scribe and analyze factors associated with sexu- al violence (SV) among primary school students in Brazil. Data from the National School Health Survey (PeNSE in Portuguese) in 2015 was ana- lyzed. The prevalence of total and disaggregated SV was calculated according to variables such as sociodemographic data, family context, mental health, risk behaviors, safety, and physical activ- ity. The Odds Ratios of suffering SV were estimat- ed according to variables that were statistically associated (p < 0.05) by means of multivariate analysis. The prevalence of SV was 4.0%. SV among school-age adolescents was associated with characteristics such as: age of < 13 years old; fe- male; black skin color; working; being assaulted by family members; having insomnia; feeling lonely; not having friends; consuming tobacco / alcohol regularly; having tried drugs; having started sex- ual activity; feeling insecure on the way to or at school; and having suffered bullying. Studying in a private school, having a mother with higher education, living with parents, and supervision by relatives were protective factors to SV. It was possible to identify students’ vulnerabilities to SV, which can support researchers, professionals, and families in the prevention ofthis type of violence. Key words Adolescents, School health, Sexual vi- olence, Health survey
Analyzing the effect ofthe forage sampling time on the characteristics that make up the nutritional value, it was found that the best results generally occurred in rainy seasons because there was a trend of higher digestibility. During that time, carbohydrates were used along with the available nitrogen for the synthesis of amino acids and proteins, thus increasing the crude protein content (Table 5). Albizia and Arachis showed highest digestibility, followed by the Leucaena species. In Mexico, Solorio- Sanchez et al. (2000) observed high levels of IVDMD (70%) in eight-month-old plants (A. lebbeck), a similar result to that observed in thisstudy. Despite showing lower digestibility values than other legumes, Cratilia had higher results than those reported in literature, since Andersson et al. (2006) and Gama et al. (2009) found IVDMD values of 48% and 46%, respectively.
Drip weight loss decreased linearly (P<0.05) with the use of increasing doses of ractopamine. Treatment with 20 ppm RAC led to a decrease in weight loss of 18.10% when compared with control. Apple et al. (2004), Bridi et al. (2006) and Stoller et al. (2003) observed no change in this variable. However, it is interesting to note that the drip loss inﬂuences the industrial processing of meat (Roça, 2010). The amount of water loss is a problem for industries as the exudate contains soluble proteins, vitamins and minerals (Bonagurio et al., 2003). Thus, the result ofthis research indicates that ractopamine favors the production of noble products such as cooked and raw ham, and also that after the cuts for the sale, the product looks better to consumers for presenting a lower accumulation of water in containers. Agostini et al. (2011) found no effect of ractopamine dose used on drip loss.
For statistical analyzes of data ofthe evaluated characteristics, the arrangement was arranged in a factorial scheme 7x7x2, seven genotypes, seven evaluation periods (months), and two reading times in each season, arranged in a completely randomized design. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and then the unfolding ofthe interactions according to their significance. The means of these variables were compared by the F test (p <0.05) for reading time factors; and grouped by the Scott-Knott criterion (p <0.05) for genotype and evaluation periods (months) factors using the statistical software SAEG (RIBEIRO JR.; MELO, 2009).
ABSTRACT - Theobjectiveofthisstudywasto evaluate intake, apparent digestibility, ingestive behavior and blood parameters of milking goats fed cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica) and increasing urea levels in substitution to soybean meal. Ten multiparous Alpine goats with average weight of 31±6.0 kg were used and distributed into (5 × 5) Latin squares and assessed during five 17-day periods, receiving five treatments with the following substitution levels: 0; 5; 10; 15 and 20 g/kg of urea. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF), non-fiber carbohydrates, ether extract, organic matter and water intake values showed differences, whith average values ranging from 1.03 to 1.13; 0.12 to 0.14; 1.76 to 2.10 kg/day and 0.77 to 1.48 kg/day, respectively. The NDF and crude protein apparent digestibility values were significantly affected by urea levels. In relation tothe ingestive behavior, the urea levels did not influence the feeding, idleness or rumination parameters. Difference was observed for the following physiological variables: feces frequency (11.5 to 15.9 times per day), urine frequency (10.8 to 14.2 times per day) and frequency of search for water (0.8 to 2.1 times per day). The urea levels influenced the blood parameters, whose average levels ranged from 29.83 to 40.76 mg/dL. Pear cactus and increasing urea levels in substitution to soybean meal do not alter the dry matter intake or ingestive behavior. The use of urea associated with forage cactus reduces water intake and increases the blood urea concentration of milking goats.
