Top PDF Effect of the pH in the formation of beta-galactosidase microparticles produced by a spray-drying process

Effect of the pH in the formation of beta-galactosidase microparticles produced by a spray-drying process

Effect of the pH in the formation of beta-galactosidase microparticles produced by a spray-drying process

microencapsulated, formed with modified chitosan solutions at different values of pH. 402[r]

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Effect of ph on the stability of red beet extract (Beta vulgaris l.) microcapsules produced by spray drying or freeze drying

Effect of ph on the stability of red beet extract (Beta vulgaris l.) microcapsules produced by spray drying or freeze drying

Red beets is rich in phenolic acids and has high antioxidant capacity, and can be used to produce a natural dye. This study evaluated the effect of pH (3 to 6) on the stability of red beet extract microcapsules, dried by freeze drying and spray drying and stored at room temperature. The microcapsules were produced using a combination of maltodextrin and xanthan gum as encapsulating agents and stored for 7 days. For all evaluated microcapsules, a degradation of betanin was observed, however, that degradation was independent of pH, with the exception of the sample with maltodextrin and dried by spray drying. The freeze dried products showed lower degradation constants and higher half-life (t 1/2 ) when comparing with the spray dried samples. The microcapsules containing maltodextrin and xanthan gum, dried by spray drying, showed the highest change in the content of phenolic compounds after storage for 7 days. The color parameters showed a reduction for a*, and increase in b* and L*, for all samples during the storage time. In general, the microcapsules produced using maltodextrin and xanthan gum, and dried by freeze dryer, showed higher stability in terms of betanin content, phenolic compounds and color parameters during storage at different pHs.
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Microencapsulation of  beta-carotene by spray drying effect of wall material concentration and drying inlet temperature

Microencapsulation of beta-carotene by spray drying effect of wall material concentration and drying inlet temperature

Carotenoids are a class of natural pigments found mainly in fruits and vegetables. Among them, ūĚõĹ-carotene is regarded the most potent precursor of vitamin A. However, it is susceptible to oxidation upon exposure to oxygen, light, and heat, which can result in loss of colour, antioxidant activity, and vitamin activity. Thus, the objective of this work was to study the microencapsulation process of ūĚõĹ-carotene by spray drying, using arabic gum as wall material, to protect it against adverse environmental conditions. This was carried out using the response surface methodology coupled to a central composite rotatable design, evaluating simultaneously the effect of drying air inlet temperature (110-200 ‚ąė C) and the wall material concentration (5-35%) on the drying yield, encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity, and antioxidant activity. In addition, morphology and particles size distribution were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy images have shown that the particles were microcapsules with a smooth surface when produced at the higher drying temperatures tested, most of them having a diameter lower than 10 ūĚúám. The conditions that enabled obtaining simultaneously arabic gum microparticles with higher ūĚõĹ-carotene content, higher encapsulation efficiency, and higher drying yield were a wall material concentration of 11.9% and a drying inlet temperature of 173 ‚ąė C. The systematic approach used for the study of ūĚõĹ-carotene microencapsulation process by spray drying using arabic gum may be easily applied for other core and wall materials.
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Evaluation of chitosan microparticles containing curcumin and crosslinked with sodium tripolyphosphate produced by spray drying

Evaluation of chitosan microparticles containing curcumin and crosslinked with sodium tripolyphosphate produced by spray drying

In vitro release profiles for different curcumin/TPP/chitosan microparticles are depicted in Figures 5 and 6. The results clearly indicate that the formulations had a differentiated pattern of rele- ase. Figure 5 shows that there was fast release of the curcumin at pH 1.2 in comparison with pH 6.8 (Figure 6). At pH 1.2, the total release of curcumin was observed due to the complete dissolution of the microparticles while at pH 6.8 the curcumin was completely released by diffusion through the swollen polymeric matrix of the microparticles. The main difference observed in the release assays carried out at different pH values is that, at pH 1.2, the microparticles dissolved in the medium had a low swelling degree, whereas at pH 6.8 the dye was released through a diffusion process, since swelling of the polymeric system occurred. For samples containing TPP, an increase in the amount of crosslinking agent promoted slower dye release from the microparticles at both pH values.
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Microparticles obtained by complex coacervation: influence of the type of reticulation and the drying process on the release of the core material

