Top PDF Fish intake and ovarian cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 15 case-control and cohort studies.

Fish intake and ovarian cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 15 case-control and cohort studies.

Fish intake and ovarian cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 15 case-control and cohort studies.

The study-specific adjusted RRs were used as the common measure of association across studies. Because the absolute risk of ovarian cancer is low in human, the ORs in casecontrol studies should approximate the RRs or HRs; therefore, we reported all results as RRs for simplicity. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochran Q and I 2 statistics. For the Q statistic, a P value,0.10 was considered statistically significant for heterogeneity; for the I 2 statistic, heterogeneity was interpreted as absent (I 2 : 0%–25%), low (I 2 : 25.1%–50%), moderate (I 2 : 50.1%–75%), or high (I 2 : 75.1%–100%)[18]. Some studies presented individual risk esti- mates according to the different types of fish and did not report the effect of total fish consumption. In this situation, the study-specific effect size in overall analysis was calculated by pooling the risk estimates of the various fish types, using the inverse-variance method. Subgroup analyses were carried out according to (i) study design (cohort studies versus case-control studies), (ii)geographic location (Europe versus North America versus Asia versus Australia), (iii) number of adjustment factors (n$8 versus n#7), adjustment for alcohol intake (yes, no), adjustment for total energy intake (yes, no), adjustment for use of oral contraceptives(yes, no), adjustment for parity(yes, no), adjustment for smoking status(yes, no), adjustment for family history of ovarian cancer(yes, no), Pooled RR estimates and corresponding 95% CIs were calculated using the inverse variance method. When substantial heterogene- ity was detected(I 2 $50%), the summary estimate based on the random-effect model (DerSimonian-Laird method)[19] was re- ported, which assumed that the studies included in the meta- analysis had varying effect sizes. Otherwise, the summary estimate based on the fixed-effect model (the inverse variance method)[20] was reported, which assumed that the studies included in the meta- analysis had the same effect size. We carried out sensitivity analyses by excluding one study at a time to explore whether the results were significantly influenced by a specific study. To better investigate the possible sources of between-study heterogeneity, a meta-regression analysis was performed[21]. A univariate model was established, and then variables with P values $0.1 were entered into a multivariable model. Publication bias was assessed using Begg and Mazumdar adjusted rank correlation test and the Egger regression asymmetry test[22,23]. All analyses were performed using Stata version 11.0 (StataCorp, College Station, TX).
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Dietary Fat Intake and Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

Dietary Fat Intake and Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

The major monounsaturated fatty acid found in human diet isoleic acid. Mediterranean diet, characterized by the high consumption of olive oil, rich in oleic acid, has been traditionally linked to a protective effect on cancers [77]. In a cohort study including 485,044 subjects from 10 European countries, adherence to a relative Mediterranean diet was associated with a signif- icant reduction ofgastric cancer risk[78]. Similar protective effect of Mediterranean diet for breast cancer and colorectal cancer was observed [79, 80]. However, the protective effect of olive oil for gastric cancer was not observed in a study focused on olive oil but not Mediterra- nean diet[35]. This might be interpreted by the complex composition of Mediterranean diet (such as high consumption of fruit, vegetables, fish, and seafood)[77]. In our meta-analysis, high intake of monounsaturated fat (including oleic acid) showed no significant association with gastric cancer risk, which was consistent with the results of colorectal cancer[18]. In fact, some differences exist between single chemically defined nutrients(such as oleic acid) and foodstuff (such as olive oil)[81]. Olive oil contains not only oleic acid as nutrient but also many minor compounds which were defined as “bioactivecompounds” and exerted main protective effects of cancer[82, 83]. Moreover, experimental studies have provided evidence of olive oilto influence the hormonal status, cell membranes structure and function, signal transduction pathways, gene expression and the immune system[71].
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Association of Interleukin-10 -1082A>G (rs1800896) Polymorphism with Predisposition to Breast Cancer: a Meta-Analysis based on 17 Case- Control Studies

