Abstract - The study described the teachingmethods used by pre-serviceteachers in Science. It focused on the strategies, techniques, materials, innovative methods and pattern ofteachingscience used by the pre-serviceteachers as described in their lesson plans. The qualitative and quantitative design was used in the study. The books, teacher hand-outs from classroom lectures were the sources ofmethods, strategies and techniques. The chalkboard and self-made drawings and charts were the materials often used. Conventional methods like lecture, open class discussion and demonstration were commonly employed. The strategies included group discussion, use of motivating questions and stories to arouse the interest of students. The direct eye contact, body expressions, jokes and news/trivia were frequent techniques. Integration of values in the lesson became less as the year level increases. The pattern ofteaching drawn followed the formal style: I Objectives, II Subject matter, III Learning Tasks, IV Synthesis of the lesson, V Assessment and VI Enrichment. The conventional method and pattern ofteaching by the pre-serviceteachersof PSU suggest that students in the College of Teacher Education should be trained to be more innovative and open in trying out more advanced teachingmethods. Furthermore, PSU sciencepre-serviceteachers should use methods which can develop higher order thinking skills among high school students.
PRE-SERVICE CHEMISTRY TEACHERS AND SCIENTIFIC ARGUMENTATION: TRENDS IN DISCURSIVE ACTIONS IN CLASSROOM. School scienceteaching has traditionally been focused on the content ofscience. However, recent debates about science education emphasize the importance of the nature ofscience and the process of argument. In order to change the emphasis in teachingscience to incorporate argumentation, teachers need to adopt more dialogic approaches that involve students in discussion, and to consider how they themselves interact with students to foster argumentation skills. In this paper we examine the pre-service chemistry teachers’ ability to incorporate and use argumentation in their teaching. The chemistry lessons conducted by four pre- serviceteachers were audiotaped and transcribed in full and the transcript sections were coded using a framework for argumentation processes. An analysis of the audiotaped lessons transcripts suggested that three factors that promoted argumentation in pre-serviceteachers’ classrooms emerged from the data. These factors included: the role ofpre-serviceteachers in encouraging students to share their ideas and comments, providing evidence that support students ideas, and implementing instructional strategies that give students an opportunity to articulate and support an explanation in an argument.
The discourse of the teacher candidate stresses upon the importance of the Internet in German Language Teaching on the one hand, and social dimensions restricting Internet access on the other hand. In accordance with these views, the disadvantage of Internet can be defined as follows: it restricts access to information due to the restricted Internet access. All the impossibilities in information and education technology are the greatest barrier for educational system. It is significant to utilize all kinds of education technology efficiently by knowing when to use it. Using technology effectively in education process is going to be a factor increasing the added value of education related with its usage. In this sense, teacher candidates stated that factors restricting Internet usage in German Language Education depend upon lack of technical background and support. A teacher candidate emphasized that having no language laboratory, besides the Internet is due to the technical impossibilities. The views in this sense are as follows:
It has been recently given importance that programs are prepared in consideration of individual differences of children with the need for special education. Even if it is especially thought that children with the need for special education are just physically or mentally disabled, one should recognize children whom we can actually call 'gifted' for them to be able to adapt to the classroom environment. Provided that the first-, second- and third-grade students are nominated by the classroom teachers as of the academic year of 2016-2017, they will be able to receive education at Science-Art Centers. Therefore, classroom teachers undertake an important task for identifying gifted children. Can teachers having such a great responsibility be trained to have that competence? The main purpose of this study is to investigate to what extent the subject 'gifted students' is included in the teaching plan during the eight-term education ofpre-service classroom teachers. For this purpose, the websites of 193 universities registered to the Council of Higher Education were identified to examine 70 universities with a classroom teaching program. According to the findings, there is a course called 'special education' that handles the topics related to the gifted in 68 of those 70 universities, and in the rest, there is no course titled either 'special education' or 'gifted'. When the special education course is investigated, it is seen that objectives concerning the gifted take the last places and the contents addressing the gifted takes the third place. According to the learning acquisitions of the special
Bandura (1977) first introduced the self-efficacy based on his social learning theory and defined it as “a person’s belief about their capabilities to produce designated levels of performance that exercise influence over events that affect their lives”. Individuals constitute their self-efficacy beliefs according to their past experiments. Moreover, self-efficacy beliefs are crucial to teaching, because they influence teachers’ teaching experiment and teacher- student interaction. In this respect, teachers’ education programs are very important for forming pre-serviceteachers’ self-efficacy beliefs. If teacher education programs hope to influence the development of instructional practices, the program should focus on the development ofpre-serviceteachers’ self-efficacy beliefs. In Turkey, the secondary school
This issue of RBLA brings to our readers a collection of diverse articles, which should appeal to a broad readership. The first article, by Brito and Guilherme, analyses the learning memorials ofpre-service foreign language teachers in order to understand how these teachers make sense of their learning processes and to problematize the possible impacts on their future professional lives. The second article, by Baptista, also deals with pre-service foreign language teachers but focuses on their reflections on the use of new technologies in the teaching and learning of languages.
