The results of the present study suggest that untrained subjects can increase shot put performance 7 min post benchpress exercise. Considering that not all subjects profit from CA, it is suggested that the CA should be individually set. Future studies should evaluate the effect of other conditioning activities on shot put performance (i.e., conditioning activities involving lower limbs), as well as other athletic modalities. In addition, other populations should be investigated, such as adolescents, women, and athletes.
Participants underwent seven testing sessions, performed on non-consecu- tive days. he irst two sessions were designed for participants to familiarize themselves with the one repetition maximum test (1RM). Anthropometric measurements were taken on the third visit, previously to the application of the 1RM tests, in which each exercise was performed separately (benchpress, incline benchpress, and peck deck, respectively), with a 48-h interval, on sessions three, four and ive. Subsequently, the subjects participated in two experimental sessions (sessions six and seven) separated by an interval from 48 to 72 h, in which the three exercises were combined adopting the tri-set training system. Each session followed a certain sequence (SEQ) of exercises: the exercise order for SEQA was benchpress, incline benchpress and peck deck, while SEQB followed the opposite order. All subjects were tested for the two sequences, in a balanced (ive to ive) and randomized (SEQA and SEQB or SEQB and SEQA) design.
The distance between the hands corresponded with the position where the humerus was horizontal with the floor and the angle between the arm and forearm was at 90° in the end of the eccentric phase of the movement. The benchpress exercise was performed in the following manner: 1) Initial position – ec- centric phase of the movement, initiating from the position of elbow extension; 2) Intermediate position – concentric phase of the movement, with elbows forming na angle of 90 and the humerus parallel with the floor (amplitude limit), returning to the initial position. The following strategies were adopted to decrease the margin of error in data collection procedures: 1) standardized instructions were provided before the tests such that each tested subject was aware of the entire data collection routine; 2) tested individuals were instructed regarding the
The 1RM test represents an important tool for conditio- ning coaches in the assessment of muscle strength and in the individualization of resistance exercise intensity prescription (Brow & Weir, 2001). In this context, the absolute values of loads in the 1RMecc test obtained in the present study were 42% and 46% higher than 1RM test for the benchpress and the preacher curl exercises, respectively (Figure 1). These data corroborate the results of Hollander et al. (2007), whose study evaluated the maximal strength by the 1RM and the 1RMecc tests in resistance-trained men and found that eccentric muscle strength was 40% greater than concentric for benchpress exer- cise. Therefore, these data indicate that for greater accuracy in relation to prescription of eccentric training sessions, a speciic muscle strength test for trained individuals is required in order to enhance the training acute stimulus.
Table 2 presents the values of 1-RM obtained in the different tests sessions in all exercises performed. In exercises benchpress and squat, the stabilization of the load corresponding to 1-RM only occurred between sessions three and four, whereas in arm curl, the ANOVA indicated stabilization of the muscular strength from the second session on. In percentages, the evolution of 1-RM be- tween the first session and the session associated to the stabiliza- tion of the muscular strength was equivalent to 1.9% for the benchpress, 2.4% for squat and 3.4% for the arm curl.
The main aim of the present study was to analyze the relationships between dry land strength and power measurements with swimming performance. Ten male national level swimmers (age: 14.9 ± 0.74 years, body mass: 60.0 ± 6.26 kg, height: 171.9 ± 6.26, 100 m long course front crawl performance: 59.9 ± 1.87 s) volunteered as subjects. Height and Work were estimated for CMJ. Mean power in the propulsive phase was assessed for squat, benchpress (concentric phase) and lat pull down back. Mean force production was evaluated through 30 s maximal effort tethered swimming in front crawl using whole body, arms only and legs only. Swimming velocity was calculated from a maximal bout of 50 m front crawl. Height of CMJ did not correlate with any of the studied variables. There were positive and moderate-strong associations between the work during CMJ and mean propulsive power in squat with tethered forces during whole body and legs only swimming. Mean propulsive power of benchpress and lat pull down presented positive and moderate-strong relationships with mean force production in whole body and arms only. Swimming performance is related with mean power of lat pull down back. So, lat pull down back is the most related dry land test with swimming performance; benchpress with force production in water arms only; and work during CMJ with tethered forces legs only.
