Aishath Shahula Ahmed is Counsel- ling Coordinator at a local NGO, So- ciety for Health Education (SHE), and Acting Coordinator of the Psycho- social Support Unit (PSU) at the Na- tional Disaster Management Centre. She described the huge challenges involved in providing psychosocial support for the many thousands of traumatised people in a country with very few trained counsellors and only one psychiatrist. The response began immediately after the event, with local professional counsellors volunteering their time. Since then the Indian Red Cross, with support from UNFPA, has conducted ‘Psycho- logical First Aid’ training and Maldiv- ian teams have visited more than 70 islands to provide basic ‘ventilation’ (active listening) and to spot severe
We outline our proposed disservice categories in section 2.3. They are grounded onthe same premises that underlie ecosystem services, i.e. they influence different dimensions of human well-being (Agarwala et al., 2014; MA, 2005). Since the definition of human well-being is still widely debated, here we consider human well-being as the desirable conditions for an individual or societal group (Jax and Heink, 2015), which depend on: objective attributes related to people's material and social contexts, subjective thoughts, feelings and satisfactions towards life, and psychological responses associated with social connectedness, security, and life satisfaction (Agarwala et al., 2014; Smith et al., 2013). Following Smith et al. (2013) we thus consider the following well-being dimensions: health, including life expectancy and mortality, and physical and mental health conditions; social cohesion, considering physical and emotional links that connect humans in society: education, resulting knowledge and skills; safety and security, as physical, personal and national freedom from harm and financial destabilisation; living standards, as the access to goods, services and resources; leisure time, as pleasurable activities away from work and responsibilities; spiritual and cultural fulfilment, as opportunities to fulfil spiritual and cultural needs; and connection to nature, as personal connectedness to ecosystems and biota. These dimensions contribute to general life satisfaction and happiness (Smith et al., 2013).
Reinforced concrete (RC) buildings with openings in the masonry infill panels have shown superior performance to those without openings in the devastating 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. Understanding the effect of openings and the resulting tsunami force is essential for an economical and safe design of vertical evacuation shelters against tsunamis. One-to-one hundred scale building models with square shape in plan were tested in a 40 m long hydraulic flume with 1 m x 1 m cross section. A mild slope of 0.5 degree representing the beach condition at Phuket, Thailand was simulated in the hydraulic laboratory. The model dimensions were 150 mm x 150 mm x 150 mm. Two opening configurations of the front and back walls were investigated, viz., 25% and 50% openings. Pressure sensors were placed onthe faces of the model to measure the pressure distribution. A high frequency load cell was mounted at the base of the model to record thetsunami forces. A bi-linear pressure profile is proposed for determining the maximum tsunami force acting on solid square buildings. The influence of openings onthe peak pressures onthe front face of the model is found to be practically insignificant. For 25% and 50% opening models, thetsunami forces reduce by about 15% and 30% from the model without openings, respectively. The reduction in thetsunami force clearly demonstrates the benefit of openings in reducing the effect of tsunamion such buildings.
customs that were mainly operative. Karl Polanyi, for instance, doubts the capacity of individuals in antiquity to calculate in terms of gains-losses, just like he finds it equally doubtful that exchange can shape society and bring benefits. “Contrary to what Smith believed, writes he, the inclination to make an exchange with a view to obtaining gains is not natural. Numerous examples, passing through ... the New Egyptian Empire... or Bergdamas in South-West Africa show that, as long as the market has not become a central institution of society, humans envisioned their life according to their social status and not according to their personal economic interest. The forces that acted then in society were reciprocity and redistribution. Reciprocity was ensured ... by the symmetry of primitive societies that guaranteed partners that exchanges should unfold on grounds of reciprocity. Redistribution was done via a central authority (total production was entrusted to the chief who performed redistribution among his subjects)” (Polanyi, 1983, p. 2).
