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CONTINUOUS CREATION IN THE PROBABILISTIC WORLD OF THE THEOLOGY OF CHANCE

CONTINUOUS CREATION IN THE PROBABILISTIC WORLD OF THE THEOLOGY OF CHANCE

I think we can answer this question in the positive: Yes, He can, because He is the most perfect being and His omnipotence is absolutely unlimited. A very important premise underlying the answer to the last question is that the risk is not so great, or even that it is very small. It is so because the nature and mechanism of the created world ensure with a very high proba- bility that all purposes intended by God will be attained without his causal action in the processes occurring in the world. The emergence of life in the universe is almost inevitable, because the universe is large and old enough, and biochemical mechanisms are very effective. The emergence of sentient beings was also almost inevitable because of longstanding and countless mutations and adaptations of living organisms to their environment. All this was very probable and hence in a sense necessary (inevitable). The great advantage of the non-deterministic world is its own creativity, which is possible because of the chance events happening in a way restricted only by the laws of nature. Thus, if one evolutionary path fails another one is opened. Perhaps a mutation suitable for the growth and development of a given species happened by chance and enabled it to survive in hard con- ditions and further develop. Elasticity and redundancy are very typical for the world of chance, but because of these properties, this world has a large number of possibilities and abilities to develop and regenerate after various natural catastrophes (Łukasiewicz 2006).
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Early father-child and mother-child attachment relationships: contributions to preschoolers’ social competence

Early father-child and mother-child attachment relationships: contributions to preschoolers’ social competence

At the end of the observation period, the home visitors independently sorted the AQS items into 9 categories, using a rectangular (i.e., 10 items in each of the 9 categories) distribution indicating how characteristically or uncharacteristically each item describes the observed child. Sorts are completed after a sufficiently long period of observation (minimum recommended observation time is 2 hours). Placement of an item in the distribution is determined by the salience/relevance of the item as observed (or reported by the caregiver) rather than by frequency or visibility per se (so, for example, determining that the child uses the mother as a base of exploration may take 60–90 minutes for a 3 to 5 year old, but if observed, this item would be placed high in the distribution even though only a single cycle or two might be seen). Items that are more characteristic of the child are placed in the higher categories (9 – 7) and items least characteristic (i.e., those items that are not good descriptors of the child’s
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The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

The era of globalization is impact on the necessity for each country to be able to compete with the world competition that tends indefinitely. It is synonymous with the concept of state sovereignty reduction, technological sophistication, and world space narrowing and trade transactions development as a thinking the implementation of free trade. Globalization has had an impact on the escalation of the nation‘s defense and security threats in border region. As awareness for the perception of border region between countries to encourage policy makers to develop an assessment about the arrangement of border region equipped with the formulation of security system. As an archipelagic country, Indonesia has more than 17.504. islands with a coastline of more than 80.290 km, and borders with 10 neighboring countries. On land areas, Indonesia borders with 3 (three) countries, i.e Malaysia, Papua Nugini and Timor Leste, while on sea areas, border with 10 (ten) countries, i.e India, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam, Philippines, Palau, Papua Nugini, Australia and Timor Leste. The area of this border has strategic value, in both aspects of defense and security; the border region is the territorial limits of the Republic of Indonesia are very influential on national‘s defense and security.
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Esc. Anna Nery  vol.19 número1

Esc. Anna Nery vol.19 número1

It is noted that among the patients treated by the Uniied Health System (UHS), low education level and family income tend to prevail, since this is a developing country with great social inequality. This reality makes it even more important to support postpartum as an opportune time to discuss fundamental gui- delines for the child health, mother and family, in which case the latter has a greater chance of being gathered towards a common goal, which is to receive and care for the newborn.

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Green Facade As A Prototype Way Of Extending Natural Sphere In A Hyper Dense Urban Context.

Green Facade As A Prototype Way Of Extending Natural Sphere In A Hyper Dense Urban Context.

