Red beets is rich in phenolic acids and has high antioxidant capacity, and can be used to produce a natural dye. This study evaluated theeffectofpH (3 to 6) on the stability of red beet extract microcapsules, dried by freeze drying and spraydrying and stored at room temperature. The microcapsules were produced using a combination of maltodextrin and xanthan gum as encapsulating agents and stored for 7 days. For all evaluated microcapsules, a degradation of betanin was observed, however, that degradation was independent ofpH, with the exception ofthe sample with maltodextrin and dried byspraydrying. The freeze dried products showed lower degradation constants and higher half-life (t 1/2 ) when comparing with thespray dried samples. The microcapsules containing maltodextrin and xanthan gum, dried byspraydrying, showed the highest change inthe content of phenolic compounds after storage for 7 days. The color parameters showed a reduction for a*, and increase in b* and L*, for all samples during the storage time. In general, the microcapsules produced using maltodextrin and xanthan gum, and dried by freeze dryer, showed higher stability in terms of betanin content, phenolic compounds and color parameters during storage at different pHs.
Carotenoids are a class of natural pigments found mainly in fruits and vegetables. Among them, 𝛽-carotene is regarded the most potent precursor of vitamin A. However, it is susceptible to oxidation upon exposure to oxygen, light, and heat, which can result in loss of colour, antioxidant activity, and vitamin activity. Thus, the objective of this work was to study the microencapsulation processof 𝛽-carotene byspraydrying, using arabic gum as wall material, to protect it against adverse environmental conditions. This was carried out using the response surface methodology coupled to a central composite rotatable design, evaluating simultaneously theeffectofdrying air inlet temperature (110-200 ∘ C) and the wall material concentration (5-35%) on thedrying yield, encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity, and antioxidant activity. In addition, morphology and particles size distribution were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy images have shown that the particles were microcapsules with a smooth surface when produced at the higher drying temperatures tested, most of them having a diameter lower than 10 𝜇m. The conditions that enabled obtaining simultaneously arabic gum microparticles with higher 𝛽-carotene content, higher encapsulation efficiency, and higher drying yield were a wall material concentration of 11.9% and a drying inlet temperature of 173 ∘ C. The systematic approach used for the study of 𝛽-carotene microencapsulation processbyspraydrying using arabic gum may be easily applied for other core and wall materials.
In vitro release profiles for different curcumin/TPP/chitosan microparticles are depicted in Figures 5 and 6. The results clearly indicate that the formulations had a differentiated pattern of rele- ase. Figure 5 shows that there was fast release ofthe curcumin at pH 1.2 in comparison with pH 6.8 (Figure 6). At pH 1.2, the total release of curcumin was observed due to the complete dissolution ofthemicroparticles while at pH 6.8 the curcumin was completely released by diffusion through the swollen polymeric matrix ofthemicroparticles. The main difference observed inthe release assays carried out at different pH values is that, at pH 1.2, themicroparticles dissolved inthe medium had a low swelling degree, whereas at pH 6.8 the dye was released through a diffusion process, since swelling ofthe polymeric system occurred. For samples containing TPP, an increase inthe amount of crosslinking agent promoted slower dye release from themicroparticles at both pH values.
control the swelling intensity. In this case, the size ofthe particles was smaller, or almost the same, than obtained with moist or rehydrated freeze dried microparticles without crosslinking. This effect was probably due to the increase ofthe number of crosslinks leading to the strengthening ofthe walls, thereby controlling the absorption of water and the volume ofthemicroparticles (VANDELLI et al., 2001). However, this behavior was not observed for particles obtained byspray dryer, in which the diameter obtained after swelling was similar, without significant differences (p < 0.05), regardless ofthe crosslinking treatment used. Probably this effect was producedbythe additional heat damage to the particle walls as a consequence ofthe use ofspraydrying compared to freeze dryingprocess. It anhydrous ethanol from the homogenizer rod and from
Abstract: Microencapsulation byspray-drying is a process used inthe stabilization of active compounds from various natural sources, such as tomato by-products, with the purpose to be used as additives inthe food industry. The aim of this work was to study the effects of wall material and spraydrying conditions on physicochemical properties of microcapsules loaded with lycopene rich extract from tomato pomace. The assays were carried out with ethanolic tomato pomace extract as core material and arabic gum or inulin as wall materials. A central composite rotatable design was used to evaluate theeffectofdrying air inlet temperature (110–200 ◦ C) and concentration of arabic gum (5–35 wt %) or inulin (5–25 wt %) on the antioxidant activity, encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity, and drying yield. SEM images showed that theproduced particles were inthe category of skin-forming structures. The most suitable conditions, within the ranges studied, to obtain lycopene loaded microparticles were a biopolymer concentration of 10 wt % for both materials and an inlet temperature of 200 and 160 ◦ C for arabic gum and inulin, respectively. Arabic gum and inulin possessed a good performance inthe encapsulation of tomato pomace extract byspraydrying. It is envisaged that the capsules produced have good potential to be incorporated in foods systems with diverse chemical and physical properties.
