Top PDF Mental illness and the economy

Mental illness and the economy

Mental illness and the economy

Studies on various aspects of mental health and the economy have established links between mental health and economic well-being, have suggested that hospital outp[r]

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Attitudes of professionals of the Network of Psychosocial Attention to mental illness art amgonçalves

Attitudes of professionals of the Network of Psychosocial Attention to mental illness art amgonçalves

Objetivo: investigar as atitudes de profissionais da Rede de Atenção Psicossocial frente ao adoecimento mental. Métodos: estudo transversal e analítico. Utilizaram-se dois instrumentos: o questionário de caracterização e a Escala de Opiniões sobre a Doença Mental, respondidos por 80 trabalhadores da Rede de Atenção Psicossocial. Para contagem dos pontos obtidos, foram utilizadas fórmulas preestabelecidas; e para correlações e associações, testes não paramétricos conforme a normalidade dos dados. Resultados: o perfil atitudinal denominado Autoritarismo destacou-se por apresentar maior média na população, seguido dos perfis Restrição Social e Etiologia do Esforço Mental. Observou-se também que as variáveis escolaridade, tempo de trabalho em serviços de saúde mental e renda familiar mensal apresentaram correlações significativas em relação aos tipos de atitudes. Conclusão: o perfil atitudinal da população estudada reflete atitudes predominantemente autoritárias, restritivas e discriminatórias.
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The blueness of oranges: reoresentations of mental illness in theatre

The blueness of oranges: reoresentations of mental illness in theatre

All the primary voice wanted was for someone to stop speculating about the reasons or events which may have led to the final action, and instead ask him/her about it. It only confirms that individuals often look for solutions and/or explanations in medicine when, at times, it is impassable to gather such answers. In Ancient Greek theatre, a mental illness was justified as a supernatural occurrence, whose origins were traced back to the divine. In a contemporary society, mental illness is explained by the means of medicine. There is a promptness to compare medical professionals to Gods, as they seemingly provide their patients with “cures” for illnesses that haunt them. Society may accept these “cures” as definite solutions as they are easier to acknowledge than the lack of a cure. The problem becomes the concept of a divine figure, which holds the power of the individual’s mental sanity in their hands. That situation may create great imbalances of power between patients and doctors, which only worsens their communication. In his essay, R. D. Laing presents the idea that a doctor’s attempt (1964: 25), “to reconstruct the patient’s way of being himself in his world, although, in the therapeutic relationship, the focus may be on the patient’s way of being with-me” entails that, in the majority of cases, the focus of health carers is on the instantaneous behaviour the patient exhibits when in close quarters. There is a lack of effort to fully acknowledge all the complexities of the illness. It is such relationships that Kane wishes to illustrate with the dialogue in 4.48 Psychosis, aiming to denounce the biased nature of the health carer, who speaks to the patient in a patronising manner.
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MENTAL ILLNESS IN THE VIEW OF PSYCHOTIC INDIVIDUALS: THEIR LINES AND GRAPHIC REPRESENTATIONS

MENTAL ILLNESS IN THE VIEW OF PSYCHOTIC INDIVIDUALS: THEIR LINES AND GRAPHIC REPRESENTATIONS

Provavelmente, Fernando Diniz concebe a doença mental como um labirinto devido à desorganização de pensamento e desorientação alopsíquica que enfrentou com o adoecimento. As múltiplas linhas que se entrelaçam e entrecruzam, formando a disposição embaraçosa do labirinto, podem estar ligadas a desintegração do pensamento e das emoções e, também, retratar a desordem e a confusão psíquica. Porém, o labirinto em que se transformou sua vida tem uma entrada e uma saída, ou seja, parece estar relacionado com a remissão e a exacerbação dos sintomas, situação comum na doença mental, no seu caso, a esquizofrenia. Sabe-se que a pessoa com transtorno esquizofrênico, apesar de seu caráter crônico e com prognóstico reservado, tem períodos em que a sintomatologia agudiza e em outros os sintomas atenuam. 5
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Functional status and all-cause mortality in serious mental illness.

Functional status and all-cause mortality in serious mental illness.