Microparticles obtained by complex coacervation: influence of the type of reticulation and the drying process on the release of the core material

control the swelling intensity. In this case, the size of the particles was smaller, or almost the same, than obtained with moist or rehydrated freeze dried microparticles without crosslinking. This effect was probably due to the increase of the number of crosslinks leading to the strengthening of the walls, thereby controlling the absorption of water and the volume of the microparticles (VANDELLI et al., 2001). However, this behavior was not observed for particles obtained by spray dryer, in which the diameter obtained after swelling was similar, without significant differences (p < 0.05), regardless of the crosslinking treatment used. Probably this effect was produced by the additional heat damage to the particle walls as a consequence of the use of spray drying compared to freeze drying process. It anhydrous ethanol from the homogenizer rod and from
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Microencapsulation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) pomace ethanolic extract by spray drying: optimization of process conditions

Microencapsulation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) pomace ethanolic extract by spray drying: optimization of process conditions

Abstract: Microencapsulation by spray-drying is a process used in the stabilization of active compounds from various natural sources, such as tomato by-products, with the purpose to be used as additives in the food industry. The aim of this work was to study the effects of wall material and spray drying conditions on physicochemical properties of microcapsules loaded with lycopene rich extract from tomato pomace. The assays were carried out with ethanolic tomato pomace extract as core material and arabic gum or inulin as wall materials. A central composite rotatable design was used to evaluate the effect of drying air inlet temperature (110‚Äď200 ‚ó¶ C) and concentration of arabic gum (5‚Äď35 wt %) or inulin (5‚Äď25 wt %) on the antioxidant activity, encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity, and drying yield. SEM images showed that the produced particles were in the category of skin-forming structures. The most suitable conditions, within the ranges studied, to obtain lycopene loaded microparticles were a biopolymer concentration of 10 wt % for both materials and an inlet temperature of 200 and 160 ‚ó¶ C for arabic gum and inulin, respectively. Arabic gum and inulin possessed a good performance in the encapsulation of tomato pomace extract by spray drying. It is envisaged that the capsules produced have good potential to be incorporated in foods systems with diverse chemical and physical properties.
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Increasing energy efficiency in microencapsulation of soybean oil by spray drying / Aumento da eficiência energética na microencapsulação de óleo de soja por spray drying

Increasing energy efficiency in microencapsulation of soybean oil by spray drying / Aumento da eficiência energética na microencapsulação de óleo de soja por spray drying

Braz. J. of Develop., Curitiba, v. 5, n. 7, p. 8082-8095 jul. 2019 ISSN 2525-8761 The data presented in Figure 5 allows evaluating the consumed energy for each assay, i.e. the amount of water evaporated per kg of hot air at the inlet of the dryer. It can be observed that the efficiency of the spray drying is more sensitive to the variation of the airflow than to the temperature. Unlike discontinuous drying processes, by increasing the inlet hot airflow, the amount of evaporated water decreases, that is, the process becomes less efficient, due to the effect of the residence time of the air. Thus, the lower the inlet airflow, the longer the time the particle takes to go through the drying chamber, allowing a greater evaporation with consequent greater transport of water in the form of vapor from the suspension to the air. These results confirm that the enthalpy of the inlet hot air provides twice as much the energy required for evaporation of the water contained in the emulsion.
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Utilization of slaked lime for the regulation of pH value in the process of copper

Utilization of slaked lime for the regulation of pH value in the process of copper

The investigations of used lime at plant from company Messer-Tehnogas, Belgrade, were in the aim to improvement technologically results from flotation concentration of copper minerals in flotation plant Veliki Krivelj. This paper shows usage of slaked lime, which is waste in the process of technical gas production, for regulation of pH value in the process of cop- per minerals flotation concentration. It is important to point out that slaked lime is a waste material that is not dangerous. Preparation and dosage includes preparation procedures, which enable introduction into flotation process with the aim of achieving better results. Lime from Limekiln ZagrańĎe is brought into four storage places in flotation. Volume of each storage place is 80 m 3 . Lime in pieces from storage place is added by air- bladders on transportation line and by system of transportation lines lime gets to the ball mill. At the mill entrance water is added and then follows lime grinding. Milk glass of lime thus prepared goes to the pump basket from where is transported by pipeline to conditioner, and then by manual and (or) automatic valves it is dosed to the flotation concentration of cop- per minerals process. Prospect of advancement and rationalization of the used lime in flotation plant Bor, Veliki Krivelj and Majdanpek as well as a way to link different branches of industry was demonstrated. Total cost of lime supplying, transporting, preparation and distribution related slaked li- me is lower for 2.955 din/kg. Particularly, using lime from Messer in con- tent of 2.1 g/l value of pH 11.82 is possible to obtain.
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Effect of adjuvants on the amount of air included in droplets generated by spray nozzles