Braz. J. of Develop., Curitiba, v. 5, n. 7, p. 8082-8095 jul. 2019 ISSN 2525-8761 The data presented in Figure 5 allows evaluating the consumed energy for each assay, i.e. the amount of water evaporated per kg of hot air at the inlet ofthe dryer. It can be observed that the efficiency ofthespraydrying is more sensitive to the variation ofthe airflow than to the temperature. Unlike discontinuous drying processes, by increasing the inlet hot airflow, the amount of evaporated water decreases, that is, theprocess becomes less efficient, due to theeffectofthe residence time ofthe air. Thus, the lower the inlet airflow, the longer the time the particle takes to go through thedrying chamber, allowing a greater evaporation with consequent greater transport of water inthe form of vapor from the suspension to the air. These results confirm that the enthalpy ofthe inlet hot air provides twice as much the energy required for evaporation ofthe water contained inthe emulsion.
The investigations of used lime at plant from company Messer-Tehnogas, Belgrade, were inthe aim to improvement technologically results from flotation concentration of copper minerals in flotation plant Veliki Krivelj. This paper shows usage of slaked lime, which is waste intheprocessof technical gas production, for regulation ofpH value intheprocessof cop- per minerals flotation concentration. It is important to point out that slaked lime is a waste material that is not dangerous. Preparation and dosage includes preparation procedures, which enable introduction into flotation process with the aim of achieving better results. Lime from Limekiln Zagrađe is brought into four storage places in flotation. Volume of each storage place is 80 m 3 . Lime in pieces from storage place is added by air- bladders on transportation line and by system of transportation lines lime gets to the ball mill. At the mill entrance water is added and then follows lime grinding. Milk glass of lime thus prepared goes to the pump basket from where is transported by pipeline to conditioner, and then by manual and (or) automatic valves it is dosed to the flotation concentration of cop- per minerals process. Prospect of advancement and rationalization ofthe used lime in flotation plant Bor, Veliki Krivelj and Majdanpek as well as a way to link different branches of industry was demonstrated. Total cost of lime supplying, transporting, preparation and distribution related slaked li- me is lower for 2.955 din/kg. Particularly, using lime from Messer in con- tent of 2.1 g/l value ofpH 11.82 is possible to obtain.
The use of air induction tip is an established Drift Reduction Technique (TRD), and confirmed by several studies (COSTA et al., 2007; BALAN et al., 2008; CARVALHO et al., 2011; COSTA et al., 2012). According to MATTHEWS (2007) and GULER et al. (2007 ), this occurs because this type of tip produces a droplet spectrum with higher median volume diameter (MVD ) , and reduces the volumetric percentage of droplets more likely to drift (less than 100 µm) . CHECHETTO & ANTUNIASSI (2012) and CUNHA et al. (2010) have noted this change inthe droplet spectrum caused by this type of tip. In addition, air induction tip stand out from the others in form droplets with large amounts of air bubbles inside, called air inclusions.
ABSTRACT: This study aimed at evaluating the textural properties of quince in fresh and after drying at different conditions. In parallel, colour was also measured to evaluate how the visual aspect ofthe product changed with drying. The experiments were done in a tunnel drier, at different temperatures, from 30 to 60ºC, and different air velocities, varying inthe range 0.7 to 1.2 m/s. The colour coordinates ofthe fresh quince were: L* = 78.02 ± 0.86, a* = - 1.27 ± 0.32 and b* = 31.75 ± 1.68. These values indicate that the samples were bright, because L* was closer to 100 than to 0. Furthermore, it can be seen that quince was greenish, although very slightly and strongly yellowish. With drying, the samples became darker and redness was intensified, as a result of browning. In relation to the textural properties in fresh, the values were: hardness = 48.46 ± 6.47 (N), springiness = 74.86 ± 5.17 (%), cohesiveness = 0.75 ± 0.06, resilience = 0.47 ± 0.08 and chewiness = 27.23 ± 4.06 (N). Furthermore, it was observed that drying, regardless ofthe conditions, induced an important hardening, increasing hardness and diminishing springiness.
