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THE ANNALS OF THE
TEFAN CEL MARE"
UNIVERSITY OF SUCEAVA.
FASCICLE OF THE FACULTY OF
VOLUME 11, NO. 2(14), 2011
Editor‐in‐chief: Carmen NĂSTASE
General editorial secretary: Adrian Liviu SCUTARIU
Editors: Elena HLACIUC, Carmen CHAŞOVSCHI, Mariana LUPAN, Ovidiu Florin HURJUI
Angela ALBU, „Ştefan cel Mare” University of Suceava, Romania Paolo ANDREI, University of Studies in Parma, Italy
Stefano AZZALI, University of Studies in Parma, Italiy George P. BABU, University of Southern Mississippi, USA
Christian BAUMGARTNER, International Friends of Nature, Austria Grigore BELOSTECINIC, ASEM, Chi şinău, Republic of Moldova Ionel BOSTAN, „Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi, Romania Aurel BURCIU, „Ştefan cel Mare” University of Suceava, Romania
Gheorghe CÂRSTEA, Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest , Romania Slobodan CEROVIC, Singidunum University, Belgrade, Serbia
Simion CERTAN, State University of Chişinău, Republic of Moldova Carmen CHAŞOVSCHI, „Ştefan cel Mare” University of Suceava, Romania Liliana ELMAZI, Tirana University, Albania
Cristian Valentin HAPENCIUC, „Ştefan cel Mare” University of Suceava, Romania Elena HLACIUC, „Ştefan cel Mare” University of Suceava, Romania
Elena IFTIME, „Ştefan cel Mare” University of Suceava, Romania Marian JALENCU, State University of Chişinău, Republic of Moldova Miika KAJANUS, Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Iisalmi, Finland Alunica MORARIU, „Ştefan cel Mare” University of Suceava, Romania Maria MUREŞAN, Academy of Economic Studies, Bucuresti, Romania Carmen NĂSTASE, „Ştefan cel Mare” University of Suceava, Roman ia Alexandru NEDELEA, „Ştefan cel Mare” University of Suceava, Romania Ion PÂRȚACHI, ASEM, Chişinău, Republic of Moldova
Rusalim PETRIŞ, „Ştefan cel Mare” University of Suceava, Romania Abraham PIZAM, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida Ion POHOAȚĂ, „Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi, Romania Gabriela PRELIPCEAN, „Ştefan cel Mare” University of Suceava, Romania Gheorghe SANDU, „Ştefan cel Mare” University of Suceava, Romania Petru SANDU, Elizabethtown College, Pennsylvania, USA
Doru TILIUȚE, „Ştefan cel Mare” University of Suceava, Romania Viorel ȚURCANU, ASEM, Chişinău, Republic of Moldova
Diego VARELA PEDREIRA, University of A Coruna, Spain
Răzvan VIORESCU, „Ştefan cel Mare” University of Suceava, Romania
Text review: Adrian Liviu SCUTARIU. Cover design: Adrian Liviu SCUTARIU
Faculty of Economics and Public Administration „Ştefan cel Mare” University of Suceava
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DOES EU MEMBERSHIP AFFECT THE SOCIAL AND LABOUR INCLUSION OF FOREIGN PRISONERS IN SPAIN? AN ANALYSIS OF SELF-PERCEPTIONS AND
ATTITUDES TOWARDS LEARNING
University of A Coruña, Faculty of Economics and Business, Campus de Elviña, 15071 A Coruña, Spain firstname.lastname@example.org
University de A Coruña, Faculty of Economics and Business, Campus de Elviña, 15071 A Coruña, Spain email@example.com
University de A Coruña, Faculty of Economics and Business, Campus de Elviña, 15071 A Coruña, Spain firstname.lastname@example.org
Movements of people linked to the processes of globalization lead to the formation of foreign cultural and ethnical groups, which may generate risk of exclusion. When these people have committed crimes, and have been punished for them, this risk is increased. In this paper we analyze the case of foreign prisoners in the Northwest region of Spain. We rely on qualitative and quantitative research conducted in prisons. By means of statistical analysis of equality-of-means t-test, we found greater difficulties for the inclusion of foreign prisoners, as well as significant differences in self-perceptions of this group in relation to Spaniards, especially in the groups of non-EU foreigners. These differences are particularly apparent in matters relating to the education processes and employment training conducted within prisons. Taking into account these differences would allow designing specific education and training policies to promote the social integration and employment of the foreign-born inmate population, minimizing thus the risk of exclusion.
Keywords: social exclusion, prisoners, foreign, comparison of means
JEL Classification: J00
The sustainability of any social structure necessarily involves the inclusion of each and every one of its members. A society with ghettos or groups without their own space will hardly achieve those levels of development needed for its survival over time (Wiliamson & Pickett, 2008).
Globalization is characterized by the high speed and increasing size of international relations and exchanges. People's mobility is thus growing, and societies become much more pluralistic, with the growing presence of cultural and ethnic minority groups. If societies are not flexible and tolerant enough, situations where the is a risk of exclusion will soon arise (Sen, 2000).
When these minority groups, for whatever reason, are, in addition, part of another minority group (disabled, elderly, homosexuals, drug addicts, criminals, etc.), the risk of exclusion increases and therefore, society can see its own structure and sustainability threatened.
Inclusion is therefore a goal for all societies pursuing the survival of their own organizational and operational schemes, i.e. whose goal is sustainable social development. But inclusion cannot be achieved without a strong knowledge of each and every groups that should be included. Thus, the consideration of all the social groups is essential in a developed society. The fight against social exclusion in general, and multiple exclusion in particular, becomes a prime target (Silver, 1995). In fact, this concern is reflected in world declarations, such as the Millennium Development Goals (UN, 2000), or the European Agenda 2020, that sets the achievement of sustainable and inclusive growth as one of its objectives (COM, 2010).
