Chinese has become the world’s second language. Each language has its own law, as is the Chinese. Indonesian students have dificulty inlearningChinese which are are not surprising. Every language has various characteristics, so do Chinese and Bahasa Indonesia. Article analyzes dificulties to learn Chinese, especially for Indonesian students, those are tone, grammar, sounds of “er hua” such as Alice retrolex. The respondents are 100 Indonesian students who are randomly selected for testing samples analyzed. Since there is no tone in Bahasa Indonesia, it makes a lot of Indonesian studentsin the learning process often appear inChinese foreign accent phenomenon. This article expects to explore the problem by studying the formation of the causes and solutions. Indonesian studentslearningChinese was designed to provide some teaching and learning strategies.
People learn to read their irst language (L1) in a wide variety of cir- cumstances. Children are prepared for reading at an early age by listening to stories, being read to, and interacting with adults and others about the stories they hear. When children start to learn to read in their L1, they already have a large vocabulary, good control of the grammar of the language, have had many stories in that language read to them, and know the discourse (Nation, 2009). However, when these children start to read in a foreign language, i.e. L2 (or English in this study), learning to read in an L2 involves a great deal of languagelearning. Unlike in their L1, in the L2 learning, oral language and literacy com- petencies develop simultaneously. Children need grammatically and lexically controlled texts, a greater amount of pre-reading activities; they have to learn a diferent orthographic system; and they need to process the meaning of words while trying to achieve the same main goal of reading as in L1: text comprehen- sion. All these principles draw on one’s cognitive resources (capacity of working memory) that are limited at any given moment; therefore, by learning to read quickly, accurately, i.e. luently, and not thinking about orthography, vocabu- lary and syntax, suicient mental resources become available for higher-level processes, such as overall reading performance and reading comprehension. Reading luency has been associated with reading comprehension in English L1 contexts (Fuchs, Fuchs, Hosp, & Jenkins, 2001); however, simply applying the indings from L1 research to the case of L2 readers is inadequate. he nature of L2 reading development is diferent from that of L1. L2 reading luency alone does not account for the variance of explaining reading performance in L2. Di- verse abilities reading in one’s own L1, distance between L1 and L2 orthographic systems, L2 vocabulary knowledge, cognitive measures, and metalinguistic awareness afect reading performance in L2 (Koda, 2010). Nonetheless, luency explains signiicant variance in reading ability (Hoover & Gough, 1990) and problems in acquiring word-level and contextual-level reading are the principal diiculties faced by children who encounter reading problems (Grabe, 2009). However, when reading in an L2, the distance between L1 and L2 writing sys- tems also plays a signiicant role in word recognition, and consequently on text comprehension (Koda, 2010).
In her second study, Longaray (2009b) also reports on her contact with another group of EFL students (39 this time) in the same public school in Rio Grande do Sul, taught by the same teacher from the first study. However, this time, the author focused not only on identity and investment, but mainly on the students’ relationship with English as a global language. Similarly to what happened in the first study, the author collected data during six months by class observation and field notes, besides collecting the teacher’s diaries, participating collaboratively in class, video-recording some classes, conducting interviews, applying a questionnaire and conducting reflective sessions with the students based on the recorded classes. However, this time, due to health problems, the teacher in charge of the group had to be absent several days and requested the researcher to teach the group in her absence, which characterized the study as action-research. The author found that students had an ambivalent desire to learn and practice English, often demonstrated by their non-participation in class. Also, the results showed that the participants of the study associated the English language with better economic opportunities and development. Based on her findings, the author proposes the reassessment of the hegemonic power of the English languagein Brazilian schools, at the same time that she defends the students’ rights to have access to the language.
Acrostic is a special phenomenon of the modern Chineselanguage. It is a combination of lexical and syntactical that across “vocabulary” and “grammar” categories. The morphemes can be combined and can also be separated by various form changes depending on its development. Acrostic is always been a crucial part in teaching Chineselanguage to foreigners and less developed than other parts of the teaching. This study used quantitative method to analyze the problems associated with the acrostic in teaching Chinese to foreigners. Source of the data was learners’ exercise and assignment. The discussion in this article was viewed from the perspective of the outside-oriented teaching, grouped into 3 main sections. The irst was in terms of the usability characteristics to the acrostic developments in the acrostic grammar study. The second, based on the results of the questionnaire regarding the use of acrostic, research analyzed students’ main mistakes and their causes. The third was to observe the condition of teaching acrostic. This research is expected to help teachers and learners of Mandarin understand and overcome the dificulties inlearning acrostic.
