The present study makes contributions to both research and practice. Firstly, to our knowledge, this is one of the first few studies which investigates non-usage of microblogging, an important platform in the social media suite of services. The reasons uncovered for non-use lay the foundation for further research in this area. Interestingly, the findings highlight that some of these reasons are primarily perceptual in nature (e.g. privacy issues), and work could be conducted to examine why this is so, and how such perceptions could be mitigated. Further, the reasons for non- use could be addressed by platform developers so as to alleviate potential users’ concerns. For example, knowing that users prefer other technologies, developers could determine suitable features in competing platforms to incorporate, in a bid to drive usage numbers. Apart from functionality, marketers could also investigate how microblogs could be positioned to better attract users.
Evidence regarding the link between trade liberalization and output lev- els is provided by Frankel and Romer (1996) and by Hall and Jones (1999). They elaborate that openness (namely, low tari¤s and low incidence of quo- tas and other non-tari¤ trade barriers) increases income per-capita both by enhancing capital accumulation and, notably, by expanding productivity. Evidence regarding the positive relationship between open trade policy and growth rates, which is discussed in Krueger (1997), has been documented recently by Edwards (1997), Frankel, Romer and Cyrus (1996), Harrison (1995), Lee (1996) and Taylor (1996), using various types of data samples and techniques. Previous empirical work on the same topic is also surveyed in Edwards (1993). Finally, evidence regarding the relationship between trade policy and convergence is provided in Sachs and Warner (1995), who show that among the countries that they consider open to trade, one cannot statis- tically reject convergence, while the same is not true in a broader sample of countries. To us, this …nding suggests that very poor countries that choose isolationist trade policies set for themselves “ development traps” , and that the pervasiveness of protectionism among LDC´ s may be responsible for the “ twin-peak distribution” suggested by Quah (1996).
This study identified thebarriersto Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) and analyzed their degree of influence from the perspective of a first-tier supplier in the Brazilian automotive industry. The lite- rature indicates a total of 43 barriers, of which 13 were validated in the following areas: support and involvement (five), operational performance (three), economic performance (two), environmental per- formance (two), and knowledge and information (one). The validation was based on the perception of technical and academic specialists familiar with environmental and supply chain management in various sectors. The hierarchy of thebarriers by priority was obtained usingthe Analytic Hierarchy Pro- cess (AHP) method, with decision makers representing an industry in the automotive sector. The study showed that cost implications are the most influential barrier to GSCM from the perspective of a first-tier supplier in the sector.
Nitrogen fixation is a pivotal process in global nitrogen cycling and is of huge ecological and agronomic importance. The ability to fix nitrogen is distributed in bacteria and archaea . Among these organisms, the free-living diazotroph Klebsiella pneumoniae has been extensively studied at the genetic level. A cluster of 21 genes organized into seven operons is required for the biosynthesis, activity, and regulation of nitrogenase, a complex enzyme consisting of two component metalloproteins. The process of dinitrogen reduction is stringently controlled in this organism, and nif gene transcription is regulated by a cascade system . The first level of regulation contains the two-component NtrB-NtrC regulatory system, which provides global control in response tothe nitrogen source and modulates the expression of the nifLA operon. Under nitrogen-limiting conditions, NtrC is phosphorylated and activates transcription of the nifLA operon. In the second tier of regulation, the nifLA gene products then control expression of the remaining nif operons. NifL regulates the activity of NifA in response to both nitrogen and oxygen . NifA, together with the Integration Host Factor (IHF) and the s 54 -holoenzyme form of RNA polymerase (s 54 ), initiates transcription at the other nif promoters [3,4].