In recent years, designers have promoted the idea of integrating plants into the envelopes of buildings to address both aesthetic and energy concerns. Such vegetated walls traditionally include vines or bushes growing directly along the facade or along trellises and wire supports. More complex vegetated wall types also include a layer of soil and are integrated directly into the facade construction [1].Rapid urbanization has increased the demand for buildings in the urban setup. There is need to reconsider the green belt which is being sacrificed to structures spreading across the land. The main aim of the research is to analysis the green facades in three different climates and clearly state the benefits of vertical landscape. This is achieved through reviewing project case Studies and literature linking sustainable architectural design, exploring their potential in developing more sustainable built environments that promote green world. The use of green vertical systems, well designed and managed, can be a useful tool for thermal regulation for buildings with interested energy savings. [2]. Expanding cities and towns require land to establish the infrastructures necessary to support growing population which is done by clearing the forests [3]. Direct impact of rapid growing of cities and human activities is the destruction of environment which accompanied other drawbacks such as air pollution and scarcity [4]
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Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.  vol.34 número6

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. vol.34 número6

Abstract Blood samples from native Indians in the Kararao village (Kayapo), were analysed using serological and molecular methods to characterize infection and analyse transmission of HTLV-II. Specific reactivity was observed in 3/26 individuals, of which two samples were from a mother and child. RFLP analysis of the pX and env regions confirmed HTLV-II infection. Nucleotide sequence of the 5’ LTR segment and phylogenetic analysis showed a high similarity (98%) between the three samples and prototype HTLV-IIa (Mot), and confirmed the occurrence of the HTLV-IIc subtype. There was a high genetic similarity (99.9%) between the mother and child samples and the only difference was a deletion of two nucleotides (TC) in the mother sequence. Previous epidemiological studies among native Indians from Brazil have provided evidence of intrafamilial and vertical transmission of HTLV-IIc. The present study now provides molecular evidence of mother-to-child transmission of HTLV-IIc, a mechanism that is in large part responsible for the endemicity of HTLV in these relatively closed populations. Although the actual route of transmission is unknown, breast feeding would appear to be most likely.
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Rev. bras.oftalmol.  vol.72 número3 en a03v72n3

Rev. bras.oftalmol. vol.72 número3 en a03v72n3

Purpose: To investigate the perception of physicians about the experience of ambulatory with children who have a serious eye disease and how they understand their interference in the mother-child relationship.Methods: Semi-structured interviews were performed with ophthalmologists (sectors of retina, glaucoma, anterior segment and pediatric ophthalmology), and observation of outpatient appointments of a public hospital during three months. Results: Idealization of the physician’s and mother’s role; physician’s difficulties on giving the diagnosis; and the acknowledgment that the professionals have an influence on mother-child relationship during the assistance.Conclusion: The challenge for physicians are giving information on diagnosis and treatment; being accessible to listening, clarifying and guiding showing that the child has others capabilities beyond vision.
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Determinants of optimal breast-feeding in peri-urban Guatemala City, Guatemala

Determinants of optimal breast-feeding in peri-urban Guatemala City, Guatemala

tify factors associated with early initi- ation and exclusive breast-feeding for mothers from program communities on the one hand and for mothers from con- trol communities on the other hand. Lo- gistic regression analyses were used to identify the characteristics that were as- sociated with primary breast-feeding outcomes. Variables with P values less than 0.25 in bivariate analyses were included in initial logistic regression models. For early initiation of breast- feeding, independent variables included the child’s sex, household water supply (a proxy for social class), child’s place of birth, whether the mother had advised other mothers about breast-feeding, and whether the mother lived in a pro- gram community or a control commu- nity. Additionally, whether the mother received prenatal care and whether someone spoke to the mother about breast-feeding were included because of their conceptual importance to early initiation. For exclusive breast-feeding, independent variables included in the initial logistic regression model were child’s age and sex, mother’s native lan- guage (Spanish or Mayan), water sup- ply, prenatal care, child’s place of birth, mother’s work outside the home, and whether someone had spoken to the mother about breast-feeding.
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Mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Brazil during the years 2000 and 2001: results of a multi-centric study

Mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Brazil during the years 2000 and 2001: results of a multi-centric study