Association of Interleukin-10 -1082A>G (rs1800896) Polymorphism with Predisposition to Breast Cancer: a Meta-Analysis based on 17 Case- Control Studies

The studies included in this meta-analysis had to meet the following criteria: (1) any study published as a case-control or cohort study that evaluated the as- sociation between IL-10 -1082A>G (rs1800896) poly- morphism and breast cancer risk; (2) the numbers of cases and controls for each genotype were reported or sufficient data was provided to calculate the odds ratio (OR). The following were exclusion criteria: (1) not designed as case-control or cohort studies, (2) re- views, abstracts or animal studies; (3) studies were not relevant to IL-10 -1082A>G (rs1800896) poly- morphism and breast cancer; (4) not providing the genotype frequencies; and (5) duplicate of previous publication. If multiple studies from the same case series were available, the one including the most in- dividuals was used in the analysis.
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Meta-analysis of the association between COX-2 polymorphisms and risk of colorectal cancer based on case-control studies.

Meta-analysis of the association between COX-2 polymorphisms and risk of colorectal cancer based on case-control studies.

suppression, tumor cell invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis, which are all crucial in the development and progression of cancer [39,41,42]. It was shown that polymorphisms in the promoter of COX-2 may exert profound effects on gene transcriptional activity by altering the binding capacity of certain nuclear proteins, there- by affecting expression of COX-2 enzyme [43]. COX-2 2765G.C is a functional polymorphism located at 765 bp upstream (2765 bp) from the transcription starting site. It changes a putative stimulatory protein (Sp1) binding site in the promoter of COX-2 between 2766 and 2761 bp [44], but it creates an E2 promoter factor (E2F) binding site, leading to high transcription activity and increased COX-2 expressions which might be involved in the development of cancers [45]. More importantly, the homozygous variant genotype COX-2 2765CC has been shown associated with increased risk for many different types of cancers, including breast cancer [46], ovarian cancer [47], hepatocellular carcinoma [48] and lung cancer [49].
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A meta-analysis of PTGS1 and PTGS2 polymorphisms and NSAID intake on the risk of developing cancer.

A meta-analysis of PTGS1 and PTGS2 polymorphisms and NSAID intake on the risk of developing cancer.

In these studies, the types of NSAIDs (e.g., aspirin, ibuprofen, and other NSAIDs), dose methods (e.g., dosage and duration), study design (e.g., case control study or cohort study), population (e.g., age, gender, type of cancer, and ethnic), and study power are different. In addition, there was the lack of specificity for cancer type in our analysis because few studies have investigated the effect of associations between polymorphisms in PTGS1 and PTGS2 genes and NSAID use on cancer risk. Thus, it is difficult to draw any conclusion about the relationship between PTGS genotype and NSAID use on the risk of developing cancer. Nonetheless, our results provide limited evidence. Drug response is a complex phenomenon dependent on inherited and environmental factors. To carry more credibility, further analyses with study design formulation are required in several countries.
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Fish and fish oil intake in relation to risk of asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Fish and fish oil intake in relation to risk of asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

As shown in Figure 1, of 1,333 non-duplicated abstracts from PubMed and EMBASE, we excluded 1,320 publications because they were non-original studies (e.g., reviews, editorials or letters to editor); were not epidemiological studies; were neither a prospec- tive cohort nor a RCT; were not carried out in a general population; did not report RR for the association between fish or LCn3PUFA intake/biomarker and risk of asthma; did not assess fish or fish consumption properly; did not use the lowest exposure category as the reference; or were not in English. In addition, two articles were identified by reviewing the reference lists. Thus, 15 studies [3,4,14–17,21–29], including 11 prospective cohorts and 4 RCTs, that reported results on fish or LCn3PUFA intake and risk of asthma were included in this systematic review. Seven studies [4,21,22,24,26,27,29] including 3 prospective cohorts and 4 RCTs _ENREF_3were excluded from the meta-analysis due to the insufficient information for pooling the results.
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Cad. Saúde Pública  vol.25 suppl.3