Sometimes, situations of exclusion lead to crime, which in turn leads to exclusion (Herrero, 2003), so that the wheel of multiple exclusion begin to roll.
In this paper we present a study based on the convicted population in the northwest region of Spain (region NUTS at level 2), in order to know their home country peculiarities, and then be able to know if nationality really affects the opportunities for inclusion. If so, it would be possible to carry out some actions to reverse the situation of multiple exclusion of this group. For that reason, we made a survey among prisoners in the prisons of Galicia to evaluate possible differences in attitudes linked to nationality that could affect future opportunities for convicts.
In order to to perform the analysis, we developed a questionnaire that we distributed among the convict population of Galician prisons. This survey reflects the opinions and perceptions of inmates. We are aware that prisoners may belong to organized criminal gangs internationally, as part of a superstructure, and escape, to some extent, to the exclusion processes discussed here. However, their individual assessments on the prison system would remain valid. Similarly, we see that the group of foreign inmates as a heterogeneous group, which should be subject to further analysis.
The importance of taking into account the views and perceptions of the group of foreign prisoners relies on the high risk of social exclusion they face. But we must also bear in mind that they are a significant part of the prison population. According to the Ministry of Home Affairs (Government of Spain), 35 percent of inmates in Spanish prisons are foreigners (Ministry of Home Affairs, 2009). Therefore, the proportion of non-nationals is high, and represents over a third of the prison population. In recent years, in absolute terms, there was an increasing trend in the number of foreign prisoners, although it decreased in 2011. However, since the total convicted population has also declined, foreigners account for a similar share of the population as in the previous year.
With respect to the country of origin, the largest foreign inmate population come from South America, followed by North Africa. Foreign prisoners from the European Union amounted, in 2009, to 18.9% of the foreign prison population in Spain, according to the Ministry of Home Affairs. The number of Romanian prisoners in Spanish jails was 2169, accounting for 8% of all the foreigners in prison. Thus, Romania is at the top of EU, followed by Portugal, with 557 inmates (2.1% of total foreigners).
In this paper, we investigate how foreign prisoners, particularly, the ones that comes from the European Union, perceive their future outlook, and if their perceptions and attitudes differ (or not) from those of Spanish prisoners.
The work is divided into two parts: in the first one, we analyzed the different areas pointed out for Subirats i Humet, Carmona and Brugué Gomà Torruella (2005) as the essential pillars of social inclusion, namely labour and economy, education and training, and famili and society..Our aim is to study the nature and magnitude of the differences between the possibilities of inclusion for Spanish and foreign prisoners.
related to their language and their belonging or not to the European Union. In order to do this, we used a statistical analysis for comparison of means, analyzing the values of the "Student t" in order to find statistically significant differences in the responses. The questionnaire was based on a set of questions that we asked to inmate population so that they expressed how much they agree or disagree with specific statements, according to a Likert scale, where the value 1 corresponds to strongly disagree and 5 is complete agreement. We performed a pretest to 50 inmates, after that, we proceeded to the purification of the questionnaire, eliminating redundant questions and wrong understanding. The final test was translated into Arabic, with support from the Official School of Languages in A Coruña, due to the presence of prisoners of Arabic origin, with whom the research team had some communication problems.
Family and Social Area:
In this regard, we found that public visibility is a major factor, essential for inclusion. In Spain there is a high level of the condemned "without papers", we mean that they are not in legal status. Illegal residence of foreigners in the country of destination makes the problems of exclusion grow and multiply, worsening the situation considerably. That is the main reason to analyze the foreign prison population separately from that of European Union countries, which enjoy the status of EU citizens, and do not have this problem. However, they still have their own language and cultural differences, such as those from Central and Eastern Europe. This is a differential issue that may generate groups at risk of exclusion.
On the other hand, having support from family or friends is essential to achieve a normal life after leaving prison. In the case of foreigners, they often have their family abroad and, in many cases, the family does not know that they are in prison, so they must face alone this difficult situation. Foreigners face limitations on family reunification and they are expelled from the country as a preferential sanction (foreigners are given the option not to pay the whole of their term in prison if they accept to leave the country and commit not to return for a number of years), making it more difficult to leave the prison and quickly begin a normal life (Ribas et al, 2005). Furthermore, the social networks of the inmate are often the only way they have, for example, to get a job, being one of the most important mechanisms for achieving social inclusion. If they lack these networks, the adaptation process is complicated, so they need the help of an intermediary, such as an association (Ribas et al, 2005).
Economic and Labor sphere:
Leaving prison with a lawful source of income, such as a job or a pension, is decisive for non-recidivism. Those prisoners who have good prospects in the labor market reoffend less, while those who do not, among which are almost always foreigners, relapse more easily, especially if they have drug problems (Entford, 2009 ).
Education and Training sphere:
Having previous training and undertaking training courses in prison are a definite plus for inmates to find a job after they leave prison. Education is therefore a precondition to make reintegration easier (Smerotkina, 2010). An attempt, for example, to make the prison environment more relaxed and facilitate education is the implementation of the "modules of respect", which promote the activity of prisoners and good manners (Cantero, 2010). Despite these efforts, we must take into account the high percentage of illiteracy in prison. Often, even if inmates can read and write, they have considerable difficulties, because they lack reading and writing habits (Bhatti, 2009). Among foreigners, an important part do not speak Spanish well. For this reason, we have dedicated a special section to the differentiation of the foreign prison population between Spanish-speakers and the rest.
and see the aspects that can be targeted in order to get out of the situation of social exclusion they face.
The study has been carried out in the region of Galicia, located in the Northwest of Spain. There are five prisons in Galicia: Teixeira, Bonxe, Monterroso, Pereiro de Aguiar and A Lama. There are also two Social Integration Centres (CIS), with third grade prison population (semi-freedom).
