Top PDF THE TRAINING OF INTERNATIONAL MANAGERS – SUCCESS FACTOR IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

THE TRAINING OF INTERNATIONAL MANAGERS – SUCCESS FACTOR IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

THE TRAINING OF INTERNATIONAL MANAGERS – SUCCESS FACTOR IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

The failure recorded by people sent to work abroad is incarnated by their return to the country of origin before the expiration of the preset deadline. This is not a cause of technical or professional incompetence, but of the fact that people are unable of adapting to the specific lifestyle of another culture. Multinational firms pay special attention to the casting and training of the personnel that will be sent abroad, because of the fact that a set-back in this field is pretty costly. Besides the loss of opportunities determined by the misfit of the personnel abroad, multinational firms spend, on average, for the training, shift and accommodation of an employee abroad, approximately $250.000. Statistics show that the rate of returning from abroad is of 40%, for managers who were not subjected to adaptability studies and who were not included in cultural orientation programs. The average dropped to 25% when firms introduced cultural orientation programs and, to only 10%, when, besides the cultural orientation programs, firms also endorsed the problems raised by adaptability. The failure rate of American managers implanted abroad, in comparison to that recorded by European countries and Japan, is higher than double.
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International Business and Economics Review

International Business and Economics Review

FyB is a regional public bus transportation company operating in the region of one of the largest provincial towns in Denmark. The company is the sole operator of buses in city area and also a major operator of the regional and local in the rural areas surrounding the provincial capital. In the recent years the public transportation service has seen stagnation pointing towards a decline in the number of passengers, secondly the costs of operation has escalated. FyB has met this challenge by increasing the convenience of using public bus transportation parallel to a focus on the demands of younger people. The SMS-ticket was initially introduced to do this dual job as it integrates a simple-to-use product to public passenger transport services and an appealing method of payment to the younger segment of customers. Once implemented by the transportation company passengers only need to enter a code on their handset. In return they get a receipt which acts as a ticket. The fare will subsequently be added to the passenger’s cellular phone bill. Following the launch of the SMS-application FyB had a sharp increase in passengers as the number of fares rose by five percent a week in the introductory month. Thus, the SMS-ticket proved an instant success to both the business alliance of ‘OC’/‘KC’ and to FyB. As the product is sought to be a standard solution applicable to all public transportation the strategy is to make a bid on a similar project spanning all public transportation in the Danish capital Copenhagen. The invitation to submit tenders for this project was due late august 2008. Both ‘OC’ and ‘KC’ perceive this as the gate way to sell their product to other major cities in Europe.
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An Exploration of the Organizational Culture in the International Business Relationships and Conflicts Era

An Exploration of the Organizational Culture in the International Business Relationships and Conflicts Era

Corporate culture of parent firms located in North American countries like United States and Canada is characterized according to Chan et al. [12] by Western liberalism, procedural justice, transparency, individual accountability, self motivation, loyalty, creativity, role interchangeability, meritocracy, non-discrimination and so on. Western corporate culture enhances entrepreneurs’ preoccupation with techno-structure, science, rationality, rationalism and profit-motive, thus ignoring the human side of production. But at the same time the Western corporate culture have some attractive attributes of Western management as humanism, equality, meritocracy, autonomy, creativity and respect. Any analysis of cultural differences and conflicts is by necessity an analysis of circumstances under a dialectic perspective. Foreign managers of a foreign firm are eager to operationalize and institutionalize their vision of Western corporate culture in total disregard of the local cultural peculiarities and social- psychological and cultural elements specific to the economic environment of Mexico are essential ingredients of social conflicts and is bound to run into trouble. According to the theory of “fields”, or organized social spaces [7,20] , collective actors produce a local culture that defines social relationships of co- operation and conflict to legitimate the power structure within a system of dominance.
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Dissertation for obtaining the Degree of Master in Business Administration (The Lisbon MBA International)

Dissertation for obtaining the Degree of Master in Business Administration (The Lisbon MBA International)