Effect of adjuvants on the amount of air included in droplets generated by spray nozzles

The use of air induction tip is an established Drift Reduction Technique (TRD), and confirmed by several studies (COSTA et al., 2007; BALAN et al., 2008; CARVALHO et al., 2011; COSTA et al., 2012). According to MATTHEWS (2007) and GULER et al. (2007 ), this occurs because this type of tip produces a droplet spectrum with higher median volume diameter (MVD ) , and reduces the volumetric percentage of droplets more likely to drift (less than 100 ¬Ķm) . CHECHETTO & ANTUNIASSI (2012) and CUNHA et al. (2010) have noted this change in the droplet spectrum caused by this type of tip. In addition, air induction tip stand out from the others in form droplets with large amounts of air bubbles inside, called air inclusions.
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Effect of drying on the physical properties of quince

Effect of drying on the physical properties of quince

ABSTRACT: This study aimed at evaluating the textural properties of quince in fresh and after drying at different conditions. In parallel, colour was also measured to evaluate how the visual aspect of the product changed with drying. The experiments were done in a tunnel drier, at different temperatures, from 30 to 60¬ļC, and different air velocities, varying in the range 0.7 to 1.2 m/s. The colour coordinates of the fresh quince were: L* = 78.02 ¬Ī 0.86, a* = - 1.27 ¬Ī 0.32 and b* = 31.75 ¬Ī 1.68. These values indicate that the samples were bright, because L* was closer to 100 than to 0. Furthermore, it can be seen that quince was greenish, although very slightly and strongly yellowish. With drying, the samples became darker and redness was intensified, as a result of browning. In relation to the textural properties in fresh, the values were: hardness = 48.46 ¬Ī 6.47 (N), springiness = 74.86 ¬Ī 5.17 (%), cohesiveness = 0.75 ¬Ī 0.06, resilience = 0.47 ¬Ī 0.08 and chewiness = 27.23 ¬Ī 4.06 (N). Furthermore, it was observed that drying, regardless of the conditions, induced an important hardening, increasing hardness and diminishing springiness.
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The Effect of Wavelength and pH on the Direct Photolysis of Chlorophenols by Ultraviolet Excilamps

The Effect of Wavelength and pH on the Direct Photolysis of Chlorophenols by Ultraviolet Excilamps

Chlorophenols (CPs) are well-known hazardous chemicals included by the U.S. EPA in the list of 126 Priority Pollutants [1]. CPs are currently used for a wide range of domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes [2], [3]. For example, 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) is used in the production of azodyes and vulcanization accelerators. 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) is a raw material for a synthesis of diaminoanthraquinon and is used as a refining solvent, a disinfectant, a denaturant and an antifungal agent. The principal use of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) is as an intermediate in the manufacture of 2,4-D and other herbicides. Once released into the aquatic ecosystem, CPs may cause severe environmental contamination problems because of their toxicity to organisms, potential carcinogenic and mutagenic activity, and low threshold levels causing odor and taste in water up to 0.1 ppb [4]. Due to the ubiquitous presence of CPs in the aquatic environment and their toxic properties, understanding the mechanisms of photochemical degradation of these compounds is critically important. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is widely applied in advanced oxidation
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Development of a functional orange juice powder by spray drying

Development of a functional orange juice powder by spray drying

With this study, it was developed a functional orange juice powder by spray drying. The biggest challenge was to ensure the maximum survival of probiotics, assuring that they remained in large numbers at the end of processing and during storage. The first step was the selection of probiotic cultures. These must be safe and have functional, technological and physiological properties. So, commercial probiotic L. plantarum 299v, with probiotic characteristics already recognized, and P. acidilactici HA-6111-2, isolated from a food matrix and previously characterized by our research group were selected,. It was found that both P. acidilactici and commercial probiotic i) did no present any of the virulence factors investigated or important resistances to antibiotics, ii) were functional, with minimal loss of viability after the passage through the simulated GIT conditions and iii) also had technological properties, as both were able to survive during the drying process and remain viable for 60 days of storage.
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Microencapsulation of virgin coconut oil by spray drying / Microencapsulação de óleo de coco virgem por spray spray