Abstract - This study aimed to determine difficulties of student teachers in developing and implementing teaching activities based on 5E model in constructivist approach. Thus, it was carried out in the context ofScienceTeaching II practices course in spring semester of 2007-2008 academic year. The sample group of the study consisted of 25 junior student-teachers at the Department of Classroom Teacher Education in Faculty of Education at Artvin Çoruh University. In the study, a qualitative research design was used, and it was implemented in three steps. In the first step, the pre-serviceteachers were given standards which were about fifth class Science and Technology course; then, they were asked to prepare an activity appropriate for 5E model. In the second step, they were asked to carry out those activities, and observations were carried out by one of the researchers. In the last step, semi-structured interviews were carried out with them. In the result of the study, the following problems were determined. The student-teachers were unable to use time effectively, to provide the classroom’s discipline, to apply the stage of the 5E model, to relate the concepts with daily life situation, to know how to evaluate appropriately and to attract attention of students.
Contrary to the conception of traditional education, contemporary education which promotes progressive and existentialist philosophies of education, aims to contribute to individuals in order for them to explore their potential and abilities, to improve them and, through this approach, to realize themselves. In contemporary education, schools are the fields for producing critical knowledge. In this sense, schools should promote collective imaginations, namely critical thinking which mentions establishing social justice for all groups, and ending all discrimination such as exploitation, racism and sexism (McLaren, 2007). In order for this aim to be actualized, qualified teachers are required who are subject to universal values and who can think critically; because, one of the fundamental variables determining the quality of education, and maybe the most important, is the quality of the teachers. It is not only the knowledge and skills related to the teaching profession ofpre- serviceteachers, in other words teachersof the future, but also their values and approaches towards education have a significant influence on each and every aspect of the quality of education (Oguz, Altinkurt, Yilmaz, & Hatipoglu, 2014). In this regard, this study investigates the effect ofpre-serviceteachers’ values on their critical thinking dispositions.
theory method, complemented by a cartographic situational approach and metaphors. Teachers’ professional identity emerge as a multidimensional construct, influenced by the work context and informed by professional knowledge. Dialogue, participation and reflection, framed in the notions of recognition, participation and discourse, are elements which have been contributing to renewed understandings of the construct. The stories, longitudinal designs, metaphors and visual methods surfaced as alternative mediums to the questionnaires and interviews in examining teachers’ professional identity. Pre-serviceteachers highlight the plurality of roles of the teacher and the collective and interactive component of the profession. It is in the relationship with others and in the extension of their participation in teaching practices to the activities of the school that pre-serviceteachers develop a sense of belonging to the profession of teacher. A greater openness of the action spectra allows them a more active and central participation and closeness to the school reality. Their representations also give account of the transformative character of being a teacher, developed through reflection and negotiation of practices. In turn, these foster a deeper understanding of the teacher's profession. The reconstruction of the cooperating teachers’ professional identity happens in the doing of their roles, the confrontation with the challenges encountered, the negotiation of interactions with their pre-serviceteachers, and the implementation ofteaching perspectives that inform their practices and pedagogical supervision relations. The discourses framed within the construction and reconstruction of professional identities in teacher education environments is a complex, dynamic and multifaceted process that takes place in the interaction with the context and it’s actors, in this particular case, the pre-serviceteachers, cooperating teachers and other significant people.