However, there are limitations that need to be considered. We controlled for a wide range of potential confounders; however, there may still be residual confounding. In particular, medication use was not included in this analysis which may have had an impact on results, for example relating to physical consequences of long-term antipsychotic use [6]. Also, a reliable assessment of duration of illness (or chronic versus episodic illness) and level of access to basic primary medical care services were not available for this cohort. Moreover Adverse lifestyle choices (other than drinking problems), such as smoking, poor diet, and physical inactivity, may also contribute to the increased risk of mortality in individuals with SMI. [6,17,18,19] Data on these variables were not available, although these are more likely to represent mediating rather than confounding factors (i.e. potentially a result of ADL impairment and therefore lying on the causal pathway between this status and mortality as an outcome). ADL impairment was assessed using a single HoNOS item, conse- quently it was not possible to explore the relative contributions of basic versus instrumental ADL. Also cognitive function was not assessed in this analysis. Three quarters of those with SMI had received at least one HoNOS assessment during the observation period but there were differences between those with and without this assessment. Most notably, those missing the HoNOS assessment were older and more likely to have died during the observation period, differences which may have impacted on results. It should be noted that HoNOS is not a research assessment and inter-rater variation may have reduced the apparent effect of the exposures examined. All secondary mental healthcare within the four boroughs that form the SLAM catchment is provided at no cost to consumers as part of the UK National Health Service (NHS), so the only missing mental health service contacts would be from individuals seeking exclusively private healthcare [41]. However, the characteristics of the cohort who are known to secondary care may still be influenced by levels of disadvantage or referral bias. Consequently, the generalisability of these findings is principally to secondary care rather than primary care populations.
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Trajectory in narratives: experiences of mental illness and the city of Belo Horizonte

Trajectory in narratives: experiences of mental illness and the city of Belo Horizonte

aumentaram a distância entre Regina e a famí- lia. Dessa forma, o espaço privado é esvaziado de sentido e o espaço público aparece como palco para a experiência de vida de Regina. Atualmen- te, o cotidiano de Regina consiste em passar os dias no CERSAM e as noites na República Maria Maria. Entretanto, há desvios de rota, é comum saídas para o centro da cidade, a Praça Sete e a Feira Hippie, aos domingos. Apesar desses mo- vimentos é comum que, após essas saídas, ela seja novamente capturada pelo circuito da Saú- de Mental, uma vez que, quando está na rua, o SAMU é acionado e, então, ela é encaminhada ao Serviço de Urgência Psiquiátrica Noturna – SUP, quando noite e ao CERSAM, quando dia.
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Cad. saúde colet.  vol.20 número4

Cad. saúde colet. vol.20 número4

As the paradigm shift towards a recovery-oriented mental health system becomes more prominent, individuals with lived ex- perience of mental illness will continue to write and speak their narratives of mental illness and recovery. This article discusses the social reality of people with mental illness: how they are stigmatized by the media and how competing narratives within the mental health system afflict people with this disability. It also discusses the empowering process of constructing a narrative that enables the narrator/speaker to find meaning in her/his experience while putting a realistic ‘face’ on mental illness and recovery for the general public. It further describes how telling a narrative to diverse audiences, including a college class of ‘people in recovery’ enhances the author’s personal recovery by giving his life new meaning and purpose.
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How Did Youth Mental Health Make It Onto Australia’s 2011 Federal Policy Agenda?

How Did Youth Mental Health Make It Onto Australia’s 2011 Federal Policy Agenda?

Focusing events and crises. There was no one crisis or event, such as a mass shooting or high-profile suicide, which focused attention on mental health during this time period, as had stimulated earlier mental health reform initiatives (Whit- eford, 2014; Meurk, Whiteford, Head, Hall, & Carah, 2015); although there was a suicide “spike” in a major regional cen- ter (Mackay, Queensland) reported in national television media on Four Corners (McDermott, 2010) and mentioned repeatedly in parliament as an example of the problem (Com- monwealth of Australia: House of Representatives, 2010, p. 1864; Commonwealth of Australia: House of Representa- tives, 2011, p. 119, p. 1316, p. 3008). Rather, the main issues highlighted by mental health advocates to construct a visible “crisis” in the public domain were statistics on the burden of mental illness, poor service utilization by young people and overall suicide rates. They argued through the media that there was a moral imperative for government to urgently act on youth mental health to prevent a generation being lost to chronic illness or premature death.
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Beliefs and attitudes towards mental illness: an examination of the sex differences in mental health literacy in a community sample