[t]hose African writers who have chosen to write in English or French are not unpatriotic smart alecs with an eye onthe main chance—outside their own countries. They are by-products of the same processes that made the new nation states of Africa ... Those of us who have inherited the English language may not be in a position to appreciate the value of the inheritance. Or we may go on resenting it because it came as part of a package deal which included many other items of doubtful value and the positive atrocity of racial arrogance and prejudice which may yet set the world on fire. But let us not in rejecting the evil throw out the good with it. (Achebe, 1965, p. 28)
From theperspective of developing an educational practice focused on health promotion, based on diagnosis of the vulnerability of a group of children, we face while nursing students, with the need to systematize an activity that includes the steps of data collection, planning, implementation and evaluation. Thus, this process helped us in understanding that the educative practices should take into account a previous study of social needs and health which would suggest both for the content to be addressed, as to the methods and techniques to be prioritized in the teaching-learning process.
Following this argument, it would be interesting to document, for example, whether rates of wifely infidelity are higher in the South than in the North. Why wifely infidelity rates might be higher in the South than in the North is a separate question. Nisbett and colleagues have documented that white southern men endorse violence as a means of mate retention more than do white northern men. This finding is consistent with the present speculation that the mechanisms of mate retention may be recruited in displaying behaviors consistent with a culture of honor. If manifest behavioral indicators of a culture of honor are the output of evolved psychological mate retention mechanisms, then to the extent that wifely infidelity rates remain higher in the southern United States than elsewhere in the nation, this may help to account for the persistence of a culture of honor to the present. In addition to the social mechanisms identified in recent research [e.g., collective representations that condone violence, such as laws (Cohen, 1996) and media representations (Cohen and Nisbett, 1997), and institutional non-stigmatization of violence (Cohen and Nisbett, 1997)], regional differences in recent wifely infidelity rates might help to account for the persistence of the southern culture of honor to the present.
Honaunau just south of Napoopoo. Each CRD consists of a sensor box, transmitter box, solar panel, and antenna unit. The base of the sensor box is mounted about 1 foot (0.3 m) above the ground, the transmitter box is about 10 feet (3 m) above the ground, and the solar panel and antenna unit are just above the transmitter box. The height of the sensor units above sea level at the above mentioned sites ranges from 8 to 14 feet (2.4 to 4.3m), and the distance inland from the shoreline ranges from 60 to 390 feet (lg.3 to 118.9 m). The sensor unit consists of an outer stainless steel weatherproof box, an inner plastic box, and the sensor. The outer stainless steel box has a hole in its bottom that is covered with stainless steel wire and shade cloth to discourage rats, mice, lizards, ants, and other insects from entering. As the box is mounted close to the ground, the hole can only be seen by putting one’s head onthe ground and by looking up at the bottom of the box a few inches away. The box also has a padlock. Inside the sensor box is a plastic box with two large holes covered by shade cloth to further deter insects and small animals. The sensor unit is located inside the plastic box. The sensor is a wallet-sized piece of epoxy with four stainless steel pins protruding slightly out of the epoxy block in its corners. These sensors are used extensively throughout the security industry to detect flooding in homes or businesses. A wire also comes out of the sensor and is routed into a conduit that runs out of the bottom of the sensor box and up to its relay and power supply unit in the transmitter box. Holes in the back of the sensor box permit mounting with stainless steel lag screws onto the wooden siren poles. The box has a beveled and hooded face plate that can be removed by loosening two screws and the padlock. The only possible way for the sensor box to be flooded is by water rising up from below the unit, The dimensions of the sensor box are 6 in X 4 in X 8 in (15 cm X 10 cm X 20 cm).
In my view it is the task of film heritage institutes, those publicly funded in particular, not only to bring out the full range of materials and practices, but also to bring a wider array of signifying contexts to bear on them than the usual production-oriented, aesthetic categories. Surely, the very notion of looseness is a warning that any attempt at comprehensiveness is futile. Yet the inclusion of those materials, conditions, conventions, and practices the interpretive communities of the film heritage world do know have existed, or still exist, will at least ensure that a definition of curatorship, if not of the task of film heritage institutes tout court, accounts for both majority and minority practices and do justice to cinema as a highly diversified phenomenon. So, as a legend to the definition’s subdivision in technology, aesthetics, and history, I suggest for consideration a conceptual apparatus, in agree- ment with Howard Becker’s delineation of networked, interdependent cultural worlds, that covers the histories, conditions, and conventions that have allowed the accomplishment of cinema, then and now, along or against the grain. Others may want to subdivide or supplement these concepts, but for now I have settled on a minimal number of more or less coherent considerations.