Cad. Saúde Pública vol.25 suppl.3

first occurrence of breast cancer in cohort studies and in case-control studies with the appearance of the first breast cancer; (c) mean follow-up time – minimum of ten years in cohort studies, while in case-control studies no limit was set on the pe- riod between exposure and diagnosis; (d) type of variable – studies in which the stress variable was measured quantitatively; stress measured with a numerical scale, questionnaire, and checklist; stress measured against frequency of exposure and intensity of the event; (e) statistical type and analysisstudies that calculated relative risk (RR) for the first episode of breast cancer in relation to the stress variable, adjusting for the following confounding factors (age, use of oral contracep- tives, any type of hormone replacement, meno- pause, alcohol intake, smoking, socioeconomic status, and family history of breast cancer).
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Parity and pancreatic cancer risk: a dose-response meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

Parity and pancreatic cancer risk: a dose-response meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

We evaluated heterogeneity of RRs across studies by using the Cochrane Q statistic and the I 2 statistic [41]. For the Q statistic, a P-value less than 0.1 was considered to be representative of statistically significant heterogeneity. I 2 represents the proportion of total variation contributed by between-study variation [41]. The summary estimate was based on the fixed-effects model [41] when no heterogeneity was detected or the random-effects model [42] when substantial heterogeneity was detected. In both methods, the study weight was the inverse of the variance of log RR, which was estimated from the 95% CI from each study. Subgroup analyses were carried out based on study design (cohort vs. case-control studies), number of cases ($200 (median) vs. ,200), type of controls for the case-control studies (population-based vs. hospital- based controls), geographic location (North America, Europe, or Asia). We also stratified the meta-analysis by potentially important confounders (i.e., body mass index (BMI), cigarette smoking, and Type 2 DM). Heterogeneity between subgroups was evaluated by meta-regression. A P-value less than 0.05 for meta-regression was considered representative of significant statistical difference between subgroups. Finally, we carried out sensitivity analyses excluding one study at a time to explore whether the results were strongly influenced by a specific study.
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Fat Intake Is Not Linked to Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis.

Fat Intake Is Not Linked to Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis.

A previous meta-analysis [12], of 29 observational studies with 5 cohort studies, found that only total fat consumption was associated with an increased risk for Pca (RR = 1.2). Consum- ing 45g of total fat per day (5 studies, combined RR = 1.12, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.25) or saturated fat (4 studies, combined RR = 1.38, 95%CI: 1.13, 1.70) increased the risk for advanced stage Pca. The meta-analysis was well-designed, but most of the studies included were case-controlled with considerable heterogeneity, which may account for the low grade of evidence. Another systematic review [48] that contained only 5 studies (including one cohort study) claimed that saturated fat consumption was associated with advanced Pca. However, their limited study numbers and sample size may explain the low statistical power of their results. The present meta-analysis is based on large numbers of cohort studies and we found no association between fat intake and the risk for Pca. Our results are similar to a meta-analysis by Chua et al [15]. Our meta-analysis included more high quality cohorts and prepared with more flexible design, may be credible. There were also reviews on this topic [13, 14], but the lack of systematic statistical analysis and less rigorous design may lead to a loss of credibility.
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Diabetes mellitus and risk of thyroid cancer: a meta-analysis.

Diabetes mellitus and risk of thyroid cancer: a meta-analysis.