Beliefs and attitudes towards mental illness: an examination of the sex differences in mental health literacy in a community sample

Studies have shown that the general public historically exhibit poor mental health literacy towards various aspects of mental illnesses (Goldney, Fisher & Wilson, 2001; Jorm et al., 1997; Jorm, Christensen & Griffiths, 2005a; Jorm, Christensen & Griffiths, 2005b). For instance, Jorm et al. (1997) revealed that only 39% of Australian respondents could accurately recognize symptoms of depression. The beliefs and attitudes of the general public has been shown to be frequently discordant with those held by mental health professionals, with the public frequently viewing medication, hospitalization, and psychiatric treatment as harmful (Goldney, Fisher & Wilson, 2001; Jorm et al., 1997). A study by Link et al. (1999) showed that many symptoms and disorders are not accurately identified by the public as being a mental illness. The results indicated that while there was an overall improvement in mental health literacy, with the public more ably recognizing depression, more positively rating a range of interventions, and holding beliefs and attitudes more consistent with those of mental health professionals, gains still need to be made with respect to schizophrenia and anxiety disorders which are still under-recognized. Interestingly, according to Andrews (1999, p. 317), both mental health “patients and the media do not distinguish between the non-specific help from counsellors and the specific treatment to be expected from mental health professionals.” This inability to discriminate between the types of services offered suggests that the general public’s mental health literacy is still largely lacking (Goldney, Fisher & Wilson, 2001; Jorm, Christensen & Griffiths, 2005a; Jorm, Christensen & Griffiths, 2005b; Jorm & Kelly, 2007) even for high prevalence disorders such as depression, anxiety, and psychosis. An individual’s mental health literacy, including his or her beliefs and attitudes towards mental illness, therefore, may influence or contribute to the formulation of ‘lay appraisals.’
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J. Pediatr. (Rio J.)  vol.89 número3 en v89n3a07

J. Pediatr. (Rio J.) vol.89 número3 en v89n3a07

who didn’t fulfill the criteria for bacterial meningitis were excluded from the study. Cases of tuberculous meningi- tis and neurobrucellosis, as well as patients younger than 1 month old were excluded from the study. The follow- ing procedure was performed on admission for every child with suspected bacterial meningitis: lumbar puncture, fluid analysis (cell count with differential, glucose, protein), Gram-staining, and bacterial culture, repeated LPs after 48 hours. The treatment was followed by laboratory anal- ysis; evaluation by a neurologist, an ophthalmologist, and an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialist; and brain imaging when indicated. The diagnosis of neurologic complications was made by neurologic examination, neuroimaging, elec- troencephalography, and by the evaluation of a neurologist, ophthalmologist, ENT specialist, and psychologist. Indica- tions for performing a computed tomography (CT) of the head after meningitis were: prolonged fever, focal neuro- logical deficit, convulsions, worsening consciousness level, prolonged cyto-biochemical changes in CSF, or worsening of clinical presentation. The physicians of the ward for treatment of meningitis, including the first author, treated these children and performed a one-year follow up, which included routine visits to the clinic and consultations by phone. The initial antibiotic therapy was selected based on the clinical presentation of illness with prognostic factors for an unfavorable outcome (altered mental state, seizures, and neurologic deficit); the possible pathogen for each age group and the local antibiotic resistance patterns; duration of ill- ness prior to admission; previous treatment with antibiotics; the presence of a primary infectious focus; the identification of a community- or hospital-acquired infection (shunt inter- vention, neurosurgery, etc.); presentation of petechial skin rash; underlying diseases; antibiotics available in the ward; and the financial resources of the parents.
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Translation, adaptation and reliability study of the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder - SUMD

Translation, adaptation and reliability study of the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder - SUMD

a multidimensional scale, Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD). This instrument assesses the insight or the awareness of patients regarding their illness and the assignments given to the disease and its symptoms. Six items of the SUMD assess the general awareness of the illness and sixteen assess the awareness of specific symptoms. 1