In addition, as the focus on prevention had an influence over the two impulse decision processes, not only the cognitive process, as originally predicted by thisstudy, it is believed that individuals who act most rationally in their decisions (Katsikeas et al. 2018) are also strongly pressured by the emotional aspects of their decisions. This factor from the affective aspects may have contributed tothe focus-on-prevention individuals having had the highest impulse consumption. Because an impulse decision happens when the affective process prevails (Youn, 2002), as both are at equal levels for the focus on prevention, there is no supremacy ofthe cognitive process. Should it exist, it would imply greater power to decide not to consume.
Promoting the increase in the intake of sugarcane silage treated with calcium oxide is the interest of nutritionists; however, the effect desired, which is the augmentation of intake, does not always occur. However, simply improving the cell wall components of sugarcane is enough to make it a viable roughage in the feeding of ruminants. Reports published by Santos (2007), who utilized calcium oxide in the sugarcane, showed that it was capable of reducing the concentration of cell wall components with decrease in the NDF and ADF, improving the digestibility coefﬁcient ofthe dry matter and organic matter, observed in the silages treated with 1.5% calcium oxide. The authors observed that different doses of quicklime (1.0 and 1.5% in the natural matter) in sugarcane silages signiﬁcantly reduced the production of ethanol and promoted greater recovery of dry matter and soluble carbohydrates.
It can be inferred that the xylanase supplementation was effective in reducing the viscosity ofthe digesta, improving the digestibility and protein adsorption, and probably lowering the amount of available substrate for bacterial fermentation in the growth stage ofthe poultry. Starch and protein in the diet that were not used by the animal can favor the migration of microorganisms, which would typically be found in large quantities in the poultry caecum, tothe small intestine, which is the place of greatest absorption of nutrients (Campbell & Bedford, 1992).
The investigation of depression, peripheral neurotrophic and cortisol parameters in ostomy patients is still poorly descri- bed. This is the first studyto provide evidence of a significant BDNF decrease and NT-3 increase in the serum from ostomy patients, when compared to control group. These alterations were associated with psychological and social complications. In addition, the data showed an increase only in the HDRS, which is a scale for measuring the depressive symptoms levels, the SCID-I instrument is already used for diagnosing psychiatric disorders. Thus, ostomy patients did not have a MDD diagnosis, but presented a depressive symptoms improvement when compared to healthy controls 25 .
environmental variables were most associated with the cladocerans’ dynamic. The differences in all biological and environmental variables between the littoral areas with and without macrophytes, and between the seasons (dry and rainy) were assessed using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test (U). The Pearson correlation matrix was used in order to highlight the possible relationships among environmental variables (water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, oxygen saturation, conductivity, total solids, turbidity and salinity, and their fluctuation index). The outliers were analyzed in this last case. On the other hand, the Spearman correlation test was also used in order to emphasize the possible relationships among biological (richness, density, fluctuation index for the major species, diversityand evenness) andthe environmental variables. Variables that showed significant correlations (p < 0.05) were selected to explain the community structure of cladocerans. For statistical analyses, the statistical package Bioestat 5.3 was used.
Many firms are creating brand extensions based on the reformulation of their products in order to obtain healthier (less unhealthy) versions, as in the case of reducing the amount of sodium, sugar, or fats. Other firms are developing completely new categories of products with a high nutritional value (healthy), which are commercialized under new brand names. Although research regarding brand extension has been continuously carried out since the 1990s (e.g. Aaker & Keller, 1990; Dacin & Smith, 1994; Völckner & Sattler, 2006), it has not been extended tothe context of healthy brands, therefore explaining the interest ofthisstudy, whose objectivewasto explore which ofthe two strategies – modified products commercialized as brand extensions versus the introduction of healthy products under a new brand name – is more appropriate taking into account the effect that the fit between the nutritional characteristics ofthe usual products ofthe parent brand andthe healthy extension may have on the credibility ofthe latter type of product.