Chlorophenols (CPs) are well-known hazardous chemicals included bythe U.S. EPA inthe list of 126 Priority Pollutants . CPs are currently used for a wide range of domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes , . For example, 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) is used inthe production of azodyes and vulcanization accelerators. 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) is a raw material for a synthesis of diaminoanthraquinon and is used as a refining solvent, a disinfectant, a denaturant and an antifungal agent. The principal use of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) is as an intermediate inthe manufacture of 2,4-D and other herbicides. Once released into the aquatic ecosystem, CPs may cause severe environmental contamination problems because of their toxicity to organisms, potential carcinogenic and mutagenic activity, and low threshold levels causing odor and taste in water up to 0.1 ppb . Due to the ubiquitous presence of CPs inthe aquatic environment and their toxic properties, understanding the mechanisms of photochemical degradation of these compounds is critically important. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is widely applied in advanced oxidation
With this study, it was developed a functional orange juice powder byspraydrying. The biggest challenge was to ensure the maximum survival of probiotics, assuring that they remained in large numbers at the end of processing and during storage. The first step was the selection of probiotic cultures. These must be safe and have functional, technological and physiological properties. So, commercial probiotic L. plantarum 299v, with probiotic characteristics already recognized, and P. acidilactici HA-6111-2, isolated from a food matrix and previously characterized by our research group were selected,. It was found that both P. acidilactici and commercial probiotic i) did no present any ofthe virulence factors investigated or important resistances to antibiotics, ii) were functional, with minimal loss of viability after the passage through the simulated GIT conditions and iii) also had technological properties, as both were able to survive during thedryingprocess and remain viable for 60 days of storage.
attributes ofthe powder could be affected bythespraydrying conditions such as the feed flow rate, inlet and outlet temperatures, atomizer speed and inlet air flow rate (Jafari, Assadpoor& Bhandari, 2008), Among those, provided that infeed emulsion is stable over the processing time, it is important to optimize the inlet and outlet temperatures to obtain higher encapsulation efficiency (EE) and encapsulation yield (EY) (Liu, Zhou, Zeng & Ouyang, 2004). Higher inlet temperature, which directly proportional to thedrying rate, may destroy heat sensitive components such as unsaturated fatty acids and carotenoids, resulting in low EE. In contrast, if the inlet temperature is too low, the water will not evaporate fully in short time and thespray-dried powder is still wet. Hence, it is easily stuck on thedrying chamber wall, resulting in a low EY. In addition, the outlet temperature, which can be considered as the control indicator ofthe dryer and is controlled bythe inlet temperature, atomization pressure and feed flow rate, may result in cracking the microcapsules due to over-heating if it is too high (Liu, et al.,2004; Gharsallaoui, Roudaut, Chambin, Voilley&Saurel, 2007).
O iogurte é um dos derivados lácteos mais consumidos no mundo. No entanto, o produto desidratado ainda é pouco comum. Alimento nutritivo, o iogurte em pó pode ser utilizado como ingrediente ou suplemento de sucos, biscoitos, sorvetes, doces e bebidas lácteas. O processo de secagem por spray driyng e a liofilização são os métodos mais utilizados para desidratação de lácteos. A definição do processo e suas condições está diretamente ligada aos custos de produção e à valorização do produto final. Devido ao estresse osmótico e térmico, muitas vezes durante a desidratação, faz-se necessária a incorporação de substâncias, como carreadores, termoprotetores, crioprotetores e estabilizantes, para melhorar o rendimento do processo, a preservação de nutrientes e até mesmo uma posterior reidratação do produto. Diante disto, esta revisão tem, como objetivo, apresentar as tecnologias disponíveis para a obtenção de iogurte em pó, descrevendo processos auxiliares de secagem, taxas e condições de sobrevivência das bactérias lácticas, além da reidratação.