Training the benchpress exercise on a traditional flat bench does not induce a level of instability as seen in sport movements and activities of daily living. Twenty participants were recruited to test two forms of instability: using one dumbbell rather than two and lifting on the COR bench compared to a flat bench. Electromyography (EMG) amplitudes of the pectoralis major, middle trapezius, external oblique, and internal oblique were recorded and compared. Differences in range of motion (ROM) were evaluated by measuring an angular representation of the shoulder complex. Four separate conditions of unilateral benchpress were tested while lifting on a: flat bench with one dumbbell, flat bench with two dumbbells, COR Bench with one dumbbell, and COR Bench with two dumbbells. The results imply that there are no differences in EMG amplitude or ROM between the COR bench and traditional bench. However, greater ROM was found to be utilized in the single dumbbell condition, both in the COR bench and the flat bench.
benchpress, half free weight squats, pull-down, and triceps pushdown. The following procedures were used to perform the 1RM tests: 1) general activation with five to ten repetitions and a load between 40% and 60% of the maximum, followed by 1 minute of stretching; 2) three to five repetitions with a load between 60% and 80% of the maximum load, followed by a 2 min rest period; and 3) one attempt at the maximum load. After the participants succeeded or failed at the maximum load, they were allowed to rest for 5 minutes, and the load was increased or decreased for the next attempt. The maximum load (kg) was designated as the load at which participants were able to perform a single repetition out of five attempts. A retest was performed 48 hours later to assess test reliability, and the largest load from both days (test and retest) was considered when participants showed less than a 5% difference. Participants with greater differences were required to appear at the test site again to perform additional tests and subsequently the differences between test sessions were calculated. Between- test exercises that might interfere with the results during the 48 hours period were not allowed. A professional with experience in resistance training always accompanied the participants. The final 1RM loads for the exercises were as follows: benchpress = 95.3±22.4 kg; half squat = 124.1±33.9 kg; pull-down = 94.7±13.4 kg; and triceps pushdown = 48.2±10 kg.
total number of repetitions performed in four sets with 1-min, 2- min and 5-min intervals, on the squat and benchpress, observed that the 5-min rest interval resulted in a greater number of repeti- tions than the other two recovery intervals for both exercises; how- ever, for the squat, differences between 1-min and 2-min were not significant, whereas for the benchpress, the 1-min rest resulted in a smaller total number of repetitions. Repetitions between sets were not statistically compared; nevertheless, decreases in mean values of 68 and 47% for the 1-min rest interval, of 49 and 40% for the 2-min, and 26 and 25% for the 5-min, for benchpress and squat exercises, respectively, may be observed, suggesting that even five minutes may not be enough to maintain performance.
The muscular strength w as determined by means of the repeti- tion maximum test (1-RM ) in three exercises involving trunk, up- per limbs and low er limbs segments. The execution order of the exercises tested w as the follow ing: benchpress, squat and arm curl, respectively. The minimum interval betw een exercises w as of five minutes. These exercises w ere selected for being quite popular in w eight training programs of individuals w ith different trainability levels.
The similar HR peak values in the exercises call our attention. Since there is higher physiological demand of the half squat in comparison with the benchpress, one could expect that the HR values in the first exercise would be higher than in the second one. Although some studies indicate that the higher number of motor units recruited in the exercise involving higher muscle groups promotes higher cardiovascular response during exercise 26 , there is still controversy
ABSTRACT | Objective: To investigate the cardiac autonomic responses during upper versus lower limb discontinuous resistance exercise (RE) at different loads in healthy older men. Method: Ten volunteers (65±1.2 years) underwent the one-repetition maximum (1RM) test to determine the maximum load for the benchpress and the leg press. Discontinuous RE was initiated at a load of 10%1RM with subsequent increases of 10% until 30%1RM, followed by increases of 5%1RM until exhaustion. Heart rate (HR) and R-R interval were recorded at rest and for 4 minutes at each load applied. Heart rate variability (HRV) was analyzed in 5-min segments at rest and at each load in the most stable 2-min signal. Results: Parasympathetic indices decreased signiicantly in both exercises from 30%1RM compared to rest (rMSSD: 20±2 to 11±3 and 29±5 to 12±2 ms; SD1: 15±2 to 8±1 and 23±4 to 7±1 ms, for upper and lower limb exercise respectively) and HR increased (69±4 to 90±4 bpm for upper and 66±2 to 89±1 bpm for lower). RMSM increased for upper limb exercise, but decreased for lower limb exercise (28±3 to 45±9 and 34±5 to 14±3 ms, respectively). In the frequency domain, the sympathetic (LF) and sympathovagal balance (LF/HF) indices were higher and the parasympathetic index (HF) was lower for upper limb exercise than for lower limb exercise from 35% of 1RM. Conclusions: Cardiac autonomic change occurred from 30% of 1RM regardless of RE limb. However, there was more pronounced sympathetic increase and vagal decrease for upper limb exercise than for lower limb exercise. These results provide a basis for more effective prescription of RE to promote health in this population.