Table 2 and Figure 2 show risk estimates for DM-associated thyroid cancer risk in all studies and subgroups according to study design, geographic region, and study quality. People with type 2 DM were at an increased risk for thyroid cancer relative to non- diabetic people in all studies combined (RR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.11– 1.63). However, there was heterogeneity across the studies (p- heterogeneity,0.0001). For the sensitivity analysis, we excluded the studies which reported risk estimates of SIR [14,32] and had different definition of DM [33,34]. When we excluded these studies, people in 9 studies remaining after sensitivity testing showed about a 20% increased risk of thyroid cancer associated with pre-existing DM (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.08–1.28) (Figure 2-(a)). In the cohort studies, DM was associated with a greater increased risk for thyroid cancer (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.09–1.09) without any heterogeneity (p for heterogeneity = 0.76) and no evidence for publication bias (p by Egger test = 0.39) (Figure 2-(b)). The risk estimate for case-control studies resulted in a relative risk of 0.91 (95% CI 0.51–1.64) which were estimated from the 2 studies. The results for studies from countries with a high incidence of thyroid cancer were similar to the results overall (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.09– 1.29). In low-rate geographic areas, the thyroid cancer risk associated with DM was no longer apparent. In high quality studies, type 2 DM was associated with a RR of thyroid cancer of 1.18 (95% CI 1.08–1.28) after sensitivity testing.
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Braz. j. .  vol.78 número1 en v78n1a21

Braz. j. . vol.78 número1 en v78n1a21

alcohol abuse, independently from smoking, elevated significantly the risk of oropharyngeal, hypopharynge- al, and laryngeal cancer in individuals that had never smoked. Alcohol abuse may also cause nutritional de- ficiencies because of altered intestinal absorption, and may alter important metabolic pathways, such as the folate metabolism, which is involved in cell methyla- tion reactions. Consequently, gene methylation with a potential role in carcinogenesis may be compromised 15 .

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POLIMORFISMO NO GENE HER2 NO CANCRO DA MAMA E DO OVÁRIO

POLIMORFISMO NO GENE HER2 NO CANCRO DA MAMA E DO OVÁRIO

O cancro da mama é a neoplasia que afecta mais mulheres no mundo (Stewart e Kleihues, 2003), com mais de um milhão de novos casos por ano (Baselga e Norton, 2002). Segundo a IARC {International Agency for Research on Cancer), estima-se que a taxa de incidência desta neoplasia no ano de 2000 terá sido de 35,7 por 100000 habitantes (ASR - Age Standardized Rate) (Ferlay et ai., 2001). No entanto, existem diferenças consideráveis nas taxas de incidência e mortalidade entre variados países (figura 7). O risco deste tipo de neoplasia é consideravelmente mais elevado na América do Norte e nos
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Sao Paulo Med. J.  vol.119 número1

Sao Paulo Med. J. vol.119 número1

Social determinants of health are an old public health issue. However, for many decades, the focus of epidemiology was more centered on biological determinants. At first, during the predominance of infectious diseases like cholera, smallpox, and tuber- culosis, the most relevant aspects of the causal chain were the agents: viruses, bacteria, and protozoa. At the beginning of the 20th century, microbiology was described using a mixed of hope and hype, in the same way that today molecular biology and genetics are presented by the lay press as “revolutionary”, “the future”, and other similar terms.
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A Meta-Analysis on Prehypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease.

A Meta-Analysis on Prehypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease.

In our subgroup analysis, gender and ethnic differences were observed regarding the impact of prehypertension on chronic kidney disease. Females and Mongolians from East Asia with prehypertension were prone to develop CKD, which was not mentioned in previous epidemiol- ogy studies. The clinical and public health implications of this finding warrant additional inves- tigation. In a recent meta-analysis of more than 240,000 participants from 22 articles, the prevalence of prehypertension was higher in men than in women (41% vs. 34%) [29]. Com- bined with the results, it seemed that men were more likely to develop prehypertension; how- ever, women might be more vulnerable to developing chronic kidney disease if they had previously been diagnosed as having prehypertension. Considering their risks of chronic kid- ney disease, special focus should be directed to females with prehypertension. Interestingly, we found that Mongolians from East Asia were more likely to suffer CKD with hypertension than Indo-Europeans were. According to previous research, in Asian-Pacific regions such as China, Japan and Korea, Mongolians from East Asia who have systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have shown higher rates of renal involvement compared with Indo-Europeans [30, 31]. We presumed that the condition was due to the original high prevalence of glomerulonephritis, such as lupus nephritis, in Mongolians from East Asia [31, 32]. This hypothesis implied that we should closely monitor the proteinuria and creatinine levels in Mongolians from East Asia, i.e., individuals with prehypertension from the Asian-Pacific region. Additional evidence is required to enable us to make this conclusion.
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POLIMORFISMO NO GENE HER2 NO CANCRO DA MAMA E DO OVÁRIO

