations, expectations and prohibitions that may obstruct their participation in research. Sometimes silencing their voice as victims and at other times denying their testimony as witnesses, in any event, these relationships disregard their perspective. Beyond the ethical issues raised, this may lead to a sample bias that could compromise the validity of research results and the development of knowledge about phenomena of social interest . Underlying these concerns is the dialectic between children’s rights to protection and participation and the associated concepts of child autonomy and competence [6,14,15]. As stated by Ruiz-Casares et al., “Whereas sometimes the lack of adult involvement can hinder children’s and young people’s development and access to resources, overprotection of children and young people can result in their exclusion from processes that affect them at the expense of the children and young people themselves and substantial loss for the communities where they live.”  (p. 4) This raises the problem of the need for parental consent and its possible limits, especially considering two variables: the age of the child and the legitimacy of the parent.
This study was conducted in Porto, Portugal. Case reports, held in the Medlegis data archives system of the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences - North Delegation (INMLCF-DN) were used on instances of physical violenceagainstchildren and adolescents (PVCA). The range of actuation of the INMLCF-DN covers eight cities (Gondomar, Porto, Maia, Matosinhos, Póvoa de Varzim, Valongo, Vila do Conde, Vila Nova de Gaia) and benefits 1,118,517 inhabitants. Reports referred to a five-year period (2009- 2013), and concerned victims aged 0-17 years old. Information on region of orofacial injuries, sex and age of the victim, data on the alleged aggressor and year of occurrence was recorded, as well as the lapse of time from the aggression to the examination moment.
The descriptive-analytical study was based on notiied cases of violenceagainstchildren aged zero to nine years old in Brazil from January 1 to December 31 2011. The database was created with data collected in the “Domestic, sexual and/ or other forms of violence” notiication form available at SINAN NET. All healthcare facilities, including reference centers for and outpatient clinics specialized in violence victims, among others, must notify all instances of violence. The corresponding data are processed in the informa- tion system by the municipal health secretaries of the corresponding counties and are then sent to state and federal agencies for entry into nation- wide database.
The professionals who work at CREAS testify that one of the main dificulties encountered in dealing with situations of intra-family violenceagainstchildren and adolescents is the bureaucracy and the demands imposed by the judiciary. Among them is the production of medical reports and reports used in legal proceedings. These professionals recognize that they must act jointly before the courts, however, they afirm that the determinations of the judicial services impose changes in their routines that are directly relected in the assistance provided to children and adolescents victims of intra-family violence. The role of CREAS today is not what we produce. What we do are reports for the justice, because that is the great demand upon us. It was for the judiciary to have a wellpaid professional to do that. Since here in the city we do not have one, it falls on us who have to make these reports, because, according to them, if we do not do them we can be accused of obstructing justice. (P social )
group of diagnostics and interventions available for child nurs- ing consulting purposes. It identified a preponderance of inform category interventions, represented by teach and explain actions (mother or carer) and the observe category, which comprises actions relating to anamnesis and epidemiological vigilance. However, the authors noted that, despite the fact that the nursing consultations covered rearing and hygienic care of children, do- mestic violenceagainstchildren diagnostics were rare as com- pared with the city’s Protection Network
The peculiarities of the CCCAs may limit the comparability of the data from this study. However, in spite of such limits, when considering the dificulties encountered in the Judiciary for the incorporation of the concept of a work process that comprehends the principles of integral protection and of the absolute priority for children and adolescents, it is possible that similar situations occur in other regions of Brazil. It is noteworthy that to know and identify the work process developed by the Judiciary concerning the prevention of intrafamilial sexual violenceagainstchildren and adolescents, involves assessing and explaining this knowledge which comes from studying and being immersed in a little explored area, this being the legal area.
When faced with situations of violenceagainstchildren, professionals mobilize emo- tions and feelings that do not always allow ratio- nal decision-making, a fact that may hamper the proper completion of the notification form. The importance of multidisciplinary and inter-sec- toral work that involves integrated actions of care and health care, punishment of perpetrators and protection of children and families subjected to situations of violence and sexual abuse are high- lighted 36 .