One of the main difficulties in the implementation of this work has been the access to the prison population. Entry into prisons has required nominal permits for each of the members of the research team from the Ministry of Interior of the Government of Spain (Penitentiary Institutions).
Once we got the required permits, we visited all these prisons and the CIS for the completion of the questionnaire, thus obtaining a sample of 473 respondents. 461 prisoners of all respondents answered the question about their nationality, representing 97.5% of total. 337 prisoners have Spanish nationality and 124 are foreigners, mostly from South America, North Africa and the East of Europe. These are the groups of foreigners with more representation in Spanish prisons, as we have discussed before. The randomness of the selection process of inmates ensures the representativeness of the sample and, therefore, the possibility of inferring results for the whole prison population. The description of the sample in Table no. 1 shows the most representative classification variables:
Table no. 1. Description of the sample
VARIABLE CATEGORY FRECUENCY PERCENTAGE
Sex Men 352 74,4
Women 121 25,6
Total 473 100
Studies No education 47 9,9
Primary education 190 40,2
High School 151 31,9
Training 45 9,5
College 27 5,7
Total 460 97,3
Age 18-30 130 29,1
31-50 284 63,5
>50 33 7,4
Total 447 94,5
Nationality Spain 337 71,2
North Africa 39 8,2
South America 52 11
EU without Spain 19 4
Others 14 3
Total 461 97,5
The questionnaire focused on the analysis of job skills, family relationships and their self-perspectives, from statements about which should show their degree of agreement or disagreement with a Likert scale of 5 points in which, as already we noted, 1 indicates the position most in disagreement with the proposed statement and 5 the one most in agreement.
the t-test, we conducted Levene's test, which indicates whether it is possible to assume equal variances or if they are different.
We have analyzed the responses grouped into the fields we have commented previously:
Family and Social sphere:
We found significant differences in certain questions. The foreign prison population has a more positive perception than the Spanish because they think that will be received better in their environment when they leave prison. However, foreign prisoners often have their families abroad. Their family supports them, but they must rebuild their lives by themselves.
Economic and Labor sphere:
The questions with significant differences are covered in Table no. 2.
Table no. 2. t test for equality of means
Question Nacionality N Mean t Statistic Degrees of Freedom
Differences on averages
Spanish 326 4,518 When I get out prison, I will try to
Foreign 116 4,715
-1,99(*) 253,141 -0,19711
Spanish 323 3,284 When I get out of prison, I will go
to an association to ask help
Foreign 114 3,964
-3,833(**) 209,465 -0,68008
Spanish 308 2,714 Employers prefer to hire a Spanish
former prisoner rather than a
foreigner Foreign 101 3,297
-3,119(**) 158,098 -0,58274 Significance Level: (**) 95%, (*) > 99% The probability associated with the t-statistic is below 5 percent when we compare the means related to their intention to work when they leave prison. Therefore, in this issue there are significant differences: foreigners have more intention to work after they serve their sentences than the Spanish prisoners. However, they themselves consider that an employer will rather hire a Spanish convict than a foreigner. They are aware that they will encounter more difficulties in the labor market.
The foreign population considers further the possibility of going to an association to help them find a job, because the average of the Spanish responses is 3.28 compared to 3.96 for foreigners. This is related to the fact their family is usually away from them and do not have friends or acquaintances who may hire them. On the other hand, they are more used to go to these organizations than the Spanish. Since arriving in Spain, many of them have difficulties in other areas of their lives and go to associations for information and support. Associations serve as the "link" with society that many lack.
Therefore, in the labor field, although they are more willing to seek work, they feel they need some kind of mediator to find a job and it is possible that they will be discriminate vis-a-vis a national.
Educational and Training area:
Table no. 3. t test for equality of means
Question Nationality N Mean t Statistic Degrees of Freedom
Differences on averages
Spanish 319 2,589 Courses and professions that I
have learned in prison will
help me find a job Foreign 108 3,25
-3,643(**) 425 -0,66066
Spanish 322 1,729 Courses in prison are
Foreign 110 2,345
-3,786(**) 156,352 -0,61564
Spanish 316 1,744 Institutions promote enough
programs for inmates
Foreign 107 2,327
-3,475(**) 153,577 -0,58343 Significance Level: (**) > 99% The foreign prison population has a higher educational level than the national average, although it should be noted that the courses of studies are not always equivalent. Also, foreigners know, in general, more languages than Spaniards. Their interest in languages is explained, often, by the need to communicate in the host country and in prison, where in many cases they can not communicate with others in the language of their home country.
When inmates are asked about the usefulness of what they have learned in prison at the time they go free, we get an average of 2.59 points in the case of the Spanish and 3.25 in the foreign; about their opinion on the existence of sufficient training in prison, the means are of 1.73 points compared to 2.35 and as to whether they consider that institutions promote sufficient support programs, the average values obtained are of 1.74 points in the national group of prisoners against 2.33 for foreigners.
In all three cases, the average response of the Spanish prisoners and foreigners differs significantly, as indicated by the low probability associated with the t-statistic, far below the reference value 0.05. Foreigners have a more positive opinion of these three aspects. They value more positively the programs and courses held in prison. It is possible that foreigners are more eager to learn than national prisoners, but it is possible to accept the help offered by the institutions further than domestic ones, because they have fewer resources to rely on.