In order to change the teachingof statistics in schools, we must change the preparation of mathematics teachers during the initial training. And a way of doing this is by promoting collaborative work among pre-serviceteachers during that training. In a study carried out by Antunes and Carvalho (2005; 2006) with pre-service mathematics teachers, the authors observed that collaboratively planning classes has an important role for pre-serviceteachers because it was during the joint planning sessions that several issues were discussed and negotiated, namely the best way to clarify statistical knowledge or work on the statistics subjects with students. By sharing ideas, pre-serviceteachers enhanced their determination to act and increased their confidence so they would be able to run risks teaching statistics, creating the conditions to do so through dialogue, negotiation and joint reflection. This mutual learning contributed to facing challenges and problems felt by the group and also by each member of the group. Therefore, collaborative work between pre-serviceteachers seems to contribute to reflective practices where they constructed new meanings based on what they already knew, relating this meaning to their previous experiences and not necessarily to the meaning given by others.
The survey of primary school teachers has been investigated. The list includes 42 questions in the categories of modern teachingmethods (mutual accountability, heuristic, memorability method, pre-makers, indirect, teaching design team members, role-playing, problem solving, critical thinking, explanatory approach, focus group, participatory methods, inductive thinking, innovative, teaching assistance, group discussion, constructivism, teaching concepts). It examines the reliability test, twenty people of expert were educated and their views on the reform of the organization were used.In addition, the respondents to the questionnaire, the participants asked that the correlation between the questionnaire and the behavior of the respondents to the questionnaire 0.831 obtained.
Self-efficacy is the belief individuals have concerning their competences in demonstrating a performance at a specific level (Bandura, 1994). In other words, self- efficacy is not an ability perceived by an individual; in fact it stands for the belief regarding what he is able to do with his abilities on specific conditions (Maddux, 2002). Individuals who have developed self-efficacy belief have the ability to make judgments about their competences or capacities to deal with different circumstances and achieve a particular activity (Senemoglu, 2009). This judgment can be developed towards various fields such as mathematics, foreign language, computer or teaching. It is possible for an individual to have a low level of self-efficacy belief regarding Mathematics whereas his self-efficacy belief towards Social Studies is high. Similarly, self-efficacy belief can be related to the capacity for the demonstration of a performance based on oral expression. Accordingly, oral expression self efficacy belief can be defined as the self judgment of the individual possess regarding his capacity to actualize oral expression performance. This judgment includes not only the competences in demonstrating the oral expression skills but also contains the belief related to how much of this competence the individual can transform into performance when needed. Because self-efficacy does not mean the competence of an individual to actualize ability, instead it refers to the belief related to the competence in performing the ability. Self- efficacy can be regarded as the judgments that identify what an individual can perform in the future before the activities are executed (Oguz, 2009; Zimmerman, 2000). Self-efficacy belief is an internal characteristic which an individual has before demonstrating a performance and it plays a significant role in an individual’s life in terms of many aspects. It can have an influence on the psychological status, physical health and self-regulation skills of an individual (Maddux, 2002).
Classroom Observation Instrument was used. The researchers wanted to answer the question: How effective were instructional practices used as determined by results of the English Language Learner Observation Instrument? The observation inventory was used to evaluate the effectiveness of instructional and reading strategies during the reading language arts lesson. Based on the results from the instrument’s 29 items rated on a 1-4 Likert scale, pre-serviceteachers were not effectively implementing bilingual /dual language, sheltered techniques and reading strategies. The overall mean score for the 29 items was 2.450, which corresponds to the partially effective range. Table 1shows an item analysis for the first two categories of the ELLCOI instrument, instructional practices and interactive teaching. The range of performance on each outcome measure was close in range with the exception of the quality of independent practice. This is attributed to limited opportunities observed for independent practice or controlled independent practice. The data also demonstrated that despite large gaps in the research base (August & Hakuta, 1997), observers with a solid background in reading can discern practices likely to accelerate or impede English learners' learning how to read (Gersten, et al. p. 202).
Another feature that must be stressed is the excessive emphasis on mathematical formalization on Quantum Mechanics in undergraduate level. Some professors, based on what Mario Bunge (2011) calls operationalist view ofscience and ofscience education, do not approach Quantum Mechanics from its very fundamental concepts, but only from the formal (mathematical) point of view. They usually start defining the Quantum Mechanical State, for example, telling students it’s a vector and emphasizing solely commutation relations instead of their physical content. They end up communicating an idea that Quantum Mechanics is nothing more than a set of linear algebra or differential equations problems, that is, traditional courses are all about developing mathematical calculations. Obviously, there’s much mathematics underlying its’ concepts, but there are possible rich discussions on ontology and epistemology of Modern Physics that are cast aside when the teaching process strongly relies only on mathematics. As it is stated by Greca (2000), this kind of approach is likely to lead some students to understand Quantum Physics formalism using their prior knowledge founded in classical mechanics, a relevant prior knowledge for learning physics, by the way.