Results: The evaluated children and their families generated 55 genograms. In 38 of them, functional family arrangements, and close or very close emotional ties were observed. In 17 cases, situations involving physical, emotional, or sexual violenceagainstchildren were perceived. Among these, four represented extreme cases, with fraying parental bonding, and dysfunctional family arrangements. In these families, chemical addiction was prevalent among multiple members, as well as severe mental disorder, persistent physical and verbal abuse, and sexual abuse. Conclusions: The use of the genogram helps to identify at an early stage the degradation of parental bonding and violenceagainstchildren, and when it is incorporated into the pediatric practice routine, it may contribute to the promotion of the comprehensive health care of the child, regardless of the presence of social vulnerability.
Data collection was conducted with semi-structured inter- view guidelines where professionals had the opportunity to discuss the theme of violenceagainstchildren, beginning with the description of a situation of violence experienced in their professional practice. Next, based on the situation described, they were asked to talk about the meaning of violenceagainstchildren; the repercussions of violence for child development; notification of violence; the difficulties and facilitators to cope with violenceagainstchildren; the contribution of institutions, professionals and public policies on health care for children who have been victims of violence. Interviews were conduct- ed by two researchers, recorded, transcribed and reviewed by another researcher from this group. Interviewers were familiar with primary care units and other levels and researchers were introduced to participants by one of the researchers belonging to the District staff.
The reductionist action in relation to situa- tions of domestic violenceagainstchildren and adolescents encompasses a set of professional practices that engage in meeting only the physical needs presented by the victims, excluding, from the intervention process, the legal aspects that involve the handling of these situations, among them the obligatory notification of suspected or confirmed cases with the Child Protective Council. The prac- tices adopted by some professionals, in relation to a victimized child or adolescent, are to check vital signs, dress wounds, and apply medication as nec- essary. I will be very sincere, when they [victims] come here we check the vital signs, we weigh this child and medicate when necessary. Of course the doctor will do the anamnesis, but basically this is what we, the nursing professionals did (P 3 ).
It is necessary to think about support strate- gies appropriate to the needs of the participants in the situation, with major emphasis on support for the professionals. The nurse needs training, counseling and experience to properly manage all of the complexity that exists in the situation of violenceagainstchildren, in a way that makes the experience of care for the child victims of domestic violence less painful in his or her everyday world. This is one path to be further explored by inves- tigations and the proposal for interventions that technically and ethically qualify clinical practice in situations of violence.
The results of this study allowed the identification of actions of the municipal health department to combat do- mestic violenceagainstchildren and adolescents from the standpoint of primary care nurses. The nurses’ statements show that there are initiatives by the public authorities, but that the professionals have trouble participating in the of- fered training activities due principally to the workload at the health units. The lack of security and the dynamics of work that lacks articulation with a protection network, such as child protective services, are other limitations that affect the practical work of nurses.
On this date the IACHR lodged to the Committee a demand against Mexico on the cases 12.496, 12.497, 12.498, (“Campo Algodonero: Claudia Ivette Gonzalez, Esmeralda Herrera Moneral e Laura Berenice Ramos Monarrez) (OAS, 2007 ) for denial of justice in relation to the disappearance and murders in Ciudad Juarez; lack of prevention in cases like these, even though the authorities were aware of the gender violence pattern in the city; the lack of authorities responses facing the disappearances; the lack of seriousness in the investigation; the lack of adequate reparation to the victim’s family. On December 26th, 2007, the Committee notified the acceptance of the case and in February 2008 presented the demand through the document “Arguments, requests and proofs” (author’s translation) formulated by the victims’ mothers. In the period from April 27th to April 30th 2009, the Committee met in Santiago, Chile, where an audience on the “Campo Algodonero” case was held to hear the witnesses and the experts.
I argue that men’s resistance to patriarchal violence is much more natural or biological, or “normal”, than is violence. Indeed, study after study afirms the extent to which lethal violence is not part of men’s or women’s “nature.” The re- search overwhelmingly and consistently afirms that it takes a huge effort to turn men (or women) into killers. Researchers including James Gilligan (Gilligan, 1997) and Cynthia Enloe (Enloe, 2007) have studied how extreme trauma, humiliation and shaming is nearly always part of the making of men who kill. Other research- ers have shown how the effects of toxic childhoods and damaging relationships distort our human nature and turn us into killers. All of this research afirms that killing is not natural nor biologically rooted nor typical of men (or women). Yes, we as men (and women) are biologically capable of killing and can be induced or conditioned to do so. But we know that militaries around the world have to invest hugely in systems to teach boys and men, and sometimes women, to kill – to reduce their natural resistance to taking human life.