Microencapsulation of virgin coconut oil by spray drying / Microencapsulação de óleo de coco virgem por spray spray

attributes of the powder could be affected by the spray drying conditions such as the feed flow rate, inlet and outlet temperatures, atomizer speed and inlet air flow rate (Jafari, Assadpoor& Bhandari, 2008), Among those, provided that infeed emulsion is stable over the processing time, it is important to optimize the inlet and outlet temperatures to obtain higher encapsulation efficiency (EE) and encapsulation yield (EY) (Liu, Zhou, Zeng & Ouyang, 2004). Higher inlet temperature, which directly proportional to the drying rate, may destroy heat sensitive components such as unsaturated fatty acids and carotenoids, resulting in low EE. In contrast, if the inlet temperature is too low, the water will not evaporate fully in short time and the spray-dried powder is still wet. Hence, it is easily stuck on the drying chamber wall, resulting in a low EY. In addition, the outlet temperature, which can be considered as the control indicator of the dryer and is controlled by the inlet temperature, atomization pressure and feed flow rate, may result in cracking the microcapsules due to over-heating if it is too high (Liu, et al.,2004; Gharsallaoui, Roudaut, Chambin, Voilley&Saurel, 2007).
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Powdered yoghurt produced by spray drying and freeze drying: a review Iogurte em pó por atomização e liofilização: uma revisão

Powdered yoghurt produced by spray drying and freeze drying: a review Iogurte em pó por atomização e liofilização: uma revisão

O iogurte √© um dos derivados l√°cteos mais consumidos no mundo. No entanto, o produto desidratado ainda √© pouco comum. Alimento nutritivo, o iogurte em p√≥ pode ser utilizado como ingrediente ou suplemento de sucos, biscoitos, sorvetes, doces e bebidas l√°cteas. O processo de secagem por spray driyng e a liofiliza√ß√£o s√£o os m√©todos mais utilizados para desidrata√ß√£o de l√°cteos. A defini√ß√£o do processo e suas condi√ß√Ķes est√° diretamente ligada aos custos de produ√ß√£o e √† valoriza√ß√£o do produto final. Devido ao estresse osm√≥tico e t√©rmico, muitas vezes durante a desidrata√ß√£o, faz-se necess√°ria a incorpora√ß√£o de subst√Ęncias, como carreadores, termoprotetores, crioprotetores e estabilizantes, para melhorar o rendimento do processo, a preserva√ß√£o de nutrientes e at√© mesmo uma posterior reidrata√ß√£o do produto. Diante disto, esta revis√£o tem, como objetivo, apresentar as tecnologias dispon√≠veis para a obten√ß√£o de iogurte em p√≥, descrevendo processos auxiliares de secagem, taxas e condi√ß√Ķes de sobreviv√™ncia das bact√©rias l√°cticas, al√©m da reidrata√ß√£o.
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The Effect of Casting Speed and the Fraction of Al5Ti1B Inoculant on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of the AA5052 Aluminum Alloy Produced by the Direct Chill Process

The Effect of Casting Speed and the Fraction of Al5Ti1B Inoculant on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of the AA5052 Aluminum Alloy Produced by the Direct Chill Process

The technical literature affirms that the occurrence of this phenomenon depends on several parameters: the alloy chemical composition and its contraction characteristics during solidification, the solidification speed, the temperature gradient and the initial hydrogen fraction in the bath. They also affirm that the porosity of the solid-state metal occurs due to the liquid incapacity to fill the bubbles during the metal continuous cooling and solidification (the volume shrinkage associated with solidification cannot be compensated by the interdendritic flowing opposite to the displacement of the isotherms). All those variables affect the amount, size and morphology of formed pores 1-7 .
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Optimization and application of spray-drying process on oyster cooking soup byproduct

Optimization and application of spray-drying process on oyster cooking soup byproduct

oyster pretreatment. On this process, fresh oyster was cooked in steam-jacketed pot for 5 min at 100 ¬įC-102 ¬įC. Flavourzyme and benase (Novozymes Chinese investment Co., Ltd., China) were added to hydrolyze proteins and thus obtain peptides and amino acids and enhance the flavor. The soup byproduct from the oyster cooking pre-treatment was concentrated in vacuum equipment (Xiamen Yangjiang Food Co., Ltd., China) at a temperature of 75 ¬įC and a pressure of 0.08 MPa until the total solid content of 16%-36% was reached. The different total solid contents of the soup byproduct were blended with the designed components. The mixture was sprayed using a laboratory scale spray dryer (SY6000, Shanghai World Biotechnology Equipment Engineering Co., Ltd., China). After optimization in laboratory scale, 1-ton hydrolysis pilot was designed and commissioning in Xiamen Yangjiang Food Co., Ltd, China.
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The Method of Optimizing the Drying Process of an Oak Blank in a Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field