One possible approach to understand performance management practices in Portugal could have been the development of a questionnaire to different Portuguese companies, in order to assess the most common practices and to point the main features of performance evaluation programs or management instruments. However, not only this kind of study is more commonly developed [ the report presented by Fernandes and Moreninho (2012) is just one example ] , but also it adds little information to the effectiveness of performance management systems. It was clear for the authors that qualitative research had to be developed under this topic, but it had to comprise more than just people responsible for the design, implementation, monitoring and administration of the performance management systems. If the aim was to understand Portuguese companies’ performance management practices, it had to include all categories of employees that are prime subjects of these systems, since their opinions, feelings, perceptions, and mainly their actions regarding performance management and evaluation are decisive for the success of these programs (Selvarajan and Cloninger, 2012). Is not possible to take advantage of performance management tools without convincing employees about its importance and benefits. Thus, what was relevant for this study was not to know and understand the different program designs that were implemented in Portugal, but to acknowledge its effectiveness and its subsequent reasons.
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Dissertation for obtaining the Degree of Master in Business Administration (The Lisbon MBA International)

Dissertation for obtaining the Degree of Master in Business Administration (The Lisbon MBA International)

January 23rd: first 5-year bond issuance Upon returning from the USA, João Moreira Rato and his team executed the country's first major operation in medium and long-term markets since 2011. On January 23rd, they issued €2.5billion worth of 5-year bonds via a bank syndicate, i.e. a group of banks that builds a "book" of orders indicating how much each investor is willing to lend to the issuer, and at what price. Despite being more expensive than an auction due to bank fees, opting for a syndicate gave the debt management office more guarantees of success and control over the allocation of bonds. When the book closed with nearly 300 orders adding to more than €12 billion, indicating a very sizeable interest in Portuguese government securities, João Moreira Rato and his team went through them one by one. Ideally they'd want to have as large a proportion as possible of "real-money" investors because "they provide a more stable source of demand for government debt"[35], and, by limiting volatility, they would contribute to lowering yields. Still, they were realistic about current market conditions, and recognized that Portugal's profile as a high-risk, high- yield issuer was more in line with the type of investment opportunities sought after by hedge funds, more likely to quickly resell the bond in the secondary market and with that increase volatility. In the end, more than 60% of the bonds were allocated to "real-money" investors and 24% to hedge funds. Their American roadshow had paid off: 34% of investors were from the USA - the highest ever participation of American investors in a Portuguese debt issuance -, 28% from the UK, and less than 20% from other European countries. This represented a significant shift from Portugal's traditional investor base and a strong sign that the country's credibility as a competent and trustworthy sovereign issuer was being restored. João Moreira Rato was feeling confident: “I expect we will have full market access in the next few months,” he told the Financial Times a few weeks later [36].
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A bibliometric study of the cultural models in international business research

A bibliometric study of the cultural models in international business research

The four dimensions of culture identified by Hofstede were: individualism-collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, power distance and masculinity-femininity. These are described be- low. Power distance is conceptualized as the degree to which individuals in a culture accept unequal distribution of power. Power distance reflects aspects such as the expectations of subordinates and managers regarding the manner in which decisions are taken, opinions are expressed, disagreements are manifested and the style of leadership adopted in organi- zations (Hofstede, 1980, 2001). Another dimension is uncer- tainty avoidance, defined as the tolerance of members of the group to unstructured, ambiguous situations and whether the members of the group accept or try to avoid such situations (Hofstede, 1980). Another dimension identified by Hofstede was individualism-collectivism, defined as the extent to which individuals in a national cultural setting “prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups” (Hofstede, 1994, p. 6). Individualism reflects one’s preference for acting as an individual rather than as a member of groups. Finally, the dimension masculinity-femininity was conceptualized as the degree to which traditionally ‘masculine’ values (e.g., per- formance, competition, success and assertiveness) prevail over stereotypically ‘feminine’ values (e.g., solidarity, care for the weak, cooperation, quality of life, personal relationships and friendship) (see Hofstede, 1994, 2001). In later work, Hofstede and Bond (1988) included a fifth cultural dimension, termed Confucian dynamism (a.k.a. long term orientation), which re- lates to the culture’s time horizon, and the importance ascribed to the future or the past. Cultures with long term orientation tend to value more aspect such as persistence, parsimony and the individuals’ sense of shame, whereas short term oriented cultures value aspects related to personal stability and recip- rocation of favors and gifts.
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International Business and Economics Review