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Trends Psychiatry Psychother.  vol.37 número3

Trends Psychiatry Psychother. vol.37 número3

cases of mental disorders during pregnancy treated with ECT between 1941 and 2007 concluded that ECT is an effective treatment for severe mental illness during pregnancy and that there is low risk to the fetus and the mother. 3 ECT has also been increasingly

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Prevalence of chronic diseases in a district of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

Prevalence of chronic diseases in a district of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

Cases of mental illness, cancer, congenital dis- ease, thyroid disease, digestive tract disease, and diseases of the genitourinary tract reported by the survey res[r]

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The impact of migration on women’s mental health in the postpartum period

The impact of migration on women’s mental health in the postpartum period

When considering the variables that seem to contribute the most for developing postpartum depression, being a migrant was significant when the cut-off is above 10. Our results also show that a previous diagnosis of depression (even if already overtaken at the time of the last pregnancy), adverse obstetric outcomes in previous pregnancies and obstetric complications during the last pregnancy (e.g., gestational hypertension) are scientifically recognized to induce accountable levels of anxiety and discomfort and to be associated with increasing odds of postpartum depression. Additionally, the association between excessive consumption of tobacco during pregnancy and the risks for maternal health is empirically understandable. This association, in this case, can also be foreseen as a hypothetic reverse causality, relying on the known association between smoking and mental illness – in which smoking acts as an escape for relief of acute and generalized anxiety. Protective associations with no medical background support were also found: having a cesarean-section (not emergent or urgent) is perceived by the mothers as a less stressful and anxiogenic event than a natural delivery – which is consistent with the cultural belief that explains such a high proportion of cesarean-section procedures in the country (36.3%), despite lacking in medical sense. Understandably, a family monthly income above the national minimum wage (485€) determines that women with more resources express a lower level of postpartum depression than those with fewer financial resources 12 .
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Rev. Saúde Pública  vol.50

Rev. Saúde Pública vol.50

When considering the variables that seem to contribute the most for developing postpartum depression, being a migrant was significant when the cut-off is above 10. Our results also show that a previous diagnosis of depression (even if already overtaken at the time of the last pregnancy), adverse obstetric outcomes in previous pregnancies and obstetric complications during the last pregnancy (e.g., gestational hypertension) are scientifically recognized to induce accountable levels of anxiety and discomfort and to be associated with increasing odds of postpartum depression. Additionally, the association between excessive consumption of tobacco during pregnancy and the risks for maternal health is empirically understandable. This association, in this case, can also be foreseen as a hypothetic reverse causality, relying on the known association between smoking and mental illness – in which smoking acts as an escape for relief of acute and generalized anxiety. Protective associations with no medical background support were also found: having a cesarean-section (not emergent or urgent) is perceived by the mothers as a less stressful and anxiogenic event than a natural delivery – which is consistent with the cultural belief that explains such a high proportion of cesarean-section procedures in the country (36.3%), despite lacking in medical sense. Understandably, a family monthly income above the national minimum wage (485€) determines that women with more resources express a lower level of postpartum depression than those with fewer financial resources 12 .
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Rev. LatinoAm. Enfermagem  vol.18 número5

Rev. LatinoAm. Enfermagem vol.18 número5

This study presents the results obtained from the evaluation, by specialist judges, of the Supports Intensity Scale (SIS), Spanish version, to determine its suitability for the Mexican population with severe mental illness (SMI). The instrument, originally designed for people with intellectual disabilities, is consistent with the multidimensional concept of quality of life and the social model of disability. The semantic equivalence of the items adjusted by specialist judges, the reliability of the subscales, using Cronbach’s alpha, and the concurrent validity between the SIS and the Global Functioning Assessment (GAF) were analyzed. The mean similarity to the original was 9.91 from a total of 10 (sd=0.14). The reliability coefficients were above 0.95 and the correlations between the SIS and the GAF were medium to high and significant. In conclusion, in the Mexican context, the SIS scale can be used to understand the needs and expectations of people with mental illness.
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Prevalence of Mental Illness, Cognitive Disability, and Their Overlap among the Homeless in Nagoya, Japan.