Virtual learning environments (VLE) are technological resources and tools adapted and used for educational purposes. Although they are directly related to distance education, in the last years, VLE have been also used to support on-campus classes. The aim of this qualitative research is to investigate the use of the virtual learning environment - Moodle in the Letras Inglês Course LLE7495 - Compreensão e Produção Escrita V, focusing onstudents' perceptions in relation to this virtual environment. A questionnaire was devised and applied to students who took this course in the semester 2011.1. At the end of the study it was concluded that students are aware of the possibilities that the use of the virtual environment can provide for their learning process, and also that teachers need to be aware of the possibilities afforded by the use of the environment and must be prepared to use it. Furthermore, that the students are aware of their role in the learning process.
The students from GI, GII and GIII were registered in scho- ols in the city of Marília (SP) and Botucatu (SP), Brazil, and at the waiting list of the Investigation Laboratory of Learning Disabilities of CEES/FFC/UNESP – Marília (SP), Brazil. The interdisciplinary diagnosis of these groups was carried out in a month by a team consisting of a speech language therapist, a neuropsychologist, a child neurologist and a psychopedagogist. After receiving the diagnosis, the application of the procedure (PROHFON) was started with all students at the Laboratory for ResearchonLearning Differences and the Clinic of Child Neurology – Learning Disabilities Hospital of the School of Medicine – HC/FM/UNESP – Botucatu (SP), Brazil. Data collection was performed at the same time period in the four groups that comprised the study.
As a result, many EFL learners, posits Brumfit (in Mercer and Swann 1996: 273), “have loyalty to their mother tongue... self-realization may be a role for some individuals, but the prime purpose of learning English is to participate in an international community, expressing what it is to be Finnish, or Chinese, or Zairian in an international context”. Nevertheless, EFL learners’ personal acquaintance with everyday English is fostered through their contact with (Engler 2000: 7) “popular culture (music and film)”, not to mention the Internet as if they were in a second language environment, mainly through their use of words and concepts from English into their mother tongue. These are chiefly the scarce occasions of language/culture learning dimension, posits Engler (Op. cit., p. 7), “where innovation is strongest”, especially because, adds the scholar, “elsewhere English will always be viewed against other languages”. Furthermore, reports Brumfit (1996: 274), “until recently, the general consensus for mother-tongue learners was that the written language for education was the standard language of public print, adapted of course to specific communication purposes”. In the course of changes of language policy in “the English National Curriculum (following the 1988 Education Act)”, Brumfit goes on to explain (Op. cit., Ibidem), “there have been several attempts to introduce the notion of spoken standard English as a goal for all learners” or as is vindicated by one respondent (in the empirical research undertaken in Madeira):
The purpose of this research was to determine if knowing the students’ preferred learning style helped me improve my teaching and subsequently helped learners learn a foreign language. Findings suggest that it was useful for me as a teacher to know my students’ learning styles. This way I could better choose activities that suited their learning style. I was surprised at the survey results, since I thought they would only have one learning style and after I knew which one I would focus on activities that catered to it. Instead, the survey results showed that they have more than one preferred learning style. I confess it was a surprise to see that almost all the students like to work in groups and before this research I had a different perspective of group work. Like many other teachers who also tend to avoid group work in their classes, I also viewed group work as something that caused noise and confusion in the class.
Some limitations, however, must be pointed out in this research. Firstly, we did not evaluate the actual performance of studentsin each language, which could possibly be associated with motivational measures. Moreover, in the comparisons between groups of students we did not consider variables such as the number of studentsin class, a weekly schedule of the subject and type of available support material. Lastly, we did not compare students’ motivational variables in relation to their school grade or according to gender. Therefore, suggestions for further studies to advance the understanding of motivation for learning a foreign languagein school, especially with teenagers can be made. It is unveiled, in this area and in our country, a vast space to be explored, including through other approaches, such as, for example, the Self- Determination Theory, Self-Efficacy, Self-Concept and Ability Self-Perceptions to learn a foreign language, and Causal Attributions Theory. In each approach other variables are taken into account, promising new perspectives on this object of study.