The greater effectiveness of actions taken in the educational field was verified. However, in order to clarify this result, we divided the foreign prison population into three groups: from South America, North Africa and the European Union without Spain. Then, we did the same comparison of means, three times, first comparing the group of South American with the other foreigners, second to the North Africans with other foreigners. Thirdly, we compared the EU's collective without Spain with other foreign prison population. Despite the differences, according to this analysis, are not significant, the average of Africans responses is the highest. This group may not only be influenced by the factor of foreignness. The level of studies which this group has is lower than the level of other foreigners. The mean difference in this respect is shown significantly at a 98% level. Moreover, inmates who come from the European Union show in these questions a lower average compared to other foreigners. This group has also a higher education level.
In order to determine the influence of factors such as language or belonging to any EU Member State, we proceeded to a new analysis for the comparison of means.
prison, the probability associated with the t-statistic is 0.055, so with a confidence level of 95%, we could assume equal means, but with a confidence level of 94%, we can reject the null hypothesis.
Table no. 4. t test for equality of means
Question Variable N Mean t Statistic Degrees of Freedom
Differences on averages
Spanish-speakers 355 2,687 Courses and offices that I
have learned in prison will
help me find a job Others 72 3,097
-1,92(*) 425 -0,410
Spanish-speakers 358 1,768 Courses in prison are
Others 74 2,459
-3,56(**) 92,78 -0,691
Spanish-speakers 353 1,793 Institutions promote enough
programs for inmates
Others 70 2,386
-2,96(**) 88,55 -0,593 Significance Level: (**) > 94%, (*) > 99% On the other hand, we use belonging to the European Union as a classification variable. We obtain that the prison population outside the EU values the knowledge acquired in prison through courses and programs more than the population of the Union (Table no. 5).
Table no. 5. t test for equality of means
Question Variable N Mean t Statistic Degrees of Freedom
Differences on averages
European Union 346 2,587 Courses and offices that I
have learned in prison will
help me find a job Others 77 3,519
-4,59(**) 421 -0,933
European Union 351 1,79 Courses in prison are
Others 77 2,324
-2,80(**) 98,145 -0,536
European Union 343 1,781 Institutions promote enough
programs for inmates
Others 76 2,368
-3,05(**) 98,682 -0,587 Significance Level: (**) > 99% Therefore, we see that not only nationality, but also the existence of other barriers to integration into Spanish society, such as speaking a different language or belonging to a different culture, influence the attitudes that inmates have towards learning in prison. Foreign prisoners who do not speak Spanish and who do not belong to the European Union valued courses and programs offered in prison more positively.
However, we recognize that there may be other variables that affect the attitudes of the inmate population towards education and work, such as the number of children, studies, or gender.
after leaving prison (TRY_TO_WORK), opinion on the adequacy of the courses (COURSES_EN), the studies they have (STUDIES: including primary, secondary, vocational training and university), the belonging to the European Union (EU), female gender (WOMAN) and the number of children (CHILDREN). We obtained the following results, shown in table no. 6.
Due to the type of data that have little variability, the adjustment obtained is not good. As a result, we must be cautious in drawing conclusions. However, the aim of this regression is to seek evidence of possible variables that influence the desire to study of the prison population and therefore may be subject to further studies, because we know that it is possible that nationality is not the only influence on this issue.
The variables that are relevant at a 99% level are the consideration of courses in prison, EU membership and sex. At a confidence level of 94% we could also consider having children a relevant variable. Opinions about the existence of sufficient courses in prison and being female are positively related to the assessment of what they have learned in prison. However, European Union membership, as we have seen at the make the comparison of means, influences negatively. Thus, EU membership makes the knowledge acquired in prison less valuable. Having children also makes the assessments that they made lower.
Table no. 6. Regression of assessment of learning in prison
Variable Coefficient Std. Error t-Statistic Prob.
C 2.273.215 0.466931 4.868.422 0.0000
TRY_TO_WORK 0.125171 0.074768 1.674.113 0.0950
COURSES_EN 0.432709 0.059420 7.282.171 0.0000
STUDIES -0.121153 0.077025 -1.572.906 0.1166
EU -0.769755 0.208773 -3.687.049 0.0003
WOMAN 0.618452 0.194423 3.180.961 0.0016
CHILDREN -0.102191 0.053530 -1.909.057 0.0570
R-squared 0.208968 Mean dependent var 2.729.947
Adjusted R-squared 0.196035 S.D. dependent var 1.663.135
S.E. of regression 1.491.234 Akaike info criterion 3.655.625
Sum squared resid 8.161.273 Schwarz criterion 3.729.073
Log likelihood -6.766.018 F-statistic 1.615.847
So despite the limitations of the model previously discussed, it seems that there are other variables that can complete the explanation of attitudes towards learning in prison.
Foreign and Spanish Prisoners do not have the same opportunities of inclusion. In fact, the foreign prison population is at risk of multiple exclusion. As groups of foreigners who are not in prison and inmates who are not foreigners are often discriminated against, the fact of belonging to both groups multiplies the risk. Furthermore, if they are women or disabled, the probability of being excluded from society is very high.
The realization of this comparative study of attitudes and perspectives of the prison population by place of origin has spotlighted several issues that should be considered for the design of social policies that can help break the chain of exclusion.
So foreign inmates value the learning they do in prison, as well as programs and courses that are offered in a prison environment, more positively,. Therefore, we believe that certain training courses adapted to the needs of this group would provide additional mechanisms to rebuild their lives, and could be one of the key elements to achieve reintegration. However, in the case of foreigners outside the EU the development of these programs may not be an effective mechanism for labor integration, since within the group of foreigners in prison are those who give a lower valuation of these activities, probably motivated by the higher education level or the possibility of obtaining inclusion in other ways.
Also, we leave the analysis of the influence of other variables such as sex or the number of children on the assessment of education in prison open to possible further detailed investigation.
This work has been done with the financial support from the Ministry of Education, Government of Spain, the General Secretary of Penitentiary Institutions under the Ministry of Home Affairs (Government of Spain), the General Secretary for Equality (Government of the Xunta de Galicia) and the assistance of the Official School of Languages of A Coruña (Galicia).