trend for young people to favour the use of informal sources, rather than more formal sources of disclosure, with the request for help essentially focusing on peers. Victims of DV rarely reveal violence to their parents, preferring to do it with peers, for fear of judgment and shame associated with exposing the abuse situation to their parents (Gallopin and Leigh 2009). In a qualitative study, Shen (2011) interviewed ten Taiwan female victims of DV, in order to identify and understand the cultural meanings and barriers that may interfere with help seeking behaviours and six main factors were found: (i) self-reliant culture, (ii) personal and family shame, (iii) secretive and sexual dating relationships, (iv) fear of negative reactions from others, (v) unfamiliarity with available resources, and (vi) revictimization in seeking help. Another qualitative study by Baly (2010) with only six participants found that the participants’ reports tend to reflect aspects of broader susceptible cultural or social discourses, with some of them (e.g., discourses of romance and femininity such as the importance of the woman’s nurturing role in sustaining the relationship) promoting the maintenance in abusive relationship and others (e.g., discourses of self-reliance and responsibility for one’s own actions and needs) helping participants to leave such relationships. The same study concluded that participants report different indicators of strength and agency in dealing with the abusive situation, thus reflecting different forms of intervention at different times. Enander and Holmber (2008) also emphasize the resistance of battered women in the description of the violent dynamics of the relationship, however this does not necessarily leading to leaving the relationship. They identify three overlapping leaving processes: (i) breaking up, involving the physical breakup action; (ii) becoming free, which covers emotion (e.g., love, hate, compassion, hope) and involving release from the strong emotional bond tothe batterer, and (iii) understanding, which is related to cognition, in which the woman perceives and interprets the abusive situation in which she was involved. Finally, it is important to highlight that the victim’s decision to stay or leave is a multidimensional one (Barnett 2000), involving a complex process usually characterized by a leave/return cycle consisting of several phases, such as: (i) resistance and management of abusive situations; (ii) recognizing abuse and reformulating/reinterpreting behaviours as abusive or not; (iii) “break free”, disengage, focusing on the victim’s own needs (Anderson and Saunders 2003).
This document presents a study that evaluates the use of temporal information in the task of recommending tweets on Twitter. Two temporal aspects have been analysed: the lifespan of information topic and its personalized version for each user. The application of such temporal aspects has been evaluated using three recommendation systems implemented in this work. We also evaluated two topic models considered to describe tweets: a bag of words model and a model of latent topics extracted using LDA (Latent Dirichlet Allocation). Furthermore, we evaluated the use of SVM (Support Vector Machines) to estimate the user profile, comparing this approach with a simpler one. The experiments have been executed using a dataset with 414 millions of tweets published by 321 thousands of users. The results show that the use of topic lifespan information increases the quality of recommendation, and the personalized version of this information increases the quality even more.
(PT), Sweden (SE) and the United Kingdom (UK). The main aim of the study is to analyse the pathways to care and to gain a better understanding of the reasons for in- equalities in access to health and social care. Thus, a co- hort study with dyads of people with dementia and their informal carers over a one-year period was performed, and their needs, service use patterns and quality of life were assessed . To further explore thebarriers and facilitators to accessing and using formal care—as expe- rienced by people with dementia and their carers and health and social care professionals—a cross-national focus group study was conducted (Work Package 2 of the Actifcare Project). Focus groups are considered an appropriate approach, as they have the potential to en- hance theunderstanding of factors that influence behav- iour or motivations [20, 21]. The findings of the focus groups have also been used to inform subsequent parts of the Actifcare study, in particular, single interviews with national political decision makers/influencers and semi-structured interviews with a subsample of the dyads from the cohort study.
UNDERSTANDINGTHE MOLECULAR STRUCTURE USINGTHE IONIZED HYDROGEN MOLECULE. In this paper a general view about the modern molecular structure theory is developed discussing the ionized hydrogen molecule. We introduce some necessary approximation methods for the electronic and nuclear spectra study adopting a systematic approach. In addition though, we have performed calculations in order to illustrate these methods.