The third reason refers to belief change, a timid topic in recent research with language learners. Most studies in Applied Linguistics about this issue have considered teacher change, in continuing education programs (Barcelos & Coelho, 2010) or in their classroom practice (Maitino, 2007). Beliefs are part of every adolescent’s efforts and experiences, either in success or failure. Thus, it is relevant to understand how trusting in their capacities is crucial to succeed in different moments and endeavors of their lives (Pajares, 2006). In the last decade, several studies in Applied Linguistics (Andrade, 2004; Araújo, 2004; Coelho, 2005; Custódio, 2001; Lima,S. 2005; Luvizari, 2007; Lyons, 2009; Maitino, 2007; Miranda, 2004; Pirovano, 2001; Piteli, 2006; Silva, 2004; Sturm, 2007, Zolnier, 2007) have investigated beliefs about learning EFL in public schools and have listed innumerous contextual issues that constrain the possibility of learning and demonst rated influences on teachers’ and learners’ (dis)beliefs. These studies seem to echo the need for inquiries that offer alternatives to cope with such contextual aspects that hinder learning as a meaningful (Almeida Filho, 1993) or transformative experience (Pajares, 2006). In other words, find ways to negotiate and make students experience learning as something possible.
The reflections presented by Eduarda in the first version of her TCC allows us to reaffirm the need for changes in the curriculum of Undergraduate Language Courses, so that it will be actually possible to provide beginning students with the responsive learningin literacy environments, even in their initial education. Accordingly, these students can learn to exercise a responsive understanding about their pedagogical actions. In the analysis of the data presented herein, Eduarda shows, in the actions developed with the students, that the pedagogical guidelines, which were centered on a concept of literacy, made a difference in her own education, during her work as a PIBID researcher. With the practice of research, she identifies which discursive activities developed at schools allowed her to activate potentialities to assume a professional conduct, in an active and responsive way, considering the students' will to learn. Two responses presented by her in the PIBID evaluation questionnaires summarize her comprehension about her constitution as subject in her relationship with others, in a continuous process of (re)discoveries, as well as about the development of teaching practices that promote the constitution of meanings for her and for the students, in connection with different social practices. In the 2011 evaluation, she states that the “contact with the students has made me learn new things and find out that I am capable of acting with a differentiated practice (of interaction with students), even if there are a lot of people who do not believe it.” In the 2013 evaluation, she states:
Teaching material is a foundation of languagelearning. It is also a very important tool in teaching and learn- ing process. Especially for students who learnt in non-Chinese environment, during the learning process, they can only rely on teachers and teaching materials. Article was based on previous research about teaching methods. Article used two teaching materials that have Indonesian language translation Contemporary Chinese and Chuji Biaozhun Huayu. Besides, it compared the content and designed to analyze the similarities and differences of these teaching materials. Through the analysis, research gives solution in teaching materials design.
With further development of friendly relations between China and Indonesia, coupled with a growing number of Indonesian Chinese, learningChineselanguage is getting more important. Article compared Chinese and Indonesian voice and showed the voice of the Chineselanguage. Moreover, article provided ideas for Chinese phonetics teaching and for Indonesian studentsinlearningChinese pronunciation. In addition, article puts forward suggestions in order to improve foreign language teaching.
It is noteworthy that the citations of this com- petency gained prominence in the sites of Breves and Palmas, in the northern region. he compe- tencies mentioned by studentsin Breves may be ex- plained by their regional needs that make the con- tinuous search for knowledge a priority, such as the location of this municipality within Brazil, which has diicult access that is possible only by boat (about a 12 hour journey) or plane, and low Hu- man Development Index (HDI) in education relat- ed to the rate of literacy and school attendance. (15)
One important development that is currently evolving within the Malaysian educational system is the newfound role of English as a medium of instruction. As of the beginning of 2003, science and mathematics are being taught in English in the national and vernacular primary schools and the secondary schools. This is being implemented in stages and will eventually cover all standards and forms in the primary, secondary and post-secondary classes by 2008. Significantly, this policy is a clear departure from former language policy, which was underpinned by the euphoria of linguistic nationalism as a notion of nation building. The partial reintroduction of English as a medium of instruction in place of the Malay language, the national language, is undeniably a market driven policy responding to the emergence of English as a global languagein the era of globalisation. It is evident that English is now entrenched worldwide and Malaysia has to keep abreast of current global trends or risk losing its competitive edge in the global economy, which has been transformed by the massive increase in the flow of information in English via information and communications technology, as well as a new economic emphasis of turning this information into productive knowledge. Competency in English has now become a crucial aspect of human capital development, especially in the areas of science, engineering and technology. Thus, the implementation of the policy of teaching science and mathematics in English is in line with current development and ultimately, it is hoped that this would help to strengthen the students’ proficiency in English, enabling them to access new frontiers of knowledge in science, engineering and technology. This then is the underlying rationale of implementing the policy of teaching science and mathematics in English.