During the ‘war,’ Fox News, which ignoring its motto: ‘Real Journalism, Fair and Balanced,’ became the loud mouthpiece of the round-the-clock operational Office of Global Communications in the White House. Fox’s unrelenting and literally flag-waving patriotism (with the US flag fluttering in the corner of the screens) and the description from its ‘embedded’ reporters of US war machine as ‘heroes’ and ‘liberators,’ met with triumph in the ratings war. Even before the bombs started falling on Baghdad, one of the main presenters on Fox News, Bill O’ Reilly, dismissed even mild scepticism about the desirability of military action or any disagreement on military tactics, telling viewers that the US should go in and ‘splatter’ the Iraqis. In this gung-ho approach, the network appeared to present the ‘war’ as a spectacle. Often military action was couched in the language of a war of liberation, and sometimes presented in the form of an entertainment show, drawing on visual techniques borrowed from Hollywood. The rescue of Private Jessica Lynch, who became an icon of the conflict, provided an example of mixing entertainment and information, no doubt influenced by the Hollywood film Saving Private Ryan. It is now known that Lynch’s courageous ‘rescue’ by US Special Forces from Iraqi captors, was in fact a morale-boosting event staged for television cameras. Murdoch’s news networks appeared to be willingly part of the operation’s news management, which included arranging for embedded television journalists to report the progress of the invasion, from theperspective of Pentagon. Unfounded allegations were bandied about on news channels such as Fox to justify the invasion: that Iraq was linked to the 9/11 attacks; that it possessed vast ‘weapons of mass destruction’ and was ready and willing to use them.
3 As previously stated, light is crucial for circadian system and organisms possess photoreceptor proteins (CRY and PER) that perceive the light-dark changes and properly generate input pathways to transduce the signal to the circadian core (Vallone et al. 2004; Tamai et al. 2007; Vatine et al. 2009). Two studies in zebrafish characterized a light-induced transcriptome and revealed several genes whose expression depends on light, revealing a multi-level regulation of circadian rhythms by light-cycles (Weger et al. 2011; Ben-Moshe et al. 2014). This light-dependence was also recently shown for the Atlantic cod Gadus morhua (Lazado et al. 2014). The molecular explanation remains in light-induced cry1aa and per2 circadian genes that encode for negative core elements of the circadian transcription- translation loop with CRY1AA acting as a direct inhibitor of CLOCK:BMAL activation via preventing heterodimer formation (Ishikawa et al. 2002; Tamai et al. 2007) while PER2 plays a more complex role as either transcriptional coactivator or corepressor depending on its transcriptional regulatory targets (Wang et al. 2015). Photoreception is particularly interesting in fish as they exhibit several adaptations for this mechanism. Contrary to most vertebrates which only perceive light through the eyes, fish also possess a photosensitive pineal gland, dermal melanophores, and brain photoreceptors (Foulkes et al. 2016). In addition, fish possess independent peripheral photoreceptors and self-sustaining circadian oscillators, essentially in every tissue (Whitmore et al. 1998). Moreover, tissue and cell culture studies in zebrafish showed these peripheral clocks are directly entrained by light (Whitmore et al. 1998).
Building from Griskevicius and Kenrick’s (2013) previous work, I investigate the effect of the mate-acquisition motive on fraud victimization. Since this motive has been shown to increase impulsivity and risk-taking, which have been linked to increased victimization, I hypothesize that a mate-acquisition motive increases victimization likelihood. Particular focus is given to age differences in order to contribute to the literature from this evolutionary approach. Since it was suggested that the mate-acquisition motive has higher influence on teenagers and young adults, given that they are in the mating life stage, I hypothesize that young adults will be more impulsive and risk-seeking and, therefore, more vulnerable to fraud than old adults. Then, this study can inform optimal targeting for consumer fraud prevention policies and measures such as awareness campaigns and educational programs. For instance, scams where mating cues may be present, such as dating scams, may be more effectively diffused if prevention measures are targeted to young adults who may be more likely to take risks and act impulsively without regarding the legitimacy of the situation. In case of students, for example, identification of scams they are more susceptible to may be implemented in their curriculums. As vulnerability to victimization is also complicated by how much one is targeted, I also explore whether young adults are more likely to be targeted than old adults. In the scope of the current study, fraud is the deliberate deception of victims with promises of unnecessary, grossly misrepresented, never intended to be provided, or nonexistent goods, services, or other benefits (Johnson (2004) in Schoepfer and Piquero, 2009).