peer-reviewed journals indexed in the Lilacs, SciELO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science electronic journal databases. Qualitative and quantitative studies reporting the results of barriersto PA (prevalence and/or reports), which involved samples of the Brazilian population and were published in Portuguese or English, were included. The search was limited to articles published between January 2000 and September 2016. Reviews, opinions, letters tothe editor, books, book chapters, research reports, dissertations, and theses were excluded from the analysis. Stu- dies on PA barriers that only included population samples with special conditions or investigated in clinical studies (e.g., individuals with heart disease, HIV, and cancer) were also excluded. Search terms/keywords related to PA and barriersto PA were used and only studies involving samples of the Brazilian population (Brazil, Brazilians) were included. The search terms were combined usingthe Boolean operators “AND” and “OR”. The following syntax and search terms were used: (“motor activity” OR “locomotor activity” OR “physical activity” OR exercise OR sports OR walking) AND (barriers OR “perceived barriers” OR facilitators OR
This research also had a number of limitations. Considering that this is a mixed research, these limitations will depend on the side of the postpositivist vs. constructivist debate. From the postpositivist side, it would be arguable that: the exclusion criteria were not controlled enough and should have been more stringent, that there should have been an assessment done at the beginning of the therapy, that the main inclusion criteria – depression – should have been subjected to a proper diagnosis. These arguments do not take into consideration that this was not a laboratory study, but rather research into a real-life context. Any system of indices derived in perfect conditions would only be applicable in those rare conditions. Another line of limitations is more conceptual. A post-positivist would argue that assimilation was not operationally defined and that the indices therefore can correspond to other processes. This would be close tothe idea that the dimensions should be statistically independent if they represent different processes. Indeed, the definition of assimilation was exactly in the opposite direction. Assimilation was broadened to a global description of change. In this case the indices may represent a different process if assimilation is seen narrowly or as a part of assimilation if it is considered broadly. Summing up, not only would an operational definition of assimilation be impossible, it would be undesirable according to this perspective.
This article aims to analyze the state of the art of research in renewable energies and to identify thebarriers that affect the insertion of these technologies in the market. For this, a systematic literature review was conducted in order to select scientific articles on the topic. The search involved the terms Renewable *, energ*, niche, city, cities, countr *, barrier *, constraint * and challenge * as keywords and allowed the selection of 48 references in the Scopus and Web of Science database. It was possible to verify the main authors, research institutions, journals and countries that publish on the subject, the most cited documents and the collaboration networks. The results were analyzed usingthe R software, usingthe bibliometrix package, generating descriptive statistics that indicate that the United Kingdom, India, China, Australia, Iran, Japan, Korea, Switzerland and the USA are the leading countries in renewable energy research, identifying barriersto its diffusion. The most productive author and magazine are Emrah Karakaya and Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews.
Data were analyzed usingthe statistics software package SPSS 18.0 and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed. The data from Sample 1 and Sample 2 were used for item discrimination analysis and factor analysis to determine the number of items. The data from Sample 3, collected online, were used to confirm the factor structure. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed using Amos 7.0 software. The model fit indices indicated adequate model fit; the comparative fit index (CFI) was .953; the normed fit index (NFI) was .944; the relative fit index (RFI) was .916; and the incremental fit index (IFI) was .954. The root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) was .069. According to Steiger (2007) , a stringent upper limit of 0.07 for RMSEA seems to be the consensus amongst authorities. To compare and identify differences between the excessive use of microblogs and Internet addiction, we asked participants in Sample 4 to complete both the MEUS and the IAT. To determine which psychological characteristics are associated with microblog use, we asked participants in Sample 5 to complete the Social Interaction Scale and the Self-Disclosure Questionnaire as well as our MEUS. Finally, we combined Sample 3 and Sample 5 data in order to calculate the norm of the MEUS, as well as to identify a standard for the assessment of excessive use of microblogs among college students. We calculated correlations between the scales using Spearman’s rho (Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient). To test the differences of different levels in the total score, we used the Kruskal-Wallis test (Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance) and the Mann-Whitney U test. The significance level in this study was p,.01.