Abstract Theobjectiveofthisstudywasto de- scribe and analyze factors associated with sexu- al violence (SV) among primary school students in Brazil. Data from the National School Health Survey (PeNSE in Portuguese) in 2015 was ana- lyzed. The prevalence of total and disaggregated SV was calculated according to variables such as sociodemographic data, family context, mental health, risk behaviors, safety, and physical activ- ity. The Odds Ratios of suffering SV were estimat- ed according to variables that were statistically associated (p < 0.05) by means of multivariate analysis. The prevalence of SV was 4.0%. SV among school-age adolescents was associated with characteristics such as: age of < 13 years old; fe- male; black skin color; working; being assaulted by family members; having insomnia; feeling lonely; not having friends; consuming tobacco / alcohol regularly; having tried drugs; having started sex- ual activity; feeling insecure on the way to or at school; and having suffered bullying. Studying in a private school, having a mother with higher education, living with parents, and supervision by relatives were protective factors to SV. It was possible to identify students’ vulnerabilities to SV, which can support researchers, professionals, and families in the prevention ofthis type of violence. Key words Adolescents, School health, Sexual vi- olence, Health survey
Theobjectiveofthisstudywasto infer the mechanisms of invasion (opportunism vs. competition) of Ligustrum lucidum in an Araucaria Forest fragment, in the municipallity of Lages, SC. This fragment was inventoried in 2012 and 2015, through plots, where tree individuals with dbh greater than or equal to 5.0 cm were evaluated. The plots were classified as invaded (I) or non-invaded (NI) by L. lucidum andthe dynamics rates were determined for the tree community and populations. The influence of L. lucidum presence on demographic rates of community was evaluated by logistic regressions andthe evaluation of species coexistence in I and NI sectors was performed by c-score index. In fragment, the recruitment rate was greater than mortality and basal area gain rate was greater than basal area loss. The community had a greater recruitment in plots with high L. lucidum abundance. While there was spatial segregation of species in NI plots, there was random pattern in I plots. We conclude that L. lucidum is increasing its relative importance in community, being associated to plots with random species co-occurrence, suggesting its opportunist nature.
Health staff working directly with healthcare were found to be significantly less benevolently sexist that those who worked in administration and general services. This may be associated tothe greater level of schooling ofthis first group or be due tothe fact that they receive more train- ing, or have greater contact with users which may lead them to have more humanist motives. But in spite ofthe statistical difference, they all scored highly, being greater than 60% ofthe maximum possible. The first contact that a user generally has when she or he arrives at a primary health- care service is with reception staff, although this function may be the responsibility of peo- ple from the administrative area. In both cases, the demand ofthe service user may potentially give rise to prejudice andthe receptionist’s atti- tude may be sexist, which is against the rights of health, of humanized care andof respect.
ze the effect of age-period and cohort (APC) of birth on mortality for acute myocardial infarction in Brazil and its geographic regions, according to sex in the period from 1980 to 2009. The data was extracted from the Mortality Information System andwas corrected and adjusted by means of pro- portional redistribution of records with sex and age ignored, ill-defined causes, and corrections were made based on the death sub-register. The APC was calculated using the Poisson regression model with estimable functions. The APC analy- sis on both sexes and in all regions ofthe country showed gradual reductions in the risk of death in birth cohorts from the decade ofthe 1940s, except in the Northeast. In this region, there have been progressive increases in the risk of death from the late 1940s for both sexes. Thiswas up until the 1950s for men andthe 1960s for women. It was concluded that the observed differences in the risk of death in Brazilian regions is the result of socio -economic inequalities and poor access to health services within the Brazilian territory, favoring early mortality for this cause especially in poorer areas.
assesses the global, objectiveand subjective bur- den, based on independent scores. Elements ofthe individual’s family life are assessed separate- ly, enabling the assessor to identify the areas of greatest and least burden sustained by the family member in their role as caregiver. The level of burden is thus evaluated across five elements ofthe caregiver’s life: A) care in the patient’s daily life; B) supervision ofthe patient’s problematic behaviors; C) financial onus borne by the fami- ly member due tothe patient; D) impact on the family’s daily routine; and E) family member’s concerns with the patient. The questions for each one ofthe elements relates tothe 30 days prior tothe application ofthe scale. Objective burden is analyzed in relation tothe frequency of care provided tothe patient and includes subscales A, B and D. Subjective burden evaluated the level of inconvenience felt by the family member and re- lates to subscales A, B and E.