The objective of this study was to assess mother- to-child transmission rates of HIV in Brazil dur- ing the years 2000 and 2001, and to identify the maternal and neonatal variables that were as- sociated with this transmission. It was a cross- sectional, observational study with retrospective data obtained from patient medical records. The children were followed at 63 medical sites situated in five geographical macro-regions of the country (20 States and the Federal Capital). Children enrolled were those that were born of HIV-infected mothers and it was necessary for the mothers to present documented proof of HIV-infection before or during pregnancy, at time of delivery or in the first three months af- ter delivery. There were 2,924 children enrolled and mother-to-child transmission rates of HIV were 8.6% (95%CI: 7.2-10.2) for the year 2000 and 7.1% (95%CI: 5.8-8.6) for the year 2001. The following variables were associated with lower mother-to-child transmission rates of HIV: elec- tive cesarean section, diagnosis of mother’s in- fection before or during pregnancy, access to HIV viral load and T CD4+ lymphocyte count during prenatal care, greater birth weight and avoid- ance of breastfeeding.
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Pregnancy in Chronic Arthritis: Only a Matter of Planning

Pregnancy in Chronic Arthritis: Only a Matter of Planning

For the mother, a drug can be considered safe during pregnancy if it produces no additional side-efects than when used in non-pregnant patients, if it does not increase the rate of complications such as miscarriage or prematurity, and may be considered safe in the child if it does not produce short or long-term adverse efects. A teratogen is an agent that has the potential to interfere with the normal functional or structural development of an embryo or fetus. During organogenesis (15-60 days after conception), the fetus is presumed to be most vulnerable to teratogens. Gross anatomical defects are no longer possible once the deinitive form and relationships within an organ system are established, although derangements in the function of organ systems and resulting physiological defects and fetal growth restriction may be present later in pregnancy. 15 The USA FDA has established ive
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WP114 No Impact of Rural Development Policies? No Synergies with Conditional Cash Transfers? An Investigation of the IFAD-Supported Gavião Project in Brazil

WP114 No Impact of Rural Development Policies? No Synergies with Conditional Cash Transfers? An Investigation of the IFAD-Supported Gavião Project in Brazil

Despite having provided US$18.5 billion in grants and low-interest loans since 1977, there is little rigorous evidence on the impact of IFAD projects around the world. There is a similar lack of evidence on synergies between rural development projects and conditional cash transfer policies. In an effort to address this gap in the literature, we explored the impacts of an IFAD- supported rural development project —Pro-Gavião—in 13 municipalities of Brazil, and possible synergies with the Bolsa Família conditional cash transfer program. The paper used a matching technique to create a control group of untreated census tracts, and a difference-in-differences estimation to identify policy impacts. The findings were unexpected. When examining the main outcomes of land productivity, agricultural income, and child labor—all available in the Agricultural Censuses—we found no statistically significant evidence to support a positive impact of Pro-Gavião or of synergies between the two programs. The presence of Bolsa Família seems to have improved access to credit, and there was some evidence showing a likely association between the interaction of the policies and improved access to electricity. These results are robust to different matching techniques, ways of defining the treated locations, and heterogeneity by initial level of poverty.
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SHORT AND LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF A CHILD- LABOR BAN

SHORT AND LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF A CHILD- LABOR BAN

It may be the case that a particular sub-group of individuals is strongly affected by the child-labor ban but these impacts are overshadowed in our long-term estimates for the overall treated cohort. Unfortunately, we are unable to identify the potential group of compliers in the long-term in our database since we work with repeated cross- sections. We could still try to estimate the impact of labor-force participation in the short term on, say, log wages in the long term using the two-sample instrumental strategy originally applied by Angrist and Krueger (1992) (see Inoue and Solon 2005 for a discussion). However, since the impact of the law on participation rates is partial and we also observe an increase in school attendance among those boys banned from the labor force, we actually have two endogenous variables (participation rates and school attendance) and only one instrument (the law).
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Rev. CEFAC  vol.17 número1