The society's demand to improve the quality of health services implies the search for nursing actions for the implementation of Evidence-Based Practice (EBP), since care guided by evidence generated through scientific methods can help increase health care results. The use of research results in clinical practice is one of the EBP components; however, it is still a challenge for the nursing team. Thus, one of the actions that can minimize the gap between the knowledge produced and its application is the identification of barriers that prevent the interdependence between research and practice. This study's overall objectives were: to perform the cultural adaptation of TheBarriersto Research Utilization Scale and analyze the metric properties of validity and reliability of the instrument TheBarriers Scale - Brazilian Portuguese version. A methodological study was conducted through the following steps: cultural adaptation process - translation and back-translation; face and content validity - expert committee; construct validity - dimensionality and known groups and reliability analysis - test-retest. TheBarriers Scale consists of 29 items distributed into four factors, namely: Factor 1 - Nurse, Factor 2 - Organization, Factor 3 - Research, and Factor 4 - Communication. The response values range from 1 (nonexistent) to 4 (massive), wherein the highest values reflect greater barrierstousing research results in practice. Data were collected at two hospitals, through the application of an instrument for sociodemographic and professional characteristics of the nurses and TheBarriers Scale - Brazilian Portuguese version, from October 2014 to June 2015, with the participation of 335 nurses. Significance was set at 0.05. The results showed that most participants were women (88.7%), with a mean age of 33.9 years, bachelors, masters, with a single
for the equivalent of two days in one day. In the end of the month, money returns tothe one making the deposits minus a fee paid to person who collects the money 5 . Nevertheless, a negative impact of the amount put in a weekly saving group on profits was found, meaning that the more money is put in the saving group the less profit one might expect from the business. Despite of contradictory, these results make sense if one considers that those having bank accounts still use somehow the saving groups but do not use them as the main source of savings. Note that, 42% of the entrepreneurs stated to use both bank accounts and saving groups. The same pattern (but not significant) is found on xitique at a weekly and monthly basis – positive coefficient for those in the group, but negative coefficient for the amount put in the same group. As a result, it is expected to find entrepreneurs with high level of profits that participate in saving groups but who might contribute with small amounts of money. Also, for a 10% level of significance, a new relation can be noticed: the positive impact of owning a bank account on business profits. The only statistically significant result points tothe endogenous variable concerning the frequency of usingthe bank account.
ABSTRACT. In this project, we link fluid flow simulation results to time-lapse seismic through rock physics and modeling. Our goal is to examine the main effects of permeability barriers on seismic response using fluid flow simulations to generate pressure and saturation fields. To explore this problem, we have carried out water and gas injection numerical experiments in a simple reservoir model which has vertical and horizontal variations of porosity as well as permeability barriers. In each experiment, we change the barrier permeability values. By using fluid substitution theory, Gassmann and patchy models, and Batzle and Wang’s empirical relationship we model the main seismic parameters, such as acoustic impedance and compressional velocity. After that, we generate synthetics seismograms and some contrast sections to compare the seismic images prior and after fluid injection events in subsequent time periods to analyze possible differences in the seismic parameters due to changes in barriers properties. The results show that barriers can increase fluid pore pressure changing the bulk modulus in the regions with barriers. The results also show that water flow does not have significant impact on seismic response when the barrier is present. On the other hand, gas flow and the degree of impermeability of the barrier can help us to understand how thebarriers act on the seismic response and thus to reduce uncertainty. Finally, this paper presents a methodology to examine barriers effects on seismic response.
Chiari’s network is a mobile, net-like structures and diagnosed by the presence of fibers originating from the Eustachian or Thebesian valve with attachments tothe interatrial septum or crista terminalis, with a prevalence of 2.0% in transesophageal echocardiography (Schneider et al., 1995). In an autopsy study of 213 hearts the Chiari’s network is described with a frequency of 13.6% (Bhatnagar et al., 2006), compared to 4.6% in this study, which suggests that it may be under-diagnosed in transesophageal echocardiography studies. It has been reported that the Chiari’s network can hinder catheterization of the right heart and coronary sinus. This condition may require withdrawal and rotation of the catheter, which significantly prolongs the procedure time. Chiari’s network could be easily imaged using transthoracic echocardiography (as a highly mobile, highly reflectant echo structure). When Chiari’s network causes an obstruction, transesophageal echocardiography offers a valuable resource in assisting the operator (Teo, Ittleman & Hamlin, 2010). Moreover Chiari’s network could be seen in computed tomography and magnetic resonance techniques (Loukas et al., 2010).