The technical literature affirms that the occurrence of this phenomenon depends on several parameters: the alloy chemical composition and its contraction characteristics during solidification, the solidification speed, the temperature gradient and the initial hydrogen fraction inthe bath. They also affirm that the porosity ofthe solid-state metal occurs due to the liquid incapacity to fill the bubbles during the metal continuous cooling and solidification (the volume shrinkage associated with solidification cannot be compensated bythe interdendritic flowing opposite to the displacement ofthe isotherms). All those variables affect the amount, size and morphology of formed pores 1-7 .
oyster pretreatment. On this process, fresh oyster was cooked in steam-jacketed pot for 5 min at 100 °C-102 °C. Flavourzyme and benase (Novozymes Chinese investment Co., Ltd., China) were added to hydrolyze proteins and thus obtain peptides and amino acids and enhance the flavor. The soup byproduct from the oyster cooking pre-treatment was concentrated in vacuum equipment (Xiamen Yangjiang Food Co., Ltd., China) at a temperature of 75 °C and a pressure of 0.08 MPa until the total solid content of 16%-36% was reached. The different total solid contents ofthe soup byproduct were blended with the designed components. The mixture was sprayed using a laboratory scale spray dryer (SY6000, Shanghai World Biotechnology Equipment Engineering Co., Ltd., China). After optimization in laboratory scale, 1-ton hydrolysis pilot was designed and commissioning in Xiamen Yangjiang Food Co., Ltd, China.
 T. Leuca, Paula Alexandra Palade, I. Hănţilă, Livia Bandici, G. Cheregi ,The use of a hybrid FEM-BEM method for the analysis ofthe operating parameters of a radio-frequency drying installation, Revue Roumaine des Sciences Techniques, Série Électrotechnique et Énergétique, vol. 56, no. 4, pp 367-376, October 2011,  Marcela Laza, Simina Coman, T. Leuca, Temperature
Dyster aquaculture is mainly found in China, and its annual yield of approximately 3.89 million tons accounts for more than half of oyster production worldwide (Chen et al., 2014). Dyster, called “sea milk” in Western countries (Wang et al., 2008a), consists of up to 52.6% and 12% (dried weight, DW) proteins and fats, respectively (Cruz-Romero et al., 2007). Its proteins are composed of various amino acids and a high taurine content (Je et al., 2005). Dyster is also rich in ω-3 unsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which constitute approximately 50% of its total fatty acids (Cruz-Romero et al., 2008), Dyster extract performs many functions, including anti-bacterial (Defer et al., 2013; Liu et al., 2008), antihypertensive (Qian et al., 2008), anti-oxidation (Umayaparvathi et al., 2014; Wang et al., 2014), and anti-cancer activities (Umayaparvathi et al., 2014), ACE inhibition (Wang et al., 2008b), and DNA damage repair (Qian et al., 2008). Therefore, oyster is globally considered as valuable seafood with high nutritional value.
However, the above evidence contrasts with the present study performed in rat aorta, in which, under the current experimental conditions, it was not possible to stimulate NMDA receptors. Moreover, since atropine did not modify the vasorelaxant effectproducedby clobenzorex, it can be excluded the stimulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Indeed, we have no clear-cut explanation for the attenuating effectproducedby L-NAME, ODQ and KT 5823. Possibly, clobenzorex enhances the activity or expression ofthe endothelial nitric oxide synthase producing the stimulation ofthe NO-cGMP-PKG pathway. However, this idea is still speculative and requires addi- tional experiments that are beyond the scope ofthe present study.
A large part ofthe grain producedinthe South Urals has high humidity and needs to be dried before storage. Drying is an energy-intensive process and is about 70 % ofthe total energy consumption for post-harvest processing of grain. Modern grain drying equip- ment, implements high-convection drying, and heat provides cost 5 350–5 500 kJ per 1 kg of evaporated moisture, which is well above the theoretical calculations. Combined drying, which involves high-temperature drying step and aeration enables to reduce heat costs up to 30 %. To control the combined dryingprocess it is necessary that inal grain moisture relates to such parameters of high-temperature drying and aeration as the initial moisture content, the temperature of grain and the time subsequent aering. The paper describes the said relation as a mathematical model ofthe second order obtained experi- mentally for wheat. The model has been derived from the implementation of Box-Benkin plan for three factors – the initial grain moisture, temperature and time of grain heating and aering. The experiment was conducted for a 200 mm thick ixed grain bed. We also have got a model relating energy consumption to the said parameters. The model ofthe inal grain moisture within the variation of factors can be used to create a control algo- rithm for combined drying. Taking as the set parameters inal moisture, initial moisture and grain heating temperature, a microcontroller calculates the time for active aering necessary to obtain inal grain moisture and an unloading mechanism provides the neces- sary time through regulating the discharge rate. The model makes it possible to calculate the energy usage for drying at different values of initial moisture, temperature and time of grain heating and aering.