Rev. CEFAC vol.17 número1

According to information provided by the mother and listed in medical records, the child was born preterm in June 2008 with a gestational age of 29 weeks, Apgar score of 4/9 and weight of 3.46 pounds (1570g). The child presented several complications: kidney and liver failure, pulmonary hypersensitivity and hydrocephalus, remaining at intubation in the neonatal ICU for 3 months and 15 days. Gastrostomy (GTM) was performed while in the maternity ward shortly after birth. The prescribed feeding after hospital discharge was by oral pathway (OP) for a pasty and liquid food consistency provided by GTM. The mother reported that the child had two episodes of pneumonia, one in January and another in February 2009. Following a swallowing assessment in June 2009, a new episode of pneumonia was reported in April, needing hospi- talization. By medical request, the child´s diet became solely by GTM. However, 15 days after discharge the patient’s mother started, on her own accord, an OP diet (liquid and pasty) and what the child refused was provided by GTM. On clinical swallowing assessment, the child was offered a pasty (yogurt) and liquid (water) consistency. For both consistencies the child was restless, with food refusal. It was possible to observe the presence of previous oral escape of stasis of food in the oral cavity, requiring multiple swallows for clearing the oral cavity. Neck auscultation was altered during and after the offer of food, with the presence of intense noise, suggesting food stasis. Clinical signs suggested the presence of penetration and/or laryn- gotracheal aspiration. The mother was reoriented to offer all diet by GTM due to the clinical signs of penetration/aspiration observed.
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Initial difficulties with breastfeeding technique and the impact on duration of exclusive breastfeeding

Initial difficulties with breastfeeding technique and the impact on duration of exclusive breastfeeding

that breastfeeding difficulties, mainly those associ- ated with breast problems and identified in the first postpartum days, are significant factors for the early EBF interruption. This variable remained associated even after regression with socio-demographic and gestational/delivery variables. Orientation regarding the breast milk benefits to the mother-child bino- mial, and disadvantages of breastfeeding interrup- tion are necessary to increase breastfeeding duration. Recent research highlights the importance of the health team's engagement to monitor breastfeeding practices. It is also essential the professional's capa- citation for the proper mother's orientation, by correcting problems and offering resolution tech- niques for breast problems, both in the hospital and primary care services, considering that the most significant difficulties will be observed in the first days of the child's life.
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Rev. Bras. Saude Mater. Infant.  vol.12 número4 en a01v12n4

Rev. Bras. Saude Mater. Infant. vol.12 número4 en a01v12n4

In the case of Brazil, it would seem that current science policy has influenced this issue. Many periodicals are heavily dependent for their survival on organs of the Ministry of Science and Education (such as the Coor- dinating Board for the Improvement of Higher Education Staff - CAPES and the National Council for Scienti- fic and Technological Development - CNPq) either directly in terms of financial support, or indirectly in terms of emphasis on certain areas of research. In the latter case, periodicals may have to take decisions fundamental to their scope in order to meet the new demands of potential authors. In the the case of the Brazilian Journal of Mother and Child Health (RBSMI), its broad scope has been undergoing the influence of its profile, which may be related to CNPq and CAPES policy with regard to science. In fact, our scope is broad. The instructions to the authors state that “the Journal’s mission is to disseminate scientific articles in the field of mother and child health, with contributions covering the different aspects of maternal health, women’s health and child health, along with the various biomedical, socio-cultural and epidemiological factors that impact these”.
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Grandparents and women’s participation in the labor market

Grandparents and women’s participation in the labor market

One of the unique features of our study is that it uses a large international data base (European Social Survey), which in its second wave asks the question “What is the main type of childcare that the youngest child receives?”. This does not include childcare carried out by the parents. The first alternative answer is “Child‟s grandparent(s) ”. 1 T his information allows us to have a dummy variable that indicates whether the mother ‟s youngest child is taken care of by a grandparent. Alternative data bases would not permit this. For instance, using the European Community Household Panel (ECHP), we could identify households with grandparents who mention looking after children. Besides not being sure that these children were their own grandchildren, - although that would certainly be the commonest case - we would be restricted to co- resident grandparents, which would largely underestimate the provision of childcare by grandparents. Another alternative data base could be the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). However, the problem here is that respondents are individuals aged 50+, and only one per household. Even if the respondent was not identified as caring for a grandchild, we would not know about the wife/husband. Furthermore, the information would be centered on the grandparent, rather than the mother. Hank and Buber (2009) have an interesting study on grandparents who care for their grandchildren, based on SHARE, but they naturally focus on the grandparent; they investigate the probability of providing grandchild care. Del Boca et al. (2005) use the ECHP in a study of fertility and employment, but they are restricted to considering co- resident grandparents only.
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A Review Of Fault Tolerant Scheduling In Multicore Systems