POLIMORFISMO NO GENE HER2 NO CANCRO DA MAMA E DO OVÁRIO

oncogene encodes a 185 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein, which is a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family. The members of this family posses intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity (Hynes, 2000; Stern, 2000), which allows them to play an important role in signal-transduction pathways, regulating many cellular functions, such as cell differentiation and proliferation (Goel et al., 2002). This activation of the signaling pathways results from dimerization of the HER receptors (Eppenberger and Mueller, 1994), and in this context, HER2 seems to be the preferred heterodimerization partner for all HER members (Sundaresan et al., 1999).
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Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

Quality is defined as the degree of excellence or superiority that an organization’s product possesses (Khan, 2005:28). Consumers judge or perceive the quality of the products and it also called perception of quality, because perception of quality derived from the analysis of consumers on product quality (Sanyal & Datta, 2011:605). Customer perceived value of product quality is a consumer opinion as ability of the product who suitable with expectation of consumer (Terenggana et al., 2013:326). Perception of quality is formed on consumers can be affected by several things including past experience, education, purchasing and consumer community (Yaseen et al., 2011:834), and perception of quality is important in improving the quality of products in the view of consumers (Parrol et al., 2013:603). Since knowledge and consumer needs change time by time, it taken an understanding related consumer perception of quality in evaluated to be known how big influence on purchase intention (Sanyal & Datta, 2011:607). Reviewing consumer behavior in foods, in previous research is often studied through perception of quality (Carrasco et al., 2012:1414). On last studied, perceived quality is the consumer’s judgment about a product’s overall excellence or superiority (Zeithaml, 1988). Meanwhile perceived quality is the judgment a consumer of product which refers to the physical characteristics of the product, and is related more to engineering and food technology (Carrasco et al., 2012). Several things that concern on perception of quality, first are spoke on the advantages related to the assessment of consumer products and the second on the technology applied to products that are both better than similar products. That matter is a critical element for consumer decision making, consequently, consumers will compare the
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MUC1 Predicts Colorectal Cancer Metastasis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Case Controlled Studies.

MUC1 Predicts Colorectal Cancer Metastasis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Case Controlled Studies.

metastasis of CRC, which was consistent with the conclusions of most included studies. Present evidence from the meta-analysis indicated that MUC1 might be a promising biomarker to pre- dict the status of CRC metastasis at the time of diagnosis. The expression of MUC1 in CRC tis- sue can be determined by IHC method with monoclonal antibody against MUC1, which can be done simultaneously when pathologists conduct pathological diagnosis with tumor tissue obtained from surgery or biopsy. It is relatively easy to realize and popularize in clinical prac- tice, which is of great significance to help surgeons determine treatment strategy. The establish- ment of the relationship between MUC1 expression and CRC metastasis may also help to clarify the metastasis risk of CRC patients at the time of diagnosis, especially those without symptoms or signs of metastasis. If MUC1 is highly expressed in a CRC patient without meta- static manifestation, it is worthy to do more detailed examination in search for any existing small metastasis. Patients with over expressed MUC1 may need more radical or aggressive treatment after diagnosis and more rigorous care after tumor resection due to a relatively high risk of metastasis. However, present study only proved the correlation between MUC1 expres- sion and CRC metastasis. The positive rate of MUC1 expression in CRC patients with metasta- sis differed greatly in previous retrospective studies, and the sensitivity and specificity of MUC1 in predicting CRC metastasis have not been validated in prospective studies. Besides,
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Genetic polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 with prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 57 studies.

Genetic polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 with prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 57 studies.