Abstract – Theobjectiveofthisstudywasto identify gliadin band patterns andthe extent ofgeneticdiversity in durum wheat genotypes from Northwestern Iran andthe Republic of Azerbaijan. Gliadins from 46 landraces and four cultivars were evaluated through acid PAGE analyses. Sixty‑six polymorphic bands and 81 patterns were identified. Twenty‑four different motility bands and 22 patterns were found in the ω gliadin region with 14 polymorph bands and 20 patterns for α and γ gliadins, and 14 bands and 19 different patterns for β gliadins. The combination of these patterns generated 38 and 39 combinations for Gli‑1 and Gli‑2 loci, respectively. Thegeneticdiversity index (H) was higher for α gliadins ( 0.924 ), followed by ω and γ gliadins (0.899 and 0.878, respectively), and for β gliadin patterns (0.866). Extensive polymorphism (H = 0.875) was observed in four gliadin pattern regions, with higher geneticdiversity in the Iranian landraces than in the Azerbaijani ones. Each genotype had special identifying patterns in the gliadin acid PAGE analysis, and cluster analysis based on Jaccard’s similarity coefficients formed six groups. Gliadin has a simple, repeatable and economic analysis, and can be used in genetic studies.
Abstract Theobjectiveofthisstudywasto rese- arch the existence of sexism against women among primary healthcare (PHC) workers andto identify associated factors. Thiswas a cross-sectional study in which 163 PHC professionals of both sexes par- ticipated, all of whom were aged over 18 and had completed their primary or secondary education. The Gender Stereotyping and Ambivalent Sexism Inventory questionnaires were used. The average scores were more than 50% ofthe maximum score: Gender Stereotyping – 53.8%, hostile sexism – 58.2%, benevolent sexism – 64.1%. The average scores stratified by sociodemographic variables were higher. Significant differences in the hostile sexism score were found for sex (men scored higher than women), religion (higher scores for evangelical Christians) and among those who drank alcohol. For benevolent sexism, differences were found for schooling (greater scores for those who had only completed their primary education), religion (hi- gher scores for evangelical Christians and Catho- lics) and area of work (greater for those working in general services). The stratification ofthe Gender Stereotyping scores did not point to significant diffe- rences. Sexist prejudice was found to exist for hostile sexism, benevolent sexism and gender stereotyping. This finding could have a negative influence on the service-user relationship, leading to greater inequi- ties in health as a result of gender inequality. Key words Women’s health, Sexism, Health ine- quality, Healthcare staff, Health services
The answers obtained in the questionnaires were typed in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, version 2013, to organize the variables and con- struct a database. Possible data typing errors were checked and corrected. Subsequently, the statis- tical analyses were performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 19.0. The analysis was based on descriptive statis- tics and statistical tests for a comparative analysis between variables. Scalar variables were evaluat- ed in terms of median, mean and standard de- viation. An exploratory analysis ofthe data was performed tocharacterizethe sample, and then the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Levene tests were applied to evaluate the normality and homoge- neous variances ofthe variables under study. Giv- en the non-normality ofthe data, the non-para- metric Wilcoxon Signals and Mann-Whitney U-test were used. For all tests, a p-value with an less than or equal to 0.05 was considered signifi- cant. The Cliff ’s Delta 19 was used to calculate the
on the plant development and physiological changes (TUFFI SANTOS et al., 2007b; MACHADO et al., 2010). In practice, according to Tuffi Santos et al. (2007a), the damages caused by the glyphosate drift, or by some other herbicide, distributed at different levels on the plantation, would increase the heterogeneity ofthe plot, since the intraspecific competition is favorable tothe less affected individuals. The commercial plantations of paricá are still constituted by seminal plantings, therefore, the drift effect would be added tothegenetic variability ofthe plants, making the heterogeneity ofthe population more accentuated.