A Review Of Fault Tolerant Scheduling In Multicore Systems

Abstract: In this paper we have discussed about various fault tolerant task scheduling algorithm for multi core system based on hardware and software. Hardware based algorithm which is blend of Triple Modulo Redundancy and Double Modulo Redundancy, in which Agricultural Vulnerability Factor is considered while deciding the scheduling other than EDF and LLF scheduling algorithms. In most of the real time system the dominant part is shared memory.Low overhead software based fault tolerance approach can be implemented at user-space level so that it does not require any changes at application level. Here redundant multi-threaded processes are used. Using those processes we can detect soft errors and recover from them. This method gives low overhead, fast error detection and recovery mechanism. The overhead incurred by this method ranges from 0% to 18% for selected benchmarks. Hybrid Scheduling Method is another scheduling approach for real time systems. Dynamic fault tolerant scheduling gives high feasibility rate whereas task criticality is used to select the type of fault recovery method in order to tolerate the maximum number of faults.
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Rev. paul. pediatr.  vol.32 número2

Rev. paul. pediatr. vol.32 número2

Women included in the control group were mostly adult (81%), were submitted to vaginal delivery (55%), and had term (96%) and normal weight children (87%). As to pre- pregnancy weight, 42% were classiied as eutrophic. The mean gestational age (GA) of newborns of parturient women in this group was of 39±1.2 weeks, and only one newborn was classiied as pre-term, with a GA of 36 weeks. As for pregnant women included in the diabetic group, all were adults and most had cesareans, (90%) and term children (71%). Regarding the classiication of pre-pregnancy weight, 44% were obese. As for the weight of newborns in this group, 33.3% were born underweight, 33.3% had adequate weight, and 33.3% were macrosomic. The mean GA of infants from mothers included in this group was of 37±2 weeks and four infants were classiied as preterm, being the mean gestational age of 35±1 weeks (Table 1).
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The Impact of the Expansion of the Bolsa Familia Program on the Time Allocation of Youths And Their Parents Lia Chitolina Miguel Nathan Foguel Naercio Menezes-Filho

The Impact of the Expansion of the Bolsa Familia Program on the Time Allocation of Youths And Their Parents Lia Chitolina Miguel Nathan Foguel Naercio Menezes-Filho

As the multinomial model is non-linear, the marginal effect of the treatment in a DID model is not the marginal impact of the interaction between time and treatment, but the difference of the cross-differences, as described by Puhani (2012). The results of Table 7 (in terms of marginal effects) show that the BVJ has a significant effect on the probability studying and working at the same time, but not on the other outcome variables. The estimated marginal effects mean that the probability of a youngster studying and working increases by 4.2 percentage points with the BVJ, compared with a baseline of 30% in the control group in 2006. The estimated coefficients for the categories ‘studying only’ and ‘working only’ were negative but not statistically significant. It seems, therefore, that treated adolescents do not quit their jobs to study because of the program, but do both activities at the same time. This raises questions about the long run impacts of the program, since the quality of the night classes is notoriously low in Brazil.
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Evaluation of susceptibility of the ZRE1 alloy to hot cracking in conditions of forced strain

Evaluation of susceptibility of the ZRE1 alloy to hot cracking in conditions of forced strain

This work in combination with industrial tests of casting welding show that the causes of high-temperature brittleness are the partial tears of the structure and the hot cracks of both the castings and the welded and padded joints. Such phenomena should be treated as irreversible failures caused by the process of crystallisation that is in the area of co-existence of the solid and liquid structural constituent. The assessment of the resistance to hot fractures was conducted on the basis of the transvarestriant trial. The transvarestriant trial consists in changing of strain during welding It was stated that the range of the high-temperature brittleness is very broad, which significantly limits the application of the welding techniques to join or mend the elements made of alloy ZRE-1. The brittleness is caused mainly by metallurgical factors, i.e., precipitation of inter-metal phases from the solid solution.
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