International Business and Economics Review

Considering nowadays technology state-of-art, the predominance of lecture-based models may represent an obstacle to the efficiency of educational systems. The majority of schools are not yet prepared for the new learning environments; sometimes due to insufficient budgets (which are in most cases unaffordable) and teaching designers, and in some cases due to unawareness of adequate learning materials. Recently, Henrich and Sieber (2009), after a 6 years research on information retrieval in blended learning and pure e-learning scenarios, presented that critical success factors for technology enhanced learning approaches are derived from the creation, utilization and maintenance of courses 6 . In short, they argue that ”taking into account the nature and stability of the presented content, as well as a thorough consideration of the affordable creation and maintenance effort, are crucial for the success of such concepts” (Henrich and Sieber, 2009, pp. 117-147).
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Is the international business environment the actual context of IB research?

Is the international business environment the actual context of IB research?

environmental dimensions. As we recalled, Bartlett and Ghoshal (1991) have already pointed out that often IB research provides the stress laboratory for management research. Aharoni and Burton (1994) positioned it as the search for universal rules and the generalizability of management research (Shenkar & von Glinow, 1994). National cultures, for example, mold the researchers own perspectives and leads to well known risks of parochialism (Boyacigiller & Adler, 1991). These risks emerge when the researcher does not adapt instruments and assess the true meaning of theoretical constructs in the specific national context in which they are being applied. Take an example: we may study how holding power influences the labor contract length that managers prefer across a variety of countries. To address this question we should probably determine first what holding power means in each culture, and what are the individuals' expectations as to the appropriate manner to exercise power. Then we need to assess how people actually use power in each nation, and only then explain how holding power may influence the contract length. In pursuing this endeavor, ideally, the researcher will also look at other environmental dimensions such as the economic, institutional and social context as, for example, in some countries the contract length is determined rather exogenously, and in Europe, for instance, labor flexibility is much lower than in the US. The preference for shorter or longer contract lengths may thus be function of culture, legal and social factors, economy and a wide array of other characteristics. Hence, there is also great value in taking a multidimensional perspective because many concepts and relationships are not definable, nor are driven by only one environmental dimension.
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Business Administration (The Lisbon MBA International)

Business Administration (The Lisbon MBA International)