Abstract Taking into consideration issues such as stigma and the mental health gap, this study ex- plores narratives of anxious and depressed women treated in a community-based primary care ser- vice in a Rio de Janeiro favela about their suffer- ing and care. We analysed 13 in-depth interviews using questions from Kadam’s study. Framework analysis studied Access, Gateway, Trust, Psycho- social Issues, and Primary Mental Health Care, as key-concepts. Vulnerability and accessibility were the theoretical references. Thematic analy- sis found “suffering category”, highlighting family and community problems, and “help seeking cat- egory”, indicating how these women have coped with their emotional problems and addressed their needs through health services, community resources and self-help. Women’s language pat- terns indicated links between implicit social rules and constraints to talk about suffering, especially if related to local violence. High medical turn- over and overload are barriers for establishing a positive relationship with family physicians and continuity of care is a facilitator that promotes trust, security and adherence. Concluding, to plan community-based primary mental health care of this population, cultural and social factors must be comprehended as well as the work health teams conditions.
Wave barriers are intended to mitigate vibration transmission in the soil. They in- clude open and inilled trenches, sheet piles, etc. In this study, a two-dimensional inite difference element analysis was performed using FLAC-2D software as a research into the eficiency of open and inilled barriers exposed to dynamic loading with or without the presence of structures. In this contribution, two constitutive models are considered to study the soil response in the elastic and elastoplastic range with account for yield, fail- ure and potential functions of soil plasticity. The results were assessed with account for reduced soil particle displacements on the ground surface exposed to impulse loading.
Managerial accounting plays an important role for making prompt and efficient decisions to reduce troubles in the market. However, there are many circumstances where management team cannot make appropriate, fast and reliable managerial decisions. In this paper, we present a survey in cement industry and look to find out important factors as major barriers of managerial accounting implementation. The proposed model of this paper designs and distributes questionnaire among management teams who work for cement industry in Iran. The results of the survey indicate that lack of familiarity of managers with managerial accounting techniques, existence of unprofessional people in financial and accounting affairs and lack of having globally acceptable standards are major barriers in this industry for implementation of managerial accounting skills. However, our survey does not find any relationship between market turbulence and efficiency and implementation of managerial accounting skills.
example the ―ancient brain‖ (e.g., limited capacity to process information about the distant future) ―ignorance‖ (lack of knowledge about problems existence, about what actions to take and climate change causes and extent) and ―environmental numbness‖ (limited capacity to monitor complex and diverse information about the surrounding context); (2) Ideologies—related with beliefs such as for example ―technosalvation‖ (e.g., belief that technology, and not individual actions, will solve climate change problems) and ―system justification‖ (the tendency to defend the system and the ―status quo‖, which prevents people from acting against it); (3) Comparison with others—including for example ―social comparison‖ (comparison between own actions and the actions of others, deriving descriptive norms from this, regarding what is the ―proper‖ thing to do) and ―perceived inequity‖ (implying the perception of different demands to different individuals, that might be perceived as unfair, e.g., ―why should I change if others do not?‖); (4) Sunk costs—related to perceived losses in terms of money, time and lifestyle, such as ―financial investments‖ (e.g., people have a tendency to avoid losses and thus, if they bought a car might think that usingthe public transport is throwing money away) and from ―conflicting values, goals and aspirations‖ (pro-environmental values positively influence behavior unless they are incompatible with people‘s own values, aspirations and other goals); (5) Discredence—related to perceiving the views of other people in a negative way and/or discounting them, including for example ―denial‖ (of climate change occurrence, of its causes being human or that one‘s own actions play a role in it) and ―reactance‖ (reacting against advice or policy that is perceived as a threat to their personal freedom, e.g., in the form of ―you are forbidden to do X‖); (6) Perceived risks—the perception of a threat to self and others, from acting pro-environmentally, including ―functional‖, ―physical‖, ―financial‖, ―social‖, ―psychological‖ and ―temporal‖ risks; (7) Limited behavior—related for example with doing the minimum required actions, when much more could be done, including ―tokenism‖ (adopting more low cost and easy, than high cost and difficult actions).