Prostate cancer (PCa) has become a major public health problem concern worldwide for its high morbidity and mortality levels. It is the second leading cause of cancer related to death in Europe, North America, Latin America, and some parts of Africa in men. It has been reported that PCa have a prominent variation in incidence among different ethnic groups and geographic regions. For instance, North Americans have the highest incidence, especially the African-Americans in USA, and the lowest is among Asian men [1–3]. However, the etiology and ethnic disparities of PCa are largely unknown. Clinical and epidemiologic data suggest that the development of PCa is a multiphase process. So far, a series environmental and lifestyle factors, including pollutants, smoking habit and diet, as well as geographical and racial factors have been pointed out as possible contributors to the risk of PCa [4]. In addition, the various risk,
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Association between vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 39 studies.

Association between vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 39 studies.

The Bsm1 polymorphism is located at the 3 9 end of the VDR gene. It does not appear to change the nature of the translated VDR protein [53]. However, this polymorphism is linked in a haplotype with the variable-length poly A sequence within the 3 9- untranslated region, which affects the VDR mRNA stability [54]. On the other hand, the Bsm1, Taq1 and Apa1 polymorphisms are all in the same linkage disequilibrium block. These polymorphisms have been widely investigated, but with differing results. Consis- tent with a previous meta-analysis, our finding showed no significant association of these three genetic variations with breast cancer risk. Several studies have been performed to examine the VDR haplotypes [9,13,14,18,35], but these results were also conflicting. McCullough et al. has investigated haplotypes that involved Bsm1(B/b), Apa1(A/a), Taq1(T/t) and a poly-A repeat(S/ L), but they failed to find significant association between any haplotype and breast cancer risk [13]. However, in a Caucasian population the baTL has been reported to increase the risk of breast cancer [9,35]. It is unclear whether chance or underlying differences in populations led to these inconsistencies. Due to the limited information available about these polymorphisms, we could not conduct an analysis for linkage disequilibrium and haplotypes.
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Value-Added Business Based On Small Scale Of Fisheries A Case Study On Nortern And Shouthern Coasts Of  Java Lamongan And Pelabuhanratu Regency Indonesia

Value-Added Business Based On Small Scale Of Fisheries A Case Study On Nortern And Shouthern Coasts Of Java Lamongan And Pelabuhanratu Regency Indonesia

The development of fisheries sector was expected to keep the economy growth stable, to absorb more labor forces, to produce high foreign exchange, and the most important thing is to increase the income per capita as well as to give a muliplier effects to the society. The effect of economy from an economy activity is usually performed with input-output analysis approach (I-O) and Computable Geberal Equlibrium (CGE) to know the direct, indirect and induced impacts [4]. The impact of economy in a productive activity, for example fisheries can be grouped into three catergories, i.e. direct advantage, indirect advantage, and induced advantage [4]. Direct advantage is triggered from the fishing activity that needs input like labor force/ ship’s crew, fuel, Ice, clean water, supplies/ ration etc. That input can be obtained from other sector. This can cause indirect advantage. If ship’s crew is from local area, the expense of the crew can create induced benefit in that area. Not all the benefits or the impact can be felt by local society. Does the input come from the other area or imported one, the rotation of money can cause indirect benefit then. This is a leakage of benefit. The flow of the money from the fisheries activity to the local society at last creates the impact of economy and economy leakage. Even though it is a little, the empirical studies that try to count the downstream and upstream linkage in small scale fishing in a developing country tend to show that the number of added work is created through the downstream and upstream linkage that is significant enought [5]. Downstream and upstream linkage is stated in Table 1. Generally, the international value chain for economic commodities is important for sellers, such as, tuna, salmon, skipjack tuna, shrimp and tilapia, which consist of some nodal with a product that passes over longer to achieve consumers. Whereas some species that is not economically important is important to the sustainability for local food which is part of the shorter value chain [5]. Small scale fishing is very important as a source of livelihood, earning, production and world fish supply. Besides that, small scale fishing provides fish that directly gives contribution to increase the food and nutrition sustainability [6].
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