countries. Also, the security system obliges companies to incur in high costs and the judicial system does not respond in due time to companies’ legal issues. The Deloitte report on Fiscal Competitiveness in Portugal highlights the courts slow decisions and the payments terms as the main context costs in Portugal. Sérgio Martins Alves also confirmed that one of the main issues that companies complain about the Portuguese economic environment and is in fact a significant cost of context is the uncertainty in what concerns decision-making by the government and the judicial system. Hence, according to Mr. Alves, political instability, hesitations and slow judicial decisions contribute decisively to businesses outcomes. Bruno Fazenda stressed the fact that in his opinion, apart from the legal and bureaucratic issues, companies in the telecommunications sector do not incur in many context costs in Portugal. According to him, “all the merchandise comes from China so we must have some specificity in what concerns transportation costs, but even this is a rarity given the number of companies that import merchandise from China and other Asian countries”, making the transportation costs the only point that can hinder companies in Portugal in the telecommunications sector. In fact, Mr. Fazenda underlined the advantages of Portugal as a beachhead for the Portuguese-speaking market, especially in Africa and the feeling of the industry that Portugal can be a testing zone for new and innovative technologies. In Mr. Fazenda’s own words: “I believe on of the advantages of Portugal is the expectation of access to the PALOP 18 and technologically, at least in the telecommunications sector, Portugal is known to be a disruptive country and useful as a tester of innovative technological solutions because of its scale and geography.” The geographic aspect was also stressed by Alexandre Lima, who mentioned that Portugal could be viewed as a hub for logistics and operations for Europe, Africa and the Americas. In the telecom sector, this factor could be decisive for the implantation of companies who want to use a rather small market in order to spread to other countries. In fact, the ease of access to the Portuguese-speaking market was stressed as a competitive advantage of Portugal by almost every one of the people interviewed. Sérgio Martins Alves mentioned “when the government sells the idea of doing business in Portugal, one of the main concerns is saying: look, if you do business in Portugal, you can then enter easily Brazil, Angola and Mozambique”. If this is a fact for investment, it is also true when companies are well established, for they can use privileged networks and governmental relationships between Portugal and other Portuguese-speaking countries.
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Nova School of Business and Economics Universidade Nova de Lisboa Dissertation, presented as part of requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Management Dualities in international management: Exploring the role of managers as

Nova School of Business and Economics Universidade Nova de Lisboa Dissertation, presented as part of requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Management Dualities in international management: Exploring the role of managers as

The implications of these insights to management practice in international business contexts is also important. Managers can engage in empty management when they distance themselves from the organizational actions of their teams, thinking and discussing dualities apart from them, especially when teams operate in distant geographies. Management can be empty if managers lack a minimum threshold of concepts to understand what the duality means to different teams in the field. This distance may lead to ambiguous decisions on standardization/adaptation, not easy to translate down the management ladder. A different danger comes when managers get too close to the actions of teams and do not engage in enough abstraction. This management is blind because it does not build the concepts and frames required to recognize the duality. Opportunities to drive synergies out of tensions may be lost and managers may not contribute to organizational memory, as decisions on discrete manifestations of the duality are made on the spot and not considered in careful reflection or discussion. Both risks can be mitigated if managers recognize the interrelation of opposing poles in the duality. Ultimately, managers do not cope with dualities alone, so it is important that they connect to their teams with an open dialogue. In this sense, our study contributes to management practice because it alerts managers to these two risks and at the same time presents strategies that they can use to help them in this regard. Moreover, it helps both manager and team to reflect and discuss dualities in a more fruitful way.
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Corporate strategy and the organizational structure of companies in international business

Corporate strategy and the organizational structure of companies in international business

U pro{losti, ovu strategiju su primenili Ford i GM prilikom ulaska na evrop- sko tr` i{te. Iskustvo Forda veoma re~ito opisuje kako multinacionalna strategija mo` e da stvori probleme za funkcionisanje organizacije kao sistema. Naime, pri- likom istupanja na tr` i{te Evrope Ford Motor Company osnovao je Ford of Europe kao samostalni entitet. Ford of Europe je iskoristio resurse, ve{tine i znanje majke firme u svojoj borbi za lidersko mesto na tr` i{tu automobila u Evropi, proizvo- de}i male modele koji su bili prilago| eni potrebama kupaca sa Starog kontinen- ta. Sa druge strane okeana, u Fordu U.S. poslovali su u dubokom ube| enju da
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Joint Analysis of the Discount Factor and Payoff Parameters in Dynamic Discrete Choice Games

Joint Analysis of the Discount Factor and Payoff Parameters in Dynamic Discrete Choice Games