Figure 6 shows the solutions for the same set of param- eters used in the chessboard test. In all cases the maxima of the initial displacement field correspond to segment BC (see Fig. 4), matching the 10 min error contour of the BRT and the earthquake epicentre. The lateral extent of the source is roughly 160 km. If we look at the solutions presented in Fig. 5 more closely, there is an apparent rotation when com- pared with the strike of segment BC. This is not a result of the azimuthal distribution of the tide gauge stations as the chessboard test shows (Fig. 4). It can be the result of the ap- parent contradiction between the records from Cascais (see lines 230–231) and Lagos tide stations, but we have no inde- pendent assessment of this problem to weight the station data differently.
Within the humanitarian system, thetsunami disaster demonstrates the problem of the ‘mega response’ from the Western public. The way in which the humanitarian sector is funded, by sudden inputs following public appeals, encourages an emphasis on rapid service delivery, exaggeration of the agencies’ own importance and understatement of the role of local people. The unprecedented level of global public donations made the international NGO sector the key player in the international tsunami response, both in absolute terms of size of country budgets and in relative terms compared with the UN and bilateral agencies.
Probably the most prominent threat to regional peace and security in the near future, as shown by the ‘Arab Spring’, would be the problem of unconstitutional changes of government in the context of the existence of authoritarian regimes and undemocratic political systems created by them and strengthened by undemocratic constitutions. Article 4(j) gives the Member States “a right to request interventions from the Union in order to restore peace and security” (AU, 2000). Article 4(h), onthe other hand, provides the AU with a right “to intervene in a Member State (…) in respect of (…) a serious threat to legitimate order to restore peace and stability to the Member State (…)” (AU, 2003). On this legal basis an authoritarian regime will have the right to ask for help in case of social unrests similar to these in Tunisia, Egypt or Libya. As the ‘elbow- lickers’ protests in the mid of 2012 in the Sudan has shown the mass demonstrations are possible also in East Africa. What would the PSC and the Assembly do in such a situation? Would the ASF be used against protesters representing a significant part of a society demanding human rights and social justice? If not and if social unrests become a civil war, like in Syria – at which stage of a conflict would the PSC and Assembly send the ASF to cease the hostilities? Would the ASF be an impartial force mandated to separate the belligerents or would it support one side? If so – which one: the “legal” government slaughtering their citizens or “illegal” pretenders to power?