Prevalence of Mental Illness, Cognitive Disability, and Their Overlap among the Homeless in Nagoya, Japan.

From comparisons between the WAIS-III and JART, 64 participants showed decrements that were larger than a normal range of dissociation (11 points). Since the JART cannot mea- sure IQ scores lower than 69, participants with low IQ values due to developmental issues likely would show a greater dissociation between IQ scores and the JART. Thus, we excluded partici- pants with a JART-estimated IQ score that was within the spectrum of cognitive disability or borderline (IQ < 80). Forty-eight participants met this criterion; 24 that had a diagnosed men- tal illness (Fig 1), 14 with no cognitive disability, 6 with mild cognitive disability, 4 with moder- ate-severe cognitive disability. Among those diagnosed with mental illness, 2 were diagnosed with schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder, 10 with a mood disorder, 2 with an anxiety dis- order, 9 with a substance-related disorder, and 1 with a personality disorder. It was suggested that participants’ mental illness might have impaired cognitive ability in some cases. Twenty participants were estimated to have acquired their cognitive disability because of mental illness or other reasons, even though they likely had normal intellectual functioning at previous ages. Consequently, the estimated number of individuals with an intellectual disability, excluding those with intellectual decline due to aging or mental illness, was 19 (16.7%). Approximately half of the participants who had a cognitive disability developed their dysfunction over time.
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Knowledge and Attitude of Mental Illness Among General Public of Southern India

Knowledge and Attitude of Mental Illness Among General Public of Southern India

The mentally ill are often blamed for bringing on their own illness, whereas others may see mentally ill people as victims of unfortunate fate, religious and moral transgression, or even witchcraft. This may lead to denial by both sufferers and their families, with subsequent delays in seeking professional treatment. The belief that a disturbed mental state is a result of an “evil eye” or black magic leads the majority of patients to seek traditional healers first and only present to a psychiatrist once the disturbance is severe or unmanageable at home, often quite late in the illness. This clearly reflects negatively on the prognosis and response to treatment. The belief that mental illness is incurable can also be damaging, preventing patients from being referred for appropriate mental health care. These factors highlight the importance of conducting research to assess public knowledge and attitudes toward mental illness. Only few studies reported regarding knowledge and attitudes of the public toward people with mental illness from India. Hence, the aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge about mental illness and attitude of the public toward people with mental illness. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
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Avaliação do vínculo mãe-filho e saúde mental de mães de crianças com deficiência intelectual

Avaliação do vínculo mãe-filho e saúde mental de mães de crianças com deficiência intelectual

The findings of this study suggest that mother from low social status show more receptiveness in mother- child relationship. Based on these findings it is possible to raise the hypothesis that mothers who had little knowledge or information concerning mental illness and future expectations, as well as the possible difficulties of acceptance of a mentally deficient child by the society, were feeling that the situation is part of a definitive destiny in which they can only be near their child. It is possible that they perceive with simplicity and resignation the reality imposed. For this reason, these perceptions may work as a protective factor for the bonding with their children.
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Mental Illness and Comorbidities, Aspects of Initial Evaluation

Mental Illness and Comorbidities, Aspects of Initial Evaluation

There are several causes for decreased appetite in the elderly that are directly related to age: sensory decline, social, organic, psychological factors, and adaptation to lower energy expenditure and satiety [15]. On the other hand, in the case of dementia cases, interfere other factors such as medication, depressive states, dysphagia, teething with changes, diarrhea and dysgeusia [15]. The changes that accompany dementia processes particularly with regard to muscle mass loss, are also documented by impaired mobility, cognitive loss and all that it relates. Hormonal changes and neurotransmitters that interfere with the feeling of satiety and their understanding also contribute to weight loss. There is also a strong contribution to weight loss in dementia that has connection to hyperactivity and hiperambulation and the actual behavior of food rejection, very present in these processes, particularly in times of crisis and exacerbation of comorbidities such as diabetes or other respiratory infectious scenarios or urinary tract infections that induce delirium with consequences in attention, concentration, the capacity of perception and understanding and therefore the ability to accept food or feed themselves [16].
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