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SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN BUCOVINA REGION – ANALYSIS OF TOURISTIC POTENTIAL IN SUCEAVA BASIN
PhD. Student Constantin COCERHAN „Simion Mehedin i” Doctoral School
Bucharest University Bucureşti, Faculty of Geography
Professor PhD. Carmen N STASE
"Ştefan cel Mare" University of Suceava, Romania Faculty of Economics and Public Administration
Tourism has always been an economic pillar of European countries, in addition to building understanding and enlightening travellers. New considerations, sustainability, environment and socio-economics are calling for a new pardigm of how tourism operates. This article present the touristic potential of Suceava Basin, the infrastucture and how tourism can be considered as a fundamental opportunity for social and economic development in North East Region – Bucovina. The research investigated innovative strategies, solutions and recommandations to improve infractucture and supporting services for tourism, overcoming many barriers.
Keywords: Bucovina Region, innovative strategies, touristic infractucture, touristic potential,sustainability
JEL Classification: A12, O18
1.1. Motivation of the theme selection, scope and purpose of research
World tourism has acquired in the second half of the XXth century, a bigger importance, which was illustrated mainly by the continued growth in the number of tourists and revenue collected. National tourism, constitutes in the perspective of the present approach, a real chance to relaunch the economic growth and sustainable development of market economy in Romania.
The goal of the research was to create a synthesis work to present, in a realistic picture, the overall characteristics of the infrastructure and tourist facilities in the area studied and to evaluate possibilities to improve the infrastructure in terms of sustainable tourism development of the area.
The aims pursued were:
- Identification, analysis and description of existing infrastructure elements in the area studied;
- The achievement of some synthesis cartographic representation;
- Assessing the adequacy of infrastructure of communications routes to the current requirements of tourism;
- Advancing proposals for infrastructure development / tourism base from the perspective of the growing importance of this sector in all economic activities of the area and from the European integration and sustainable development.
1.2. The scientific fundamentation, methods and research procedures used
The methods and procedures mainly used in our research have been the observation, the analysis (functional - to highlight the role of some elements in the overall, statistical which has focused particularly reporting series of data and formulating hypotheses, cartographic conducting spatial mapping of elements, diagnostic reflecting the features of the current situation, prognostic
Personal contribution to this paper is to process and summarize data obtained from sources or from direct observation in the field and drawing a picture of the topic studied, realization of some thematic synthetic maps: Suceava Basin –The infrastructure of the ways of communications, Suceava Basin - Accommodation capacity, computerized data processing, advancing proposals to improve tourism resources.
2. THE ANALYSIS OF THE TURISTIC POTENTIAL IN THE SUCEAVA BASIN
2.1. The infrastructure of the communication ways
Suceava Basin is located in the north of the country, is included in the touristic province of Carpatho- Pericarpatica, being included in touristic region Bukovina and overlaps Suceava complex tourism area, touristic region known worldwide, which has a base and a tourism potential varied and complex. Regarding the accessibility of the area, it is in a plateau region, with favorable conditions to develop communication networks.
For this area, the most important road artery is European road E 85 which crosses the county from north to south, in Suceava and liaises with Ukraine in Chernovtsy and the capital, Bucharest. To this is added E576 highway from Suceava to Gura Humorului - Câmpulung Moldovenesc – Vatra Dornei.
Suceava is the main railway junction of the area, and most important railway bus is bus 5: Bucharest - Suceava - Vicsani and on to Moscow, thus having an international character. From this emerges bus line that provides contact Transcarpathian northwest, namely Suceava - Câmpulung Moldovenesc – Vatra Dornei, to Timisoara, Oradea, Baia Mare - Satu Mare.
The entire area from north of Moldova benefits from the presence of the International Airport "Stefan cel Mare" Salcea located in the city, 12 km from the city of Suceava.
The map analysis (Fig. 1) reveals a series of regional differences in the level of service with ways of communication to the area studied.
Figure no. 1. Suceava Basin – The infrastructure of the communication ways
(Author Constantin Cocerhan)
Distances to the main tourist centers nearby (Radauti, Sucevita, Solca) and turistic objectives, often exceed 50 km, many sights being relatively isolated.
Contact area mountain – plateau is favored by a high accessibility of the area given by the proximity to the plateau area, area served by a dense network of communication routes, and the one of Siret corridor and Suceava valley, old axes of movement road and rail. Access to tourist centers (Sucevita, Solca, Cacica) is facilitated by the proximity of the location of the county, city of Suceava, which is the most important railway and road of the county with a polarizing role of economic activities in the area.
Looking at the area level of service with the means of communication, we can appreciate that in Suceava Basin there is a network road which provides an easy movement between centers and attractions in the area (209 G on Suceava valley, DJ 209 to limit with the Suceava Plateau, completed inside by DN 17A which crosses Obcina Mare by Ciumârna Step and by DJ that joins Sucevi a with Gura Humorului) and an inner dense network of roads between counties, upgraded that connects settlements to each other (eg Rădău i - Volovat – Arbore; Radauti - Badeuti - Iaslovă - Arbore – Solca; Pătrău i - Todiresti - Solonet with deviation to Comanesti and Botosana - Cacica).
The area is poorly served inside by rails, Suceava – Cacica being the only railway section from the area, affected by flooding, being restored in July, 2011.
Distances between major tourist centers (Radauti, Sucevi a, Gura Humorului, Solca) and attractions are included frequently between 10-50 km.