We show that switching costs can be identi…ed, in a closed-form, independently of the discount factor and speci…cation of the remaining components of the payo¤ function. It may not come as a surprise that such result requires some restrictions on the payo¤s as well as the dependence structure of the controlled Markov process. However, the conditions we impose can be motivated empirically and have been frequently assumed in the empirical literature. Speci…cally, we assume that, whether a player may incur a switching cost in each period is only determined by her own action. The state variables, such as past actions of all players, can otherwise a¤ect today’s switching costs in an arbitrary way. We also require that the remaining components of the payo¤ function do not depend on past actions (this can be relaxed to allow dependence of a …nite time lag). The latter condition is satis…ed by typical payo¤ components. E.g. variable pro…ts that are determined by the competition between players depend only on those present in the game (for instance a Cournot or an auction game), as well as …xed operating costs. We also limit the feedback of past actions in the Markov process. We assume that the past actions do not a¤ect the transition law of future states conditional on today’s actions and states. Our conditional independence requirement is a testable assumption, and is weaker than the frequently assumed condition that state variables other than actions are strictly exogenous. Examples of empirical models that satisfy these assumptions can be found in the applications cited above amongst many others.
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Euroregions as a factor of successful international integration in modern conditions

Euroregions as a factor of successful international integration in modern conditions

Some experts mention as a reason for the crisis situation the aspiration of stronger states to distance themselves from ailing partners in integration alli- ances [1]. However, not everything can be explained by unilateral actions at the governmental level, since there are a large number of supranational insti- tutions that make decisions independently from the EU member states. The post-Soviet space, due to a limited number of supranational mechanisms, does not show such a negative attitude towards the pursuing of national in- terests by individual states. Evidently, the countries facing the most serious crisis have made a series of mistakes in the course of implementing their so- cial and economic policies ignoring a possible increase in budget deficit. While in the post-Soviet space, it is individual countries that face the gravest repercussions of the ensuing economic meltdown, in the EU such situations — for instance those in Greece and Italy — affect the whole Eurozone.
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Rev. bras. polít. int.  vol.59 número2

Rev. bras. polít. int. vol.59 número2

is never abandoned in what constitutes its core principles. Hence, to a large extent, the revolts against the “West” serve, here, as ways through which the “rest of the world” gains entrance into the process of unidirectional historical expansion of a pre-defined logic. “International society”, when articulated with “international order” through a narrative of expansion, offers a logical framework through which history can be read as one single continuous movement 12 . This tracing of the semantic baggage of the concept ofinternational society”, reveals it moving from the position of “theoretical” concept to that of social and political “reality”, allowing the kind of ontological slippage also identified with the concept ofinternational system”. Furthermore, starting as a historical construction, “international society” becomes a logical principle that, framing history, allows for both synchronic and diachronic studies of international relations and history. Here, the semantic baggage ofinternational society” locates the field of IR into the wider problematicof the ambitions of modernization through historical development: all can be, and must be, part of the international society and order. Description slides into prescription and past, present, and future become conditioned by what Bartelson (1995: 230) calls the “prophecy of expansion” of international society. As with “international system”, the plurality of worlds and theories is subsumed under a history-made-logic. The “rest of the world” is always absorbed in a world constituted in Europe, all forms of this relation being reduced to narratives of entrance into “international society”.
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International Business and Economics Review

International Business and Economics Review

One explanation for this illusion is Tajfel’s accentuation theory. This theory claims that people, apart from using information about physical features of objects or psychological features of persons, also use category information to form their evaluation. Where objects are consistently categorized or labelled, the information about the objects and that contained in the category itself guides the processes of making judgments. As a result, the perceived differences between objects belonging to different categories increase, and the differences between objects within the category decrease. This means that objects in the same category are seen as homogenous and the differences across the categories as larger than in reality. Burgoyne et al. (1999) demonstrated that tangible currency has a specific emotional meaning in that people tend to develop an emotional attachment to and often a dependence on a certain mode of payment. Related to this is the work of (Lea, 1981; Furnham, 1983; Leiser, Izak, 1987; Brysbaert and d’Ydewalle, 1981). Lea (1981) found that pre-decimal British coins were remembered as larger than the identical coins under their decimal form. Furnham (1983) found a similar effect for an obsolete design of pound note. Research along the same lines has been carried out in other countries by Leiser and Izak (1987) and Brysbaert and d’Ydewalle (1989). More recent studies on attitudes towards transition from a national currency to the euro in many European countries show that opposition to the common euro currency does not come from the perceived economic personal benefits, but originates from emotional feelings towards national currency (Burgoyne et al., 1999).
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LOHN PRODUCTION – AN ECONOMIC OR SOCIAL MEASURE?