The Method of Optimizing the Drying Process of an Oak Blank in a Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field

[5] T. Leuca, Paula Alexandra Palade, I. HńÉnŇ£ilńÉ, Livia Bandici, G. Cheregi ,The use of a hybrid FEM-BEM method for the analysis of the operating parameters of a radio-frequency drying installation, Revue Roumaine des Sciences Techniques, S√©rie √Člectrotechnique et √Čnerg√©tique, vol. 56, no. 4, pp 367-376, October 2011, [6] Marcela Laza, Simina Coman, T. Leuca, Temperature

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Optimization and application of spray-drying process on oyster cooking soup byproduct

Optimization and application of spray-drying process on oyster cooking soup byproduct

Dyster aquaculture is mainly found in China, and its annual yield of approximately 3.89 million tons accounts for more than half of oyster production worldwide (Chen¬†et¬†al., 2014). Dyster, called ‚Äúsea milk‚ÄĚ in Western countries (Wang¬†et¬†al., 2008a), consists of up to 52.6% and 12% (dried weight, DW) proteins and fats, respectively (Cruz-Romero¬†et¬†al., 2007). Its proteins are composed of various amino acids and a high taurine content (Je¬†et¬†al., 2005). Dyster is also rich in ŌČ-3 unsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which constitute approximately 50% of its total fatty acids (Cruz-Romero¬†et¬†al., 2008), Dyster extract performs many functions, including anti-bacterial (Defer¬†et¬†al., 2013; Liu¬† et¬† al., 2008), antihypertensive (Qian¬† et¬† al., 2008), anti-oxidation (Umayaparvathi¬†et¬†al., 2014; Wang¬†et¬†al., 2014), and anti-cancer activities (Umayaparvathi¬† et¬† al., 2014), ACE inhibition (Wang¬† et¬† al., 2008b), and DNA damage repair (Qian¬†et¬†al., 2008). Therefore, oyster is globally considered as valuable seafood with high nutritional value.
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Possible mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxant effect produced by clobenzorex in aortic segments of rats

Possible mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxant effect produced by clobenzorex in aortic segments of rats

However, the above evidence contrasts with the present study performed in rat aorta, in which, under the current experimental conditions, it was not possible to stimulate NMDA receptors. Moreover, since atropine did not modify the vasorelaxant effect produced by clobenzorex, it can be excluded the stimulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Indeed, we have no clear-cut explanation for the attenuating effect produced by L-NAME, ODQ and KT 5823. Possibly, clobenzorex enhances the activity or expression of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase producing the stimulation of the NO-cGMP-PKG pathway. However, this idea is still speculative and requires addi- tional experiments that are beyond the scope of the present study.
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ON THE QUESTION OF PROCESS CONTROL COMBINED GRAIN DRYING

ON THE QUESTION OF PROCESS CONTROL COMBINED GRAIN DRYING

A large part of the grain produced in the South Urals has high humidity and needs to be dried before storage. Drying is an energy-intensive process and is about 70 % of the total energy consumption for post-harvest processing of grain. Modern grain drying equip- ment, implements high-convection drying, and heat provides cost 5 350‚Äď5 500 kJ per 1 kg of evaporated moisture, which is well above the theoretical calculations. Combined drying, which involves high-temperature drying step and aeration enables to reduce heat costs up to 30 %. To control the combined drying process it is necessary that inal grain moisture relates to such parameters of high-temperature drying and aeration as the initial moisture content, the temperature of grain and the time subsequent aering. The paper describes the said relation as a mathematical model of the second order obtained experi- mentally for wheat. The model has been derived from the implementation of Box-Benkin plan for three factors ‚Äď the initial grain moisture, temperature and time of grain heating and aering. The experiment was conducted for a 200 mm thick ixed grain bed. We also have got a model relating energy consumption to the said parameters. The model of the inal grain moisture within the variation of factors can be used to create a control algo- rithm for combined drying. Taking as the set parameters inal moisture, initial moisture and grain heating temperature, a microcontroller calculates the time for active aering necessary to obtain inal grain moisture and an unloading mechanism provides the neces- sary time through regulating the discharge rate. The model makes it possible to calculate the energy usage for drying at different values of initial moisture, temperature and time of grain heating and aering.
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