For Suceava area and its surroundings, the most important road artery is European road E 85 which crosses the county from north to south, in Suceava and liaises with Ukraine in Chernovtsy and the capital, Bucharest. This is compounded by the national road E 576 from Suceava to Gura Humor - Câmpulung Moldovenesc – Vatra Dornei. An important role have and other county or municipal roads that are linking tourist objectives: Suceava - Pascani by Bosanci-Udeşti-Dolhasca, Suceava - Dorohoi by Adancata, Suceava - Radauti and Suceava - Dragomirna.
Railway circulation is done in the area on the route Suceava - Milisauti - Dornesti - Radauti, but lately decreased a lot the frequency of using of this type of transport, road transport being preferred, more quickly and conveniently, which is well served by private entrepreneurs.
Among the analyzed sub areas we can appreciate that the latter is characterized by the dense network of communication routes, the movement of people realizing easy and efficient. In conclusion, we appreciate that road densities decrease from the middle and lower basin area to the one of contact with the mountain, the most poorly served in this regard remains the upper basin of Suceava, although there are operational railways in this area, their importance in movement of people and tourists has decreased greatly over the past decade, their functions being taken over by road transport.
2.2. Tourist accommodation structures
Bucovina region, in which limits falls Suceava basin, is a touristic area with national and international recognition. Tourism potential which is available, accessibility in the area were used locally in recent years by increasing the number of tourist reception and overall development of tourism infrastructure.
In the area we have identified the presence of the following types of tourist accommodation structures: structures with accommodation (hotels, motels, villas, camps, campgrounds, boarding houses, farmhouses, rented rooms in family homes), structures with functions of catering (inside structures belonging to companies and accommodation), recreational structures with functions (clubs, swimming pools, small football fields, tennis, winter sports equipment) and structures with functions of transport (buses, rental cars).
The situation of the existing accommodation capacity from the area was summarized in Table no. 1, shown below.
Table no. 1. Suceava Basin - Capacity of accommodation existing in touristic establishments in 2009
Official statistics Internet offer No. Locality
No. of existent structures
on capacity (places –bed)
s - days)
No. of existing structures
n capacity (places –bed)
1. Brodina 3 25 1159 - -
2. Cacica - - - 7 136
3. Ili e ti - - - 3 60
4. Marginea - - - 1 20
5. Putna 4 60 16770 11 80
5. Solca - - - 5 196
6. Suceava 17 1182 436083 - -
7. Rădăuți 9 455 146069 - -
8. Sucevița 30 550 82804 31 640
9. Total area 63 2272 682885 - -
10. Total county 235 7554 2.176.422 - -
Reporting the existing accommodation capacity in the analyzed area to the total of the county shows that 26.8% of accommodation structures in the county is concentrated in the area studied, 30.07% of the capacity of accommodation (bed spaces) and 31.37 % of operational accommodation capacity (seats-days).
Analyzing the distribution of accommodation capacity on the two parts of the Suceava basin - mountain and plateau - we stated that the middle and lower basin has a capacity of significant relative to the mountain, all indicators analyzed, holds 44.06% respectively the number of structures, 74% of the capacity of existing accommodation (bed spaces) and 87.39% of operational accommodation capacity (seats-days).
Data obtained from consulting official sources were filled in the table with a series of data corresponding to touristic offer published for April of 2010 on the internet.
As can be seen, these data reflect the fact that in reality, the accommodation capacity is higher than reflected by the data in official statistics.
The differences between the two possible sources of information have the first question non-coverage in official statistics the localities with less than three structures of accommodation. Other probable causes are: non-inclusion of some farmhouses in the permanent tourist circuit, registration of more rooms in Easter touristic offers to attract more tourists, commissioning of new pensions etc.
On the map in Fig. 2 is shown the territorial distribution of tourist accommodation structures of Suceava Basin.
Analyzing the accommodation capacity estimated as number of structures we see large disparities between analyzed subunits of the Suceava basin. In the upper basin of Suceava, the accommodation capacity is reduced, being concentrated in Putna town in mountain-plateau contact area with the highest accommodation capacity falls Sucevi a city, which owns the largest number of structures in the basin of Suceava, followed by Cacica and Solca, and in the middle and lower basin is dominated by the city of Suceava, followed by city Radauti.
In terms of accommodation capacity in operation, with the greatest capacity is part of the middle and lower basin which is dominated by the city of Suceava, followed by mountain-plateau contact area where Sucevi a city includes the largest capacity. In the upper basin of Suceava official statistics include only data for Putna area, accommodation capacity in operation is very small compared to that of the other two areas analyzed.
In the typology of tourist accommodation structures with functions stands the predominance in the plateau area of the basin of the hotel type structures and the sub-mountainous and mountainous of agro-touristic guesthouses, service quality is appreciated in most cases with 2-3 flowers for hostels and 2-3 stars for hotels and restaurants, with only 4 units classified with 4 stars across the area (1 in Suceava, 1 in Radauti and 2 in Sucevi a).
Figure no. 2. Suceava Basin – Distribution of accommodation capacity
(Author: Constantin Cocerhan)
In terms of reception facilities with catering functions in the mountain area of Suceava basin, they are reflected in the tourism and agro guesthouses (units available to tourists dining rooms with capacity equal or greater to accommodation capacity and turrets and other outdoor facilities). In cities of Suceava and Radauti the typology is more diversified, the network including high capacity restaurants, bars, terraces with unitary status, and associated service units of care facilities. Local restaurants offer specific products, as varied and tasty menus. Most make available to tourists, in summer, outdoor spaces to enhance their pleasure.
In mountainous areas, reception facilities with recreational functions are less represented as the one of transport and parking is limited to guesthouses and furnished the agency offers some entrepreneurs in the area for rental or minibus.
In the sub-mountainous and the plateau area, especially, leisure spaces are diversified and represents an advantage for tourism development. There is sports facilities, cultural institutions, places of leisure (pubs, discos, clubs, billiard halls) and the most important green spaces. Thus, the city of Suceava is famous for the large number of parks that provide outdoor recreation opportunity (Central Park, The Park of Royal Court, The Park of the Palace of Justice, Dendrology Şipote Park).