Currently, Facebook.com ranked as the five top popular SNSs and this website acclaimed to have registered users by millions. There are over ten million Facebook users in Thailand, which makes it as the 16th ranking of all Facebook statistics by country (http://www.socialbakers.com/facebook- statistics, accessed March 1, 2012). Learning in the digital age, pre-serviceteachers use social networking sites not different from other students. Some use it as a fashionable tool or use it as a regular communication tool. And some use it as communication tools for teaching and learning during the teaching practicum. Mazer, Murphy, & Simonds (2007) found ‘the high teacher self- disclosure may lead students to higher levels of anticipated motivation and affective learning and lend to a more comfortable classroom climate’. Consequently, issues related to ‘digital citizenship’ concepts are critically concerned for their own personal use because their online behavior would be a role model for their students. As Luke (2003) pointed out that ‘texts of the new technologies
focus on descriptive knowledge, hardly provide prescription with useful solutions for a variety of design and development problems in the teaching and learning of mathematics. As a rule the majority of the teachers are interested in improving and enriching their teachingmethods, but as Tyack and Cuban (1995) point on: teachers need help in adapting or developing new instructional practices. McLaughlin et al. (2006) emphasizes the importance of inclusiveness: Experiences from the past century, both in schools and in research, show that innovations in schools can more readily survive if the recipients, mainly the teachers, have been involved early in the decision-making. Taking the perspective of change in teaching practice and the use of research in the process Richardson (1990) argues that research should provide teachers not just with findings in the form of activities that work, but also with ways of thinking and empirical premises related to thinking and learning. In this way research becomes a basis for the development of warranted practices with which the teachers may experiment in their classroom. Teachers exercise considerable control over the decision of whether and how to implement a change in teaching practice, and any intervention should acknowledge this control, and help teachers understand and held accountable for the intervention. This calls for a strategy for teachers’ professional development aimed at motivating teachers to use more effective practices. According to Mamlok-Naaman, Navon, Carmeli and Hofstein (2005) action research is an effective means of helping teachers to reflect on their practice, if they are provided with an environment of support, collegiality, and a chance to collaborate with researchers and other teachers. Teachers
There is some evidence in the mathematics education literature that Lakatos’ proofs and refutation methods can be useful to examining students’ conjecture production and proof construction process. The purpose of this study was to determine how the Lakatos method goes and which steps of the method works in the teacher education program. The population sample for this study consists of 24 senior pre-serviceteachers in elementary mathematics education in Turkey (16 women and 8 men). Pre-serviceteachers were given a problem in which they examined the relation between perimeter and area of a rectangle. Data was collected with a camera, field notes, and groups’ written solutions and analyzed on the basis of framework included in Larsen and Zandieh’s (2008) study. The finding revealed that Lakatos’ method was usable in the teacher education program. But some steps of the method described in Lakatos’ (1976) historical case study were not provided in the real classroom environment.
As a result of the research it has been determined that web based chemistry teaching activities is effective. When the literature analyzed it has been point out the existence of studies supporting the research results. Chemistry is one of the science that deals with the abstract event. Students should be able to visualize the events in their minds created for lasting learning. Web based instruction help students visualize the abstract events. The features of web- based chemistry instruction such as making comprehension and remembering easier, giving a chance to reinforce and being interesting and enjoyable have contributed to the research results. As the interests and expectations of the learners are different, a learning environment that will appeal to the level of each one of them should be provided. With this aim, web-based instruction is one of the rare methods that would provide learners with different learning environments. This research has a great importance in assisting the teachersof the future to be able to keep up with the rapidly developing and changing age and guide them in raising qualified individuals.
The two following papers talk about teacher education. The first, by Stella and Cruz, “reflects on pre-service English teachers’ education in the state of Alagoas with the support of the notions of identity and otherness”, while the second, by Halu, focuses on the university teacher educator in the area of foreign language teaching. Halu investigates theses and dissertations from the first decade of the 21st century and concludes that there has been a gradual increase in research on teachers and teacher educators.