This study is based on three dimensions of Hofstede’s framework, which are power distance, masculinity versus femininity, and uncertainty avoidance. Hofstede (1980) considers the Chinese culture to be characterized by high power distance, medium masculinity and weak uncertainty avoidance. For this reason, this study explores the impact of Chinese core cultural values on the communication behaviour of Chinesestudentslearning English. A questionnaire was used as a technique to collect data about the topic from fifty overseas Chinesestudents at Newcastle upon Tyne and Northumbria Universities. This study agreed with Hofstede in the dimension of power distance; however, it found different results in masculinity and uncertainty avoidance. Thus, Chinesestudents are highly influenced by power distance in their relationship with staff. In uncertainty avoidance the students scored medium level in their response to the questionnaire. Masculinity affected students only in achievement, but in gender role it was very weak. Therefore, the Chinese culture in this study is characterized by high power distance, medium uncertainty avoidance and weak masculinity.
The people who read Journal Sino and those who publish advertisement on Journal Sino are all target group for the survey. Before the survey, we estimate the majority customers of Journal Sino come from mainland of China, and other employees of Journal Sino do know some people from Macao that are our regular readers too. So, to locate them and build the contact becomes the major task when starting the survey. Luckily the majority of Chinesein Portugal work inChinese shops or Chinese restaurants. It is not hard to find them. In order to make our research sample diversified, the management of Journal Sino has decided not to limit target population in big Lisbon area, instead, research sample is collected from all over Portugal. Yet, as mentioned above, considering the characteristics of Chinese residents in Portugal, it is impossible that we just send the questionnaire sheet to them via e mail or post office and wait for the feedbacks but meeting them in person and invite them to fill out the questionnaire on spot to guarantee the actuality and validity of the data. When all the sample collecting work finished, we could assure the observations comes from all over the Portugal, from Vila do Conde to Algarve area. The diversified respondents and the face to face inquiring method meant a lot of expenditure and time spending. Due to the lack of research labors and budget, the quantity of research sample has been set to 100-150. Comparing with the scale of the customer group the sample quantity seems a little bit insufficient, but when the results come out, management do consider the research has significant meanings in guiding the reform of the Newspaper.
teller had a very low score in managing emotions while speaking English because she was usually ashamed of speaking the target language. When she noticed that everyone in the room was listening to her, she hesitated and wanted to stop, but, with the encouragement of the tutor, she went on. Right then, she implemented the strategy of trying to speak the foreign language even when afraid of making mistakes or being criticized. She finished her story and received a round of aplause from her small audience. As we have previously mentioned, the time students take to complete the investigation phase varies. Some do it very quickly, others take a long time and even use the investigation process itself as an enhancer of their learning process. One very careful student took three half hour sessions in different days to complete only the SILL. She reported that her behavior had changed since the beginning of the completion of the inventory, once she had started using the strategies mentioned in the test before even finishing to respond to it.
Our analysis revealed that faculty who teach general chemistry laboratory place significantly less emphasis on laboratory writing in terms of communicating science and keeping a laboratory notebook than in other courses in the curriculum. In the United States students frequently work in groups in general chemistry where they complete one laboratory report for the group rather than an individual report. The curricula may include laboratory report forms that the students complete that include data tables and questions that lead the students through data analysis and interpretation such that writing is de-emphasized.
Abstract: Problem statement: Strategies play a significant role in assisting learners with developing language competence. During the past few years, numbers of studies demonstrated the importance of learning strategies inlanguagelearning. Approach: Positive relationship between strategy use and reading comprehension was presented and the differences of strategy use between successful and less successful learners were highly discussed in much research. Successful learners use learning strategies more frequently and effectively than unsuccessful learners. In addition, O’Malley and Chamot (1990) claimed that successful learners know how to choose learning strategies more appropriately. Based on those studies, the evidence of strategy use on different learners is clearly presented. However, few studies have explored the effect of different learning styles on strategy use between high achievers and low achievers, especially in an EFL context. Results: Thus, in this study, learning styles in influencing strategy use were examined. The researchers investigated the relationship between learning styles and strategy use on learners with different language proficiency levels. To do that, the subjects of the study were 71 non-English majors in New Taipei City and they were divided into two language proficiency levels (high and low) based on the English Proficiency Test. Two questionnaires (learning strategy use and learning style) were used to examine the effect of learning styles on reading strategy use. Conclusion: Based on the findings, implications are presented that may be useful to teachers making learners more independent and more effective inlanguagelearning.