3.1. Diagnosis if the touristic potential of Suceava Basin
In the area can be identified, by analysis of tourism infrastructure and tourist facilities available, three individual subunits by specific characteristics:
• subunit which overlaps the upper basin of Suceava where potential is given special by landscape value and quality and the communication paths infrastructure is undersized in relation to the potential of the area and with the practice of quality tourism, tourist facilities are modest and does not provide adequate tourism recovery;
with touristic resorts located in contact depressions with the mountain valleys (Sucevi a - Solca - Cacica ), where the infrastructure of communications channels has a higher density, where there are adequate tourist facilities that can meet various requirements, the image potential and resources of the area but not sufficiently exploited and promoted;
• the subunit which is grafted on the mountain-plateau contact in which touristic potential is given equally to natural and anthropogenic factors and is remarked the existence of an axis with tourist resorts located in contact with the mountain valleys (Sucevi a - Solca - Cacica) where communications infrastructure routes have a higher density, where there are adequate tourist facilities that can meet various requirements, the image potential and resources of the area but not sufficiently exploited and promoted;
• subunit which overlaps the plateau area of the Suceava basin, which has human touristic resources of international value, where the infrastructure requirements are approaching to practice a civilized tourism, with tourist facilities which can meet various requirements under the complex when they would be effectively promoted and that are valued in a relatively high measure, especially in tourist centers as polarizing activity zone (Suceava and Radauti).
3.2 Sustainable tourism in Suceava Basin
In sustainable development perspective, tourism potential of the Suceava Basin can be a valuable resource and a planning and recovery to a similar level to other tourist regions in the world can ensure sustainable development of the region for the benefit of current and future generations.
Valence elements for the practice of sustainable tourism in the area are to maintain a large natural background, there is a distinct ethno-folkloric background, objectives of exceptional cultural-historical, hospitality people, with specific cuisine Bucovina, the existence of higher schools profile of tourism in the area, availability of people for practicing tourism. Currently, in the Suceava area and in Bucovina is practiced a conventional tourism, tourist offer being focused on visiting religious monuments and fund capitalization traditions and customs of Bucovina region, addressing in particular the adult population.
From the perspective of sustainable development this area should be seen as an area where you can develop many forms of tourism: ecological, rural, cultural, spa, entertainment, religious. Although some forms are already present, the recovery of the tourism potential is not satisfactory or brings important environmental damage.
In the situation of Suceava Basin for inclusion in sustainable development and reducing human pressure on the environment is required:
• protection and conservation of world heritage from the area (churches with mural paintings from Sucevi a, Arbore, Pătrău i);
• protection and conservation of cultural heritage in urban areas;
• establishment of a tourist information center in the city Radauti;
• Increase tourism in the region's tourism offer;
• modernization of tourist infrastructure in mountain areas (Brodina Valley);
• developing and promoting improved specificity tourist area;
• increasing the professionalism of those involved in tourism activities;
• ensuring quality of tourism services for visitors to provide valuable experience;
• ensuring continuity of natural resources and culture of host communities;
• ensuring a balance between the needs of the tourism industry and the need to preserve the environment;
• accessing European funds for modernization funding of tourism activities and technical and material base for tourism.
This work was supported by the project "Post-Doctoral Studies in Economics: training program for elite researchers - SPODE" co-funded from the European Social Fund through the Development of Human Resources Opera ional Programme 2007-2013, contract no. POSDRU/89/1.5/S/61755.)”
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ONLINE EDUCATION - AN IMPORTANT ISSUE FOR THE LABOR MARKET
Assoc. Prof. PhD. Diana-Mihaela POCIOV LIŞTEANU
“Constantin Brâncuşi” University of Targu Jiu, West University of Timişoara, Romania email@example.com
PhD. Lecturer Liana BADEA
Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania firstname.lastname@example.org
Crises come and a crisis go and during any period of insecurity there is invariably an outcry for “change”, change to the law, the rules, the system, our behaviour etc. It is then, during the crisis when people start asking questions about the causes, the effects and the remedies for the crisis. They usually blame others for what happens to them and start observing what it is obvious – the factors that change the world. Nowadays, population face a number of significant new trends in the global environment. These shifts are affecting not only the shape and mode of operation but also the purpose of higher education systems. Some of these trends represent sources of opportunities; others constitute potential threats. Among the most critical dimensions of change are the growing role of knowledge, the information and communication revolution, the emergence of a worldwide labour market, and global socio-political changes. Increasing the level of education is became a priority for individuals and society. Starting from such aspects, this paper aims to emphasize the fact that a high level of education obtained in the classical way or online, increases the chance of adapting to labour market demands and it contributes to increasing the quality of life.
Keywords: online education, higher education, labour market, employment
JEL Classification: I20, I25
In the context of a globalised society, one may observe that knowledge accumulation has become one of the major factors in economic development and is increasingly at the core of a country’s competitive advantage, which is itself determined by the ability to innovate in a continuous manner. Starting from this, it is easy to understand that countries are struggling to adapt their higher education systems to meet the challenges brought about by rapid societal change over recent years. Thus, new types of higher institutions and new forms of competition are appearing, inducing traditional institutions to change their modes of operation and delivery and take advantage of opportunities offered by the new information and communication technologies.
As the majority of individuals know, in the present, as in the past, one of the factors that made a huge difference between the stages of developments of countries was the educational system. It was also one of those factors that assured the functionality of the labour market. This is why, in our era confronted with many changes, the rapid adaption of the educational system to the markets evolution become very important.