All of the 17 male volunteers who took part in this study have weight training experience for at least 6 months and did not report having any history of muscle-tendinous injury in the shoulder, elbow or handle articulations and most of them (70,6%) stated that they did benchpress exercise in their current training. All of them have previously received information concerning the data collection procedures and they have signed the Inform Consent Form. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Federal University of de Minas Gerais (report ETIC nº 0279.0.203000-10).
In order to determine the loads used in the protocols, the one-repetition maximum test (1RM) was performed in the following exercises: inclined leg press, seated row, benchpress, leg curl, arm extension (triceps press), and arm curl (barbell curl). Two tests were administered by the same trained examiner following Kraemer and Fry’s recommendations 26 , in
As fibras superiores do músculo trapézio demonstraram elevada atividade durante os exercícios wall-press 90° e wall-press 45°, cerca de 90% da atividade obtida durante a CIVM. Esses achados podem estar relacionados com o posicionamento do voluntário durante o exercício, pois diferentemente do bench-press e do push-up, o wall- press possui um componente de força rotacional que exige maior atividade desse músculo para manter a rotação superior da escápula. Alta atividade eletromiográfica desse músculo também foi encon- trada por Oliveira et al. (11) no exercício wall-press, justificada pelos
The training had a 12-week duration and frequency of three weekly times. Each training session consisted of a set of eight exercises: squat and benchpress performed in one of the pre-set velocities, and six other exercises in free, non-controlled velocity. The exercises were performed in this order and in isotonic equip- ment, eight to ten maximal repetitions each, with approximately one minute recovery interval between exercises. Prior to the train- ing session, the subjects performed stretching exercises (a 10 s static stretching set) for the main muscle groups, and a set of 10 squat and benchpress repetitions with load of 75% from that which would be used for training, at free velocity. The same stretching exercises were performed after training. Load increases were added in the following session when the subject was able to perform 10 correct repetitions in the pre-set velocity for two consecutive ses- sions. The frequency and amount of increases varied among sub- jects and were in average from 1.2 kg and 0.4 kg per week for squat and benchpress, respectively. A graphic representation of the used loads during training can be seen in figure 1.
Several methodological variations have been applied with the purpose to improve the knowledge concerning the benchpress and its modifications; however, the literature is scarce concerning comparison parameters with other exercises which are also wide- ly used in strength training. The aim of the present study was to compare the EMG activity of the pectoralis major (PM), anterior deltoids (AD) and triceps brachii (TB) muscles during the barbell benchpress (BP) and machine peck deck (PD).
In relation to the secondary objective of this investigation, a positive acute effect of a VR protocol was determined in the BenchPress about the distance of the launch of the grenade (p < 0.05). At the end of the intervention, the athletes showed an increase in the explosive strength of the upper extremity. This increase in the distance of the grenade observed in the present study is attributed to the PAP of the muscles activated with VR. 11 Although activation with VR to trigger PAP is a little
intercalated sets and 3 to 5 min rest intervals. The load used in the first set was based on the body mass coefficient (45 and 130% of body weight of subjects in the benchpress and leg press exercises, respectively) proposed by BAECHLE e Groves (2000), while in the remaining sets the loads were adjusted (± 10%) according to a perceived exertion (RPE Borg scale; BORG, 1998) of between RPE 13 and 15 ( ≅ 45 – 55% 1- RM) were matched. At the end of each session, the subjects cooled down. The technique and range of the motion determined for each exercise were based on the recommendations proposed for Ratamess et al. (2009).
The criteria adopted for the validation of the Brzycki equation for 1-RM estimation in the benchpress were the following: t-Student test for independent samples for comparison between the mean values obtained by the prediction equation and by the 1RM test; Pearson correlation coefficient for analysis of the degree of asso- ciation between measurements; estimation standard error (ESE) for evaluation of the degree of deviation of the individual data in the produced line; total error (TE) for evaluation of the mean error of the individual values of the identity line; constant error (CE) for analysis of the difference between the mean values obtained in the 1RM test and estimated by the proposed equation. The adopt- ed significance level for the analyses was of P < 0.05.