Given these players’ social backgrounds, many of them aspired not for ath- letic glory, but for careers as engineers, doctors, or other “respected” profes- sions. From a young age, these players’ parents, many of whom were employed as functionaries in the colonial government or in private business, had stressed education as the route to success. And, simply put: soccer threatened to derail these ambitions. The case of Miguel Arcanjo, who was born in Angola in 1932 to an Indian father and African mother, is illustrative of this scenario. His fa- ther worked as a civil servant in the treasury department and even as the family moved around the colony, Arcanjo was continually enrolled in school, hoping to one day become an engineer. Even as soccer steadily seduced the young Miguel, his father refused to sanction this career path, though he was, himself, an ardent Benfica fan. Only after the director of the treasury department, who also hap- pened to be the president of Sporting, intervened, did Arcanjo’s father finally relent. In 1950, Arcanjo joined FC Porto, the club for which he would go on to be a star. The experience of Mário Torres, who was also born in Angola, resembles Arcanjo’s. Having a Portuguese father and Angolan mother enabled this future Académica de Coimbra legend to hone his soccer skills in a series of schools in the colony. Testimony from Torres underscores his elevated social status in co- lonial Angola:
It is convenient to avoid ambiguous expressions and historical clichés which give a bad impression of African life and the striking facts of its history. In this sense, in various chapters, especially the first, the idea has been found that Europe conquered Africa due to the ‘inherent deficiencies of African societies,’ without these deficiencies being defined by criteria from African societies, but solely by a comparison with European technological civilizations. Similarly, it is convenient to discard all expressions which perpetuate the old cliché of ‘African passivity’ or the eternal reference to ‘African reactions’ at this time. The EC does not demand that the authors abandon all critical spirits or that African peoples and societies are systematically praised, but the automatic vilification and the errors of perspective should be avoided which have so prejudiced the quality of work about Africa. If anAfrican sovereign is shown to be bloodthirsty, it is necessary to describe him as such and justify your affirmations, but describing all African heads of state who opposed Europeans
Australia offers here a vivid example. Australian historians Paula Hamilton and Paul Ashton – two of the founding members of the public history movement in Australia – attended American conferences of the NCPH in the 1980s and were part of the short-lived internal committee on international public history (HAMILTON, 2017). Public history developed in Australia in the late 1980s. In 1992, the Australian Professional Historians’ Association launched the Public History Review that became, with The Public Historian, one of the two main journals in the field. However, much more than the economic and public policy focus in Europe, the first Australian program at the University of Technology in Sydney “had a media inflection and a political commitment to accessible scholarship, rather than an orientation to providing more jobs for graduates (though this was a factor)” (GADNER; HAMILTON, 2017, p. 5). Hamilton wrote that “the consultant who assisted in drawing up the original course in 1987-1988 was Peppino Orteleva from the Cliomedia company in Italy, which specializes in historical commissions utilising visual media, especially film and video, and still operates out of Turin” (GADNER; HAMILTON, 2017, p. 5). Communicating history – much more than consulting – influenced the development of public history in Australia and matched the shift from applying history to present-day issues, to communicating history to larger audiences.
While the MOSS clearly reduces the compliance burden, its operation is not free from flaws. Compliance costs for taxpayers and administrative costs for tax authorities should be minimized as far as possible to increase its appeal and effectiveness. Limitations of existing information exchange/mutual administrative assistance, particularly where the identity or location of online traders or account holders is hidden, anonymised, or only partly known, is problematic. Lack of appropriate Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with key third country jurisdictions (particularly China) needs to be addressed as quickly as possible. Enforcing the OSS regime is difficult in a digital context where multiple transactions are carried out anonymously. Tax authorities have limited possibilities to sanction third-country suppliers who fail to register and report their supplies to EU customers. It is questionable whether the fact that VAT collection in third-country scenarios is reliant on voluntary compliance by non-EU suppliers is acceptable for EU suppliers and MS’s budgets from a neutrality and competition perspective in the long run. Without effective supervision and enforcement, there is a risk of non-taxation that threatens to distort competition. For the time being, compliance depends onthe willingness of suppliers in third countries to assume their legal obligations as part of a good corporate governance. The final report of the Commission’s Expert Group on Taxation of the Digital Economy suggested that tax treaty provisions should be extended to include consumption taxes and that the OECD Model should be amended accordingly. From an EU perspective, the most effective solution would be an agreement between the EU and a third country that would solve the problems of non-taxation or double taxation of transactions. The Group also considered that consumption taxes should be included in exchange of information clauses in tax treaties. However, to be able to exchange information or request assistance, tax authorities must first be in possession of relevant information. Tax authorities have limited or no possibilities to obtain information from foreign companies if their efforts are not supported by the foreign tax administration. Without administrative assistance in tax matters, the destination principle can not be effectively applied.
Training young doctors in family medicine is challenging in any setting and many variables can influence the success or failure of a residency program. This article is the end result of a collaborative work that started in June 2019 at the WONCA Africa Regional Conference in Kampala, during a workshop lead by the Besrour Centre for Global Family Medicine at the College of Family Physicians of Canada. We present here theperspective of a small group of young African family physicians onthe experience of being a resident in family medicine in Africa in 2019, hoping that the picture we depict here helps to promote the necessary improvements in the training programs in Africa for the near future.