LOHN PRODUCTION – AN ECONOMIC OR SOCIAL MEASURE?

Starting with 1999, Romania has become the most important exporter of clothing (garments) in all this continent of lohn production which is represented by Central and Eastern Europe, and, at the same time, the main supplier for the EU. Poland, the former regional leader, cannot manage to get back on track mainly because of the wages, which are twice as much as in Romania. Other important players on the lohn market are Hungary (with an export of 1107 milliom dollars in 2000) and Bulgaria (691 million dollars). The ‚boom age’ came to an end in 2005 when the EU completely liberalized the import of this sort of products, openning the door for cheaper exporters like China, Bangaldesh, Pakistan and, not the least, Turkey (5860 million dollars in 2000). 81
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5HVHDUFK PRGHO DQG +\SRWKHVHV DEEUHYLDWHG

5HVHDUFK PRGHO DQG +\SRWKHVHV DEEUHYLDWHG

=KX../.UDHPHUDQG-'HGULFN Information technology payoff in e-business environments: An international perspective on value creation of e-business in the financial services industry. -RXUQ[r]

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On the adaptation of the firm to the international business environment

On the adaptation of the firm to the international business environment

This paper discusses the importance of the adaptation of the firm to the International Business Environment. In this discussion we use two main theoretical strands, the knowledge-based view and the evolutionary theory. The ability to adapt is a valuable capability for MNCs that have subsidiaries dispersed across the world that may permit them to overcome the traditional liabilities of foreignness (Hymer, 1976; Barnard, 2010). The ability to adapt is embedded in the firms’ routines, is tacit, is socially complex, and is causally ambiguous, therefore it is difficult to imitate and non-tradeable (Barney, 1991; Barney & Arikan, 2001; Ferreira et al., 2008). Our paper contributes to the recurrent questions: “why are firms different” and “what accounts for firms’ different performances”. Path dependent effects and differentiated adaptation to the co-evolving environment are likely to account for a large share of the variance. In fact, in a traditional view, only the fittest are able to survive (Friedman, 1953; Spencer, 1987), but it is possible that in competitive markets, the firms’ viability is established in comparison to other competitors and thus to survive and prosper, firms only need to be fitter than their competitors (Shepherd & McKelvey, 2009). Firms’ differential performance may be the outcome of the choices made on how they respond to the environment and how the responses allow the firms to leverage, augment or recombine their pool of resources. According to Zahra and George (2002) it is through organizational learning that firms gain flexibility to adapt and evolve (see also Levinthal, 1997; Uhlenbruck et al., 2003; Aldrich & Ruef, 2006).
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Guia do Estudante Estrangeiro (905 Downloads)

Guia do Estudante Estrangeiro (905 Downloads)

Every foreign student residing in Brazil must register at the Federal Police Department within 30 (thirty) days from the date of entry. IFSul provides assistance in the organization of the required documents when the student arrives in Brazil, taking them to the local Federal Police Department for the application for their RNE, Registro Nacional de Estrangeiros (National Registry of Foreigners). The registration fees are paid by the student. After the application, the student will be given a temporary RNE application number, which will be used until the CIE, Cédula de Identidade de Estrangeiro (Foreigner ID Card), is issued.
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CD9.R21: Malaria eradication program in the Americas

CD9.R21: Malaria eradication program in the Americas

6. To recommend to the Member Governments that, owing to the urgency of the malaria eradication program, they assign to the national malaria services the necessary rank and authority to expedite the handling of funds and of personnel problems, as one of the means of assuring the success of this program.

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