Employment is, in any society, including in developed countries, a balance which is essential for macroeconomic and socio-political stability. It is a complex dynamic process of major interest to all economic and social partners for the present and future of society, with varying implications: economic, psychosocial, educational, cultural, political. Increasing the employment of the workforce and reducing the phenomenon of unemployment are now key economic policy objectives of all countries, made possible by establishing equilibrium between supply and demand for skilled labor market.
In accordance with the objectives of Europe 2020, the European Strategy on Employment aims to create more and better jobs throughout the European Union. The European Strategy encourages measures to ensure the achievement by 2020 of three major objectives:
¾ 75% of people aged between 20 and 64 to be active on the labor market
¾ reduction by at least 20 million the number of people who suffer or may suffer from poverty and social exclusion.
The Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth rightly recognises the key role education and higher education must play if the ambitions for Europe in a fast-changing global reality are to be realised. It is obviuos that the labour markets increasingly require more graduates with the knowledge and competences provided by higher education; countries will have to invest substantially in their higher education systems to ensure that this demand is met. However, as we all know, while demands are increasing, public funding is diminishing and the new tehnologies require important funds.
As James D. Wolfensohn said in 2000: „It is impossible to have a complete education system without an appropriate and strong higher education system... I am not for a moment suggesting that primary education and secondary education are not at the very essence of development... [but that is] not enough. You have to have centers of excellence and learning and training if you are going to advance the issue of poverty and development in developing countries... the key... is higher education, not just on the technological side, but to create people with enough wisdom to be able to use it.”
In order to realise that objective, one must first understand what the trends in this area are and how they affect the general mentality. The paper is going to emphasize the importance of the online education in our days and the fact that it became one of the trusted forms of education.
Nowadays we can see that quality higher education and training is crucial for economies that want to move up the value chain beyond simple production processes and products. In particular, today’s globalizing economy requires countries to nurture pools of well-educated workers who are able to adapt rapidly to their changing environment and the evolving needs of the production system. Today’s world asks to well train people which are able to give practical solutions for economic problems. And we ask ourselves: is the educational system ready to provide such a thing? Is it enough to teach students how to memorize a bunch of theories? Is it enough to tell them which are the economic variables and how they evolve? Is it enough to stay to the classical forms of education? Do we have to adapt the educational system to the global trends?
Thus is why it is particularly important to examine how research can energize and re-engage the brain and the voice of online classes in achieving a more effective strategic positioning in the context of the modern university.
The Internet has changed the way people get informed, interact, communicate and learn in the 21st century. Distribution of information and knowledge is nowadays carried out more and more via the Internet. The growing demands for highly skilled and educated labour force claim for changing traditional teaching and learning processes. One way of changes is related with an integration of various kinds of computer-based learning systems as supplements to conventional teaching methods, as it is said that nowadays there are three major new challenges which bear heavily on the role and functions of higher education: economic globalization; the increasing importance of knowledge as a driver of growth, and the information and communication revolution (Salmi, 2001).
Historically, the rush of online education may be located in the decade 1990-2000, a period characterised by a boom in the ICT and the invention and evolution of the Web. This not only led to the foundation of many Open Universities around the world (Doukas and Andreatos, 2007), but also pushed many traditional universities to offer distance learning courses. It is estimated that, as far as continuing education in higher education institutions is concerned, distance learning will grow at least ten times faster than on-campus learning over the years to come (Burns, 2006). Thus is why many universities around the world started to use means of online education in order to adopt their management strategies to the evolution of the humankind.
Figure no. 1. Advantages of online education
Most of these advantages have an important impact on various aspects of human behaviour which affects the quality of life. The flexibility of online education offers opportunities for a series of racially, ethnical or age discriminated people such as persons with disabilities, housewives, people with minority ethnical origins. Also, this kind of flexibility might be an advantage in lifelong learning allowing both work and study at the same time. As previously shown, online learning tends to create intimate community of learners which might have a significant impact on the quality of interaction between different people. Moreover, online learning facilitates the rapid creation and operation of think tanks enlarging considerably the pool of expert specialized ideas in different fields.
Online education brings also disadvantages. In scientific fields like engineering, for example, the need for practical training remains an important issue. Computer simulations alone cannot replace all forms of applied training. In many science and technology-oriented programs, hands-on activities in laboratories and workshops remain an indispensable constituent of effective learning.
education can be at least as effective as traditional classroom instruction. Several research studies on student satisfaction in online courses or programs reported both satisfied and dissatisfied students (Jung and Rha, 2000).
Online education is one of the most exciting enhancements to contemporary education. Online education is neither right for all students nor right for all faculties, but it frequently meets the needs of both for an exciting, high-quality educational experience.
ONLINE EDUCATION IN ROMANIA
When analysing the online education, one must take into account that learning can be formal, non-formal or informal. Thus, the formal one is offered, mainly by colleges and universities. The non-formal learning in the online form can be found outside the formal learning system; it is offered by official organizations such as governmental services, youth organizations, training services, scientific unions, enterprises, voluntary and non-profit organizations, etc. The informal learning on the other hand is not organized or organized but casual; even travelling or watching TV may lead to informal learning. It is what we learn from everyday life (Rogers, 1996).
As shown in the bellow figure, one can notice important gaps between Romania and the rest of the European countries regarding long life learning process.
Figure no. 2. ELLI Index Results 2010 – Lifelong Learning in the European Union
Source: The ELLI Index – Europe 2010
Nevertheless, during the last five years, Romania has made a markedly effort to shorten this gap. These efforts were mainly focused on using modern learning technologies.
Since, in the last years, in Romania the demand for the online formal learning grew, our analysis is based on it.
Romanian people do not represent an exception from the global trend of using the Internet. Thus, statistically speaking, the number of Romanian Internet users exceeded 7,786,700 in 